Search results for: Reactive flow
2437 Solution of Optimal Reactive Power Flow using Biogeography-Based Optimization
Authors: Aniruddha Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Chattopadhyay
Abstract:Optimal reactive power flow is an optimization problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The control variables are generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) technique has been applied to solve different kinds of optimal reactive power flow problems subject to operational constraints like power balance constraint, line flow and bus voltages limits etc. BBO searches for the global optimum mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. In the present work, BBO has been applied to solve the optimal reactive power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus and standard IEEE 57-bus power systems for minimization of active power loss. The superiority of the proposed method has been demonstrated. Considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed method seems to be a promising one for solving these problems.
Keywords: Active Power Loss, Biogeography-Based Optimization, Migration, Mutation, Optimal Reactive Power Flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4164
2436 Power Flow Tracing Based Reactive Power Ancillary Service (AS) in Restructured Power Market
Authors: M. Susithra, R. Gnanadass
Ancillary services are support services which are essential for humanizing and enhancing the reliability and security of the electric power system. Reactive power ancillary service is one of the important ancillary services in a restructured electricity market which determines the cost of supplying ancillary services and finding of how this cost would change with respect to operating decisions. This paper presents a new formation that can be used to minimize the Independent System Operator (ISO)’s total payment for reactive power ancillary service. The modified power flow tracing algorithm estimates the availability of reserve reactive power for ancillary service. In order to find optimum reactive power dispatch, Biogeography based optimization method (BPO) is proposed. Market Reactive Clearing Price (MRCP) is then estimated and it encourages generator companies (GENCOs) to participate in an ancillary service. Finally, optimal weighting factor and real time utilization factor of reactive power give the minimum ISO’s total payment. The effectiveness of proposed design is verified using IEEE 30 bus system.
Keywords: Biogeography based optimization method, Power flow tracing method, Reactive generation capability curve and Reactive power ancillary service.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3120
2435 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System
Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya
The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.
Keywords: Inter line power flow controller, Transmission Pricing, Unified power flow controller, cost allocation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 508
2434 Power Flow Control with UPFC in Power Transmission System
Authors: Samina Elyas Mubeen, R. K. Nema, Gayatri Agnihotri
Abstract:In this paper the performance of unified power flow controller is investigated in controlling the flow of po wer over the transmission line. Voltage sources model is utilized to study the behaviour of the UPFC in regulating the active, reactive power and voltage profile. This model is incorporated in Newton Raphson algorithm for load flow studies. Simultaneous method is employed in which equations of UPFC and the power balance equations of network are combined in to one set of non-linear algebraic equations. It is solved according to the Newton raphson algorithm. Case studies are carried on standard 5 bus network. Simulation is done in Matlab. The result of network with and without using UPFC are compared in terms of active and reactive power flows in the line and active and reactive power flows at the bus to analyze the performance of UPFC.
Keywords: Newton-Raphson algorithm, Load flow, Unified power flow controller, Voltage source model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4168
2433 Load Flow Analysis: An Overview
Authors: P. S. Bhowmik, D. V. Rajan, S. P. Bose
The load flow study in a power system constitutes a study of paramount importance. The study reveals the electrical performance and power flows (real and reactive) for specified condition when the system is operating under steady state. This paper gives an overview of different techniques used for load flow study under different specified conditions.
Keywords: Load Flow Studies, Y-matrix and Z-matrix iteration, Newton-Raphson method, Fast Decoupled method, Fuzzy logic, Artificial Neural Network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6694
2432 Simulation of the Reactive Rotational Molding Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics
Authors: A. Hamidi, S. Khelladi, L. Illoul, A. Tcharkhtchi
Abstract:Reactive rotational molding (RRM) is a process to manufacture hollow plastic parts with reactive material has several advantages compared to conventional roto molding of thermoplastic powders: process cycle time is shorter; raw material is less expensive because polymerization occurs during processing and high-performance polymers may be used such as thermosets, thermoplastics or blends. However, several phenomena occur during this process which makes the optimization of the process quite complex. In this study, we have used a mixture of isocyanate and polyol as a reactive system. The chemical transformation of this system to polyurethane has been studied by thermal analysis and rheology tests. Thanks to these results of the curing process and rheological measurements, the kinetic and rheokinetik of polyurethane was identified. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, a Lagrangian meshless method, was chosen to simulate reactive fluid flow in 2 and 3D configurations of the polyurethane during the process taking into account the chemical, and chemiorehological results obtained experimentally in this study.
