Search results for: Chemical kinetic
1273 Kinetic Study of Gluconic Acid Batch Fermentation by Aspergillus niger
Authors: Akbarningrum Fatmawati, Rudy Agustriyanto, Lindawati
Abstract:Gluconic acid is one of interesