**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**2057

# Search results for: equilibrium point

##### 2057 A Comparative Study on Different Approaches to Evaluate Ship Equilibrium Point

**Authors:**
Alessandro A. Zizzari,
Francesca Calabrese,
Giovanni Indiveri,
Andrea Coraddu,
Diego Villa

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Algorithms,
Computer applications,
Equilibrium,
Marine applications,
Stability System.

##### 2056 Convergence Analysis of an Alternative Gradient Algorithm for Non-Negative Matrix Factorization

**Authors:**
Chenxue Yang,
Mao Ye,
Zijian Liu,
Tao Li,
Jiao Bao

**Abstract:**

Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is a useful computational method to find basis information of multivariate nonnegative data. A popular approach to solve the NMF problem is the multiplicative update (MU) algorithm. But, it has some defects. So the columnwisely alternating gradient (cAG) algorithm was proposed. In this paper, we analyze convergence of the cAG algorithm and show advantages over the MU algorithm. The stability of the equilibrium point is used to prove the convergence of the cAG algorithm. A classic model is used to obtain the equilibrium point and the invariant sets are constructed to guarantee the integrity of the stability. Finally, the convergence conditions of the cAG algorithm are obtained, which help reducing the evaluation time and is confirmed in the experiments. By using the same method, the MU algorithm has zero divisor and is convergent at zero has been verified. In addition, the convergence conditions of the MU algorithm at zero are similar to that of the cAG algorithm at non-zero. However, it is meaningless to discuss the convergence at zero, which is not always the result that we want for NMF. Thus, we theoretically illustrate the advantages of the cAG algorithm.

**Keywords:**
Non-negative matrix factorizations,
convergence,
cAG
algorithm,
equilibrium point,
stability.

##### 2055 The Optimal Equilibrium Capacity of Information Hiding Based on Game Theory

**Authors:**
Ziquan Hu,
Kun She,
Shahzad Ali,
Kai Yan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
2-Phase Game,
Expected Equilibrium damage,
InformationHiding,
Optimal Equilibrium Capacity.

##### 2054 Playing Games with Genetic Algorithms: Application on Price-QoS Competition in Telecommunications Market

**Authors:**
M’hamed Outanoute,
Mohamed Baslam,
Belaid Bouikhalene

**Abstract:**

The customers use the best compromise criterion between price and quality of service (QoS) to select or change their Service Provider (SP). The SPs share the same market and are competing to attract more customers to gain more profit. Due to the divergence of SPs interests, we believe that this situation is a non-cooperative game of price and QoS. The game converges to an equilibrium position known Nash Equilibrium (NE). In this work, we formulate a game theoretic framework for the dynamical behaviors of SPs. We use Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to find the price and QoS strategies that maximize the profit for each SP and illustrate the corresponding strategy in NE. In order to quantify how this NE point is performant, we perform a detailed analysis of the price of anarchy induced by the NE solution. Finally, we provide an extensive numerical study to point out the importance of considering price and QoS as a joint decision parameter.

**Keywords:**
Pricing,
QoS,
Market share game,
Genetic algorithms,
Nash equilibrium,
Learning,
Price of anarchy.

##### 2053 Stability Analysis of Mutualism Population Model with Time Delay

**Authors:**
Rusliza Ahmad,
Harun Budin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Bifurcation,
Delay margin,
Mutualism population
model,
Time delay

##### 2052 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

**Authors:**
E. Popov,
N. Yorino,
Y. Zoka,
Y. Sasaki,
H. Sugihara

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

**Keywords:**
Power system,
Transient stability,
Critical trajectory
method,
Energy function method.

##### 2051 Analysis of Model in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Dengue Patients

**Authors:**
R. Kongnuy,
P. Pongsumpun

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Basic reproductive number,
dengue disease,
equilibrium states,
pregnancy.