Keywords: Reactive rotational molding, free surface flows, simulation, smoothed particle hydrodynamics, surface tension.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 919
2431 Voltage Stability Assessment and Enhancement Using STATCOM - A Case Study
Authors: Puneet Chawla, Balwinder Singh
Recently, increased attention has been devoted to the voltage instability phenomenon in power systems. Many techniques have been proposed in the literature for evaluating and predicting voltage stability using steady state analysis methods. In this paper P-V and Q-V curves have been generated for a 57 bus Patiala Rajpura circle of India. The power-flow program is developed in MATLAB using Newton Raphson method. Using Q-V curves the weakest bus of the power system and the maximum reactive power change permissible on that bus is calculated. STATCOMs are placed on the weakest bus to improve the voltage and hence voltage stability and also the power transmission capability of the line.
Keywords: Voltage stability, Reactive power, power flow, weakest bus, STATCOM.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2874
2430 Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller
Authors: Djilani Kobibi Youcef Islam, Hadjeri Samir, Djehaf Mohamed Abdeldjalil
Abstract:The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.
Keywords: FACTS, load flow, modal analysis, UPFC, voltage stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
2429 Steady State Power Flow Calculations with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies
Authors: A. S. Telang, P. P. Bedekar
Abstract:Flexible AC transmission system controllers play an important role in controlling the line power flow and in improving voltage profiles of the power system network. They can be used to increase the reliability and efficiency of transmission and distribution system. The modeling of these FACTS controllers in power flow calculations have become a challenging research problem. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for a steady state power flow calculations of power system with STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator). It shows how systematically STATCOM can be implemented in conventional power flow calculations. The main contribution of this paper is to investigate this approach for two special conditions i.e. consideration of load increase pattern incorporating load change (active, reactive and both active and reactive) at all load buses simultaneously and the line contingencies under such load change. Such investigation proves to be relevant for determination of strategy for the optimal placement of STATCOM to enhance the voltage stability. The performance has been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems. The results for standard IEEE-30 bus test system are presented here.
Keywords: Load flow analysis, Newton-Raphson (N-R) power flow, Flexible AC transmission system, FACTS, Static synchronous compensator, STATCOM, voltage profile.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 971
2428 Influence of a Pulsatile Electroosmotic Flow on the Dispersivity of a Non-Reactive Solute through a Microcapillary
Authors: Jaime Muñoz, José Arcos, Oscar Bautista Federico Méndez
Abstract:The influence of a pulsatile electroosmotic flow (PEOF) at the rate of spread, or dispersivity, for a non-reactive solute released in a microcapillary with slippage at the boundary wall (modeled by the Navier-slip condition) is theoretically analyzed. Based on the flow velocity field developed under such conditions, the present study implements an analytical scheme of scaling known as the Theory of Homogenization, in order to obtain a mathematical expression for the dispersivity, valid at a large time scale where the initial transients have vanished and the solute spreads under the Taylor dispersion influence. Our results show the dispersivity is a function of a slip coefficient, the amplitude of the imposed electric field, the Debye length and the angular Reynolds number, highlighting the importance of the latter as an enhancement/detrimental factor on the dispersivity, which allows to promote the PEOF as a strong candidate for chemical species separation at lab-on-a-chip devices.
Keywords: Dispersivity, microcapillary, Navier-slip condition, pulsatile electroosmotic flow, Taylor dispersion, Theory of Homogenization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 537
2427 Acoustic and Flow Field Analysis of a Perforated Muffler Design
Authors: Zeynep Parlar, Şengül Ari, Rıfat Yilmaz, Erdem Özdemir, Arda Kahraman
New regulations and standards for noise emission increasingly compel the automotive firms to make some improvements about decreasing the engine noise. Nowadays, the perforated reactive mufflers which have an effective damping capability are specifically used for this purpose. New designs should be analyzed with respect to both acoustics and back pressure. In this study, a reactive perforated muffler is investigated numerically and experimentally. For an acoustical analysis, the transmission loss which is independent of sound source of the present cross flow, the perforated muffler was analyzed by COMSOL. To be able to validate the numerical results, transmission loss was measured experimentally. Back pressure was obtained based on the flow field analysis and was also compared with experimental results. Numerical results have an approximate error of 20% compared to experimental results.
Keywords: Back Pressure, Perforated Muffler, Transmission Loss.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 8114
2426 Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Approach for Solving the Non-Convex Optimal Power Flow
Authors: M. R. AlRashidi, M. F. AlHajri, M. E. El-Hawary
Abstract:An enhanced particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented in this work to solve the non-convex OPF problem that has both discrete and continuous optimization variables. The objective functions considered are the conventional quadratic function and the augmented quadratic function. The latter model presents non-differentiable and non-convex regions that challenge most gradient-based optimization algorithms. The optimization variables to be optimized are the generator real power outputs and voltage magnitudes, discrete transformer tap settings, and discrete reactive power injections due to capacitor banks. The set of equality constraints taken into account are the power flow equations while the inequality ones are the limits of the real and reactive power of the generators, voltage magnitude at each bus, transformer tap settings, and capacitor banks reactive power injections. The proposed algorithm combines PSO with Newton-Raphson algorithm to minimize the fuel cost function. The IEEE 30-bus system with six generating units is used to test the proposed algorithm. Several cases were investigated to test and validate the consistency of detecting optimal or near optimal solution for each objective. Results are compared to solutions obtained using sequential quadratic programming and Genetic Algorithms.
Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Optimal Power Flow, Economic Dispatch.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2255
2425 Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems
Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju, Ch.Padmanabharaju, T.Ramana
Abstract:The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controller used to control power flows of multiple transmission lines. This paper presents a mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM). This model is incorporated in Newton- Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the power flow control in transmission lines in which IPFC is placed. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this model. Numerical results are carried out on a standard 2 machine 5 bus system. The results without and with IPFC are compared in terms of voltages, active and reactive power flows to demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model.
Keywords: flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM), power flow control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2830
2424 Distributed Load Flow Analysis using Graph Theory
Authors: D. P. Sharma, A. Chaturvedi, G.Purohit , R.Shivarudraswamy
Abstract:In today scenario, to meet enhanced demand imposed by domestic, commercial and industrial consumers, various operational & control activities of Radial Distribution Network (RDN) requires a focused attention. Irrespective of sub-domains research aspects of RDN like network reconfiguration, reactive power compensation and economic load scheduling etc, network performance parameters are usually estimated by an iterative process and is commonly known as load (power) flow algorithm. In this paper, a simple mechanism is presented to implement the load flow analysis (LFA) algorithm. The reported algorithm utilizes graph theory principles and is tested on a 69- bus RDN.
Keywords: Radial Distribution network, Graph, Load-flow, Array.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3004
2423 Wetting Behavior of Reactive and Non–Reactive Wetting of Liquids on Metallic Substrates
Authors: Pradeep Bhagawath, K.N. Prabhu, Satyanarayan
Abstract:Wetting characteristics of reactive (Sn–0.7Cu solder) and non– reactive (castor oil) wetting of liquids on Cu and Ag plated Al substrates have been investigated. Solder spreading exhibited capillary, gravity and viscous regimes. Oils did not exhibit noticeable spreading regimes. Solder alloy showed better wettability on Ag coated Al substrate compared to Cu plating. In the case of castor oil, Cu coated Al substrate exhibited good wettability as compared to Ag coated Al substrates. The difference in wettability during reactive wetting of solder and non–reactive wetting of oils is attributed to the change in the surface energies of Al substrates brought about by the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs).