##### 2050 Multi-Stakeholder Road Pricing Game: Solution Concepts

**Authors:**
Anthony E. Ohazulike,
Georg Still,
Walter Kern,
Eric C. van Berkum

**Abstract:**

A road pricing game is a game where various stakeholders and/or regions with different (and usually conflicting) objectives compete for toll setting in a given transportation network to satisfy their individual objectives. We investigate some classical game theoretical solution concepts for the road pricing game. We establish results for the road pricing game so that stakeholders and/or regions playing such a game will beforehand know what is obtainable. This will save time and argument, and above all, get rid of the feelings of unfairness among the competing actors and road users. Among the classical solution concepts we investigate is Nash equilibrium. In particular, we show that no pure Nash equilibrium exists among the actors, and further illustrate that even “mixed Nash equilibrium" may not be achievable in the road pricing game. The paper also demonstrates the type of coalitions that are not only reachable, but also stable and profitable for the actors involved.

**Keywords:**
Road pricing game,
Equilibrium problem with equilibrium constraint (EPEC),
Nash equilibrium,
Game stability.

##### 2049 Evaluation of a Bio-Mechanism by Graphed Static Equilibrium Forces

**Authors:**
A.Y. Bani Hashim,
N.A. Abu Osman,
W.A.B. Wan Abas,
L. Abdul Latif

**Abstract:**

The unique structural configuration found in human foot allows easy walking. Similar movement is hard to imitate even for an ape. It is obvious that human ambulation relates to the foot structure itself. Suppose the bones are represented as vertices and the joints as edges. This leads to the development of a special graph that represents human foot. On a footprint there are point-ofcontacts which have contact with the ground. It involves specific vertices. Theoretically, for an ideal ambulation, these points provide reactions onto the ground or the static equilibrium forces. They are arranged in sequence in form of a path. The ambulating footprint follows this path. Having the human foot graph and the path crossbred, it results in a representation that describes the profile of an ideal ambulation. This profile cites the locations where the point-of-contact experience normal reaction forces. It highlights the significant of these points.

**Keywords:**
Ambulation,
edge,
foot,
graph,
vertex.

##### 2048 Methods of Estimating the Equilibrium Real Effective Exchange Rate (REER)

**Authors:**
Pavla Ruzickova,
Petr Teply

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
real exchange rate,
real effective exchange rate,
foreign exchange,
terms of trade

##### 2047 Physico-chemical State of the Air at the Stagnation Point during the Atmospheric Reentry of a Spacecraft

**Authors:**
Rabah Haoui

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Chemical kinetic,
dissociation,
finite volumes,
frozen,
hypersonic flow,
non-equilibrium,
Reactive flow,
supersonicflow ,
vibration.

##### 2046 An Analysis of Global Stability of Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks with Multiple Time Delays

**Authors:**
Zeynep Orman,
Sabri Arik

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Equilibrium and stability analysis,
Cohen-Grossberg Neural Networks,
Lyapunov Functionals.

##### 2045 Pure Scalar Equilibria for Normal-Form Games

**Authors:**
H. W. Corley

**Abstract:**

A scalar equilibrium (SE) is an alternative type of equilibrium in pure strategies for an n-person normal-form game G. It is defined using optimization techniques to obtain a pure strategy for each player of G by maximizing an appropriate utility function over the acceptable joint actions. The players’ actions are determined by the choice of the utility function. Such a utility function could be agreed upon by the players or chosen by an arbitrator. An SE is an equilibrium since no players of G can increase the value of this utility function by changing their strategies. SEs are formally defined, and examples are given. In a greedy SE, the goal is to assign actions to the players giving them the largest individual payoffs jointly possible. In a weighted SE, each player is assigned weights modeling the degree to which he helps every player, including himself, achieve as large a payoff as jointly possible. In a compromise SE, each player wants a fair payoff for a reasonable interpretation of fairness. In a parity SE, the players want their payoffs to be as nearly equal as jointly possible. Finally, a satisficing SE achieves a personal target payoff value for each player. The vector payoffs associated with each of these SEs are shown to be Pareto optimal among all such acceptable vectors, as well as computationally tractable.