Keywords: Wettability, contact angle, solder, castor oil, IMCs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2334
2422 The Differences in Normative Beliefs among Schoolchildren with Reactive, Proactive, Reactive-Proactive Aggression, and without Aggression
Authors: Annis Lai Chu Fung
This study is to fill up a research gap on examining the differences in normative beliefs (namely acceptance of weaknesses, acceptance of provoked aggression, and acceptance of unprovoked aggression) among different subtypes of aggressors and non-aggressors (reactive aggressors, proactive aggressors, reactive-proactive aggressors, and non-aggressors). 2,236 students (1,372 males and 864 females), aged from 11 to 18, completed a self-reported questionnaire. Results revealed that (a) schoolchildren with reactive-proactive aggression have the highest acceptance of provoked aggression, the highest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the lowest acceptance of weakness; (b) schoolchildren with proactive aggression have higher acceptance of unprovoked aggression and lower acceptance of weakness than reactive aggressors; and (c) schoolchildren without aggression have the lowest acceptance of provoked aggression, the lowest acceptance of unprovoked aggression, and the highest acceptance of weakness.
Keywords: Normative belief, schoolchildren, reactive, proactive, aggression.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1586
2421 Decolorization of Reactive Black 5 and Reactive Red 198 using Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron
Authors: C. Chompuchan, T. Satapanajaru, P. Suntornchot, P. Pengthamkeerati
Residual dye contents in textile dyeing wastewater have complex aromatic structures that are resistant to degrade in biological wastewater treatment. The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) to decolorize Reactive Black 5 (RB5) and Reactive Red 198 (RR198) in synthesized wastewater and to investigate the effects of the iron particle size, iron dosage and solution pHs on the destruction of RB5 and RR198. Synthesized NZVI was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The removal kinetic rates (kobs) of RB5 (0.0109 min-1) and RR198 (0.0111 min-1) by 0.5% NZVI were many times higher than those of microscale zerovalent iron (ZVI) (0.0007 min-1 and 0.0008 min-1, respectively). The iron dosage increment exponentially increased the removal efficiencies of both RB5 and RR198. Additionally, lowering pH from 9 to 5 increased the decolorization kinetic rates of both RB5 and RR198 by NZVI. The destruction of azo bond (N=N) in the chromophore of both reactive dyes led to decolorization of dye solutions.
Keywords: decolorization, nanoscale zerovalent iron, Reactive Black 5, Reactive Red 198.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2177
2420 Voltage Stability Enhancement Using Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm
Authors: P. Suryakumari, P. Kantarao
Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in electrical power system is considered as a static, non-linear, multi-objective or a single objective optimization problem. This paper presents an algorithm for solving the voltage stability objective reactive power dispatch problem in a power system .The proposed approach employs cat swarm optimization algorithm for optimal settings of RPD control variables. Generator terminal voltages, reactive power generation of the capacitor banks and tap changing transformer setting are taken as the optimization variables. CSO algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30 bus system and the results are compared with other methods to prove the effectiveness of the new algorithm. As a result, the proposed method is the best for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem.
Keywords: RPD problem, voltage stability enhancement, CSO algorithm.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2310
2419 Using Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Voltage Stability Improvement
Authors: Omid Borazjani, Mahmoud Roosta, Khodakhast Isapour, Ali Reza Rajabi
Abstract:This paper presents an application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm for improving power system voltage stability. The training data is obtained by solving several normal and abnormal conditions using the Linear Programming technique. The selected objective function gives minimum deviation of the reactive power control variables, which leads to the maximization of minimum Eigen value of load flow Jacobian. The considered reactive power control variables are switchable VAR compensators, OLTC transformers and excitation of generators. The method has been implemented on a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The results obtain from the test clearly show that the trained neural network is capable of improving the voltage stability in power system with a high level of precision and speed.
Keywords: Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Load Flow, Voltage Stability, Power Systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1828
2418 An Efficient Tool for Mitigating Voltage Unbalance with Reactive Power Control of Distributed Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems
Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa
Abstract:With the rapid increase of grid-connected PV systems over the last decades, genuine challenges have arisen for engineers and professionals of energy field in the planning and operation of existing distribution networks with the integration of new generation sources. However, the conventional distribution network, in its design was not expected to receive other generation outside the main power supply. The tools generally used to analyze the networks become inefficient and cannot take into account all the constraints related to the operation of grid-connected PV systems. Some of these constraints are voltage control difficulty, reverse power flow, and especially voltage unbalance which could be due to the poor distribution of single-phase PV systems in the network. In order to analyze the impact of the connection of small and large number of PV systems to the distribution networks, this paper presents an efficient optimization tool that minimizes voltage unbalance in three-phase distribution networks with active and reactive power injections from the allocation of single-phase and three-phase PV plants. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. Good reduction of voltage unbalance can be achieved by reactive power control of the PV systems. The presented tool is based on the three-phase current injection method and the PV systems are modeled via an equivalent circuit. The primal-dual interior point method is used to obtain the optimal operating points for the systems.
Keywords: Photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, three-phase optimal power flow, unbalanced system.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 979
2417 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants
Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa
Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.
Keywords: Distribution system, losses, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, reactive power control.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 919
2416 Application of STATCOM-SMES Compensator for Power System Dynamic Performance Improvement
Authors: Reza Sedaghati, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Raouf, Mostafa Mirzadeh
Nowadays the growth of distributed generation within the bulk power system is feasible by using the optimal control of the transmission lines power flow. Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM) is effective for improving voltage stability but it can only exchange reactive power with the power grid. The integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) with a STATCOM can extend the traditional STATCOM capabilities to four-quadrant bulk power system power flow control and providing exchange both the active and reactive power related to the STATCOM with the ac network. This paper shows how the SMES system can be connected to the ac system via the DC bus of a STATCOM and also analyzes how the integration of STATCOM and SMES allows the bus voltage regulation and power oscillation damping (POD) to be achieved simultaneously. The dynamic performance of the integrated STATCOM-SMES is evaluated through simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC software and the compensation effectiveness of this integrated compensator is shown.
Keywords: STATCOM-SMES compensator, Power Oscillation Damping (POD), stabilizing, signal, voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2696
2415 Simulink Model of Reference Frame Theory Based Three Phase Shunt Active Filter
Authors: P. Nammalvar, P. Meganathan, A. Balamuguran
Abstract:Among various active filters, shunt active filter is a viable solution for reactive power and harmonics compensation. In this paper, the SRF plan is used to generate current reference for compensation and conventional PI controllers were used as the controller to compensate the reactive power. The design of the closed loop controllers is reserved simple by modeling them as first order systems. Computationally uncomplicated and efficient SVM system is used in the present work for better utilization of dc bus voltage. The rating of shunt active filter has been finalized based on the reactive power demand of the selected reactive load. The proposed control and SVM technique are validated by simulating in MATLAB software.