**Keywords:**
Compromise equilibrium,
greedy equilibrium,
normal-form game,
parity equilibrium,
pure strategies,
satisficing equilibrium,
scalar equilibria,
utility function,
weighted equilibrium.

##### 2044 Existence and Stability Analysis of Discrete-time Fuzzy BAM Neural Networks with Delays and Impulses

**Authors:**
Chao Wang,
Yongkun Li

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural network with delays and impulses is studied. Sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global stability of a unique equilibrium of this class of fuzzy BAM neural networks with Lipschitzian activation functions without assuming their boundedness, monotonicity or differentiability and subjected to impulsive state displacements at fixed instants of time. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

**Keywords:**
Discrete-time fuzzy BAM neural networks,
ımpulses,
global exponential stability,
global asymptotical stability,
equilibrium point.

##### 2043 Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Robots in a Two-dimensional Plane

**Authors:**
Avinesh Prasad,
Bibhya Sharma,
Jito Vanualailai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Point-mass Robot,
Asymptotic stability,
Motionplanning,
Planar Robot Arm.

##### 2042 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

**Authors:**
Shoji Katagiri,
Hugang Han

**Abstract:**

This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in economic growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

**Keywords:**
Endogenous economic growth,
ICT,
intensity,
capital accumulation.

##### 2041 Constructive Proof of the Existence of an Equilibrium in a Competitive Economy with Sequentially Locally Non-Constant Excess Demand Functions

**Authors:**
Yasuhito Tanaka

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Sequentially locally non-constant excess demand functions,
Equilibrium in a competitive economy,
Constructive mathematics

##### 2040 Analysis Fraction Flow of Water versus Cumulative Oil Recoveries Using Buckley Leverett Method

**Authors:**
Reza Cheraghi Kootiani,
Ariffin Bin Samsuri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fractional Flow,
Fluid Saturations,
Permeability,
Cumulative Oil Recoveries,
Buckley Leverett Method.

##### 2039 Tuning Cubic Equations of State for Supercritical Water Applications

**Authors:**
Shyh-Ming Chern

**Abstract:**

Cubic equations of state (EoS), popular due to their simple mathematical form, ease of use, semi-theoretical nature and reasonable accuracy, are normally fitted to vapor-liquid equilibrium *P*-*v*-*T* data. As a result, they often show poor accuracy in the region near and above the critical point. In this study, the performance of the renowned Peng-Robinson (PR) and Patel-Teja (PT) EoS’s around the critical area has been examined against the* P*-*v*-*T* data of water. Both of them display large deviations at critical point. For instance, PR-EoS exhibits discrepancies as high as 47% for the specific volume, 28% for the enthalpy departure and 43% for the entropy departure at critical point. It is shown that incorporating *P*-*v*-*T* data of the supercritical region into the retuning of a cubic EoS can improve its performance at and above the critical point dramatically. Adopting a retuned acentric factor of 0.5491 instead of its genuine value of 0.344 for water in PR-EoS and a new *F* of 0.8854 instead of its original value of 0.6898 for water in PT-EoS reduces the discrepancies to about one third or less.

**Keywords:**
Equation of state,
EoS,
supercritical water,
SCW.

##### 2038 Effect of Buoyancy Ratio on Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Vertical Channel: A Thermal Non-equilibrium Approach

**Authors:**
Manish K. Khandelwal,
P. Bera,
A. Chakrabarti

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
buoyancy ratio,
mixed convection,
non-Darcy model,
thermal non-equilibrium

##### 2037 Simulation of Reactive Distillation: Comparison of Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Stage Models

**Authors:**
Asfaw Gezae Daful

**Abstract:**

In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modeling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, the vapor and liquid phases are assumed to be in equilibrium and allowance is made for finite reaction rates, where as in the nonequilibrium stage models simultaneous mass transfer and reaction rates are considered. These simulated model results are validated from the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated results of equilibrium and nonequilibrium models are compared for concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles in a reactive distillation column for Methyl Tert Butyle Ether (MTBE) production. Both the models show similar trend for the concentration, temperature and reaction rate profiles but the nonequilibrium model predictions are higher and closer to the experimental values reported in the literature.