Keywords: Shunt Active Filter, Space vector pulse width modulation, Voltage Source Converter, Reactive Power, Synchronous Reference Frame, Point of common coupling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2475
2414 Optimal Compensation of Reactive Power in the Restructured Distribution Network
Authors: Atefeh Pourshafie, Mohsen. Saniei, S. S. Mortazavi, A. Saeedian
Abstract:In this paper optimal capacitor placement problem has been formulated in a restructured distribution network. In this scenario the distribution network operator can consider reactive energy also as a service that can be sold to transmission system. Thus search for optimal location, size and number of capacitor banks with the objective of loss reduction, maximum income from selling reactive energy to transmission system and return on investment for capacitors, has been performed. Results is influenced with economic value of reactive energy, therefore problem has been solved for various amounts of it. The implemented optimization technique is genetic algorithm. For any value of reactive power economic value, when reverse of investment index increase and change from zero or negative values to positive values, the threshold value of selling reactive power has been obtained. This increasing price of economic parameter is reasonable until the network losses is less than loss before compensation.
Keywords: capacitor placement, deregulated electric market, distribution network optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2002
2413 Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems
Abstract:This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial reactor. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that the energy efficiency index applied to the reactive system is consistent because it extracts the information expected of an efficient indicator, and that it is useful as an analytical tool besides being feasible from a practical standpoint. Furthermore, it has proved to be much simpler to use than tools based on traditional methodologies.
Keywords: Energy efficiency, maximum entropy, reactive systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 859
2412 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study
Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali
In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.
Keywords: Nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 833
2411 Comparison of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement
Authors: Mehrdad Ahmadi Kamarposhti, Mostafa Alinezhad
One of the major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power limit of the system. Improving the system's reactive power handling capacity via Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse. In this paper, the effects of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement will be studied. AC and DC representations of SVC and STATCOM are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. The IEEE-14 bus system is simulated to test the increasing loadability. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loadability margin of power systems.
Keywords: SVC, STATCOM, Voltage Collapse, Maximum Loading Point.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6243
2410 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC
Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir
Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.
Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3836
2409 Effect of Nitrogen Gaseous Plasma on Cotton Fabric Dyed with Reactive Yellow105
Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Hamid Akbarpour
In this work, a bleached well cotton sample was dyed with reactive yellow105 dye and subsequently, the dyed sample was exposed to the plasma condition containing Nitrogen gas at 1 and 5 minutes of plasma exposure time, respectively. The effect of plasma on surface morphology fabric was studied by Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM). CIELab, K/S, and %R of samples (treated and untreated samples) were measured by a reflective spectrophotometer, and consequently, the experiments show that the sample dyed with Reactive yellow 105 after being washed, with the increase in the operation time of plasma, its dye fastness decreases. In addition, the increase in plasma operation time at constant pressure would increase the destructing effect on the surface morphology of samples dyed with reactive yellow105.
Keywords: Cotton fabric, cold nitrogen plasma, reflective spectrophotometer, electronic scanning microscope (SEM), reactive yellow105 dye.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 748
2408 Aspects Concerning Flame Propagation of Various Fuels in Combustion Chamber of Four Valve Engines
Authors: Zoran Jovanovic, Zoran Masonicic, S. Dragutinovic, Z. Sakota
In this paper, results concerning flame propagation of various fuels in a particular combustion chamber with four tilted valves were elucidated. Flame propagation was represented by the evolution of spatial distribution of temperature in various cut-planes within combustion chamber while the flame front location was determined by dint of zones with maximum temperature gradient. The results presented are only a small part of broader on-going scrutinizing activity in the field of multidimensional modeling of reactive flows in combustion chambers with complicated geometries encompassing various models of turbulence, different fuels and combustion models. In the case of turbulence two different models were applied i.e. standard k-ε model of turbulence and k-ξ-f model of turbulence. In this paper flame propagation results were analyzed and presented for two different hydrocarbon fuels, such as CH4 and C8H18. In the case of combustion all differences ensuing from different turbulence models, obvious for non-reactive flows are annihilated entirely. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is invariant as regards turbulence models and fuels applied. Namely the interplay between fluid flow pattern and flame propagation is entirely invariant as regards fuel variation indicating that the flame propagation through unburned mixture of CH4 and C8H18 fuels is not chemically controlled.
Keywords: Automotive flows, flame propagation, combustion modelling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1176