**Keywords:**
Reactive Distillation,
Equilibrium model,
Nonequilibrium model,
Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether

##### 2036 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Mixture of Methyl Acetate with Isopropylbenzene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Seema Kapoor,
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
Isopropylbenzene,
Methyl acetate,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 2035 Using Axiomatic Design for Developing a Framework of Manufacturing Cloud Service Composition in the Equilibrium State

**Authors:**
Ehsan Vaziri Goodarzi,
Mahmood Houshmand,
Omid Fatahi Valilai,
Vahidreza Ghezavati,
Shahrooz Bamdad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Axiomatic design,
manufacturing cloud service composition,
cloud manufacturing,
Industry 4.0.

##### 2034 Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics of a Driven Lattice Gas Model: Probability Function, FDT-violation, and Monte Carlo Simulations

**Authors:**
K. Sudprasert,
M. Precharattana,
N. Nuttavut,
D. Triampo,
B. Pattanasiri,
Y. Lenbury,
W. Triampo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-equilibrium,
lattice gas,
stochastic process

##### 2033 Organization as System, Psychic Dynamism as Equilibration: A Conceptualization

**Authors:**
Abbas Moshref Razavi,
Rodina Ahmad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Equilibration,
General System Theory,
Organization,
Psychodynamic.

##### 2032 A Recommendation to Oncologists for Cancer Treatment by Immunotherapy: Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

**Authors:**
Mandana Kariminejad,
Ali Ghaffari

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Tumor,
immunotherapy,
fuzzy controller,
Genetic
algorithm,
mathematical model.

##### 2031 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixture of 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Cumene

**Authors:**
V. K. Rattan,
Baljinder K. Gill,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran,
Cumene,
Vapor-liquid equilibrium,
UNIFAC,
Excess Gibbs free energy.

##### 2030 Equilibrium and Rate Based Simulation of MTBE Reactive Distillation Column

**Authors:**
Debashish Panda,
Kannan A.

**Abstract:**

Equilibrium and rate based models have been applied in the simulation of methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis through reactive distillation. Temperature and composition profiles were compared for both the models and found that both the profiles trends, though qualitatively similar are significantly different quantitatively. In the rate based method (RBM), multicomponent mass transfer coefficients have been incorporated to describe interphase mass transfer. MTBE mole fraction in the bottom stream is found to be 0.9914 in the Equilibrium Model (EQM) and only 0.9904 for RBM when the same column configuration was preserved. The individual tray efficiencies were incorporated in the EQM and simulations were carried out. Dynamic simulation have been also carried out for the two column configurations and compared.

**Keywords:**
Aspen Plus,
equilibrium stage model,
methyl
tertiary-butyl ether,
rate based model.

##### 2029 Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Binary Mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa

**Authors:**
Baljinder K. Gill,
V. K. Rattan,
Seema Kapoor

**Abstract:**

Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements are reported for the binary mixtures of n-Butylamine and Triethylamine with Cumene at 97.3 kPa. The measurements have been performed using a vapor recirculating type (modified Othmer's) equilibrium still. The binary mixture of n-Butylamine + Cumene shows positive deviation from ideality. Triethylamine + Cumene mixture shows negligible deviation from ideality. None of the systems form an azeotrope. The activity coefficients have been calculated taking into consideration the vapor phase nonideality. The data satisfy the thermodynamic consistency test of Herington. The activity coefficients have been satisfactorily correlated by means of the Margules, NRTL, and Black equations. The activity coefficient values obtained by the UNIFAC model are also reported.

**Keywords:**
Binary mixture,
cumene,
n-butylamine,
triethylamine,
vapor-liquid equilibrium.

##### 2028 Finding Equilibrium in Transport Networks by Simulation and Investigation of Behaviors

**Authors:**
Gábor Szűcs,
Gyula Sallai

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Dempster-Shafer theory,
S-O and U-Otransportation network,
uncertainty of information,
Wardropequilibrium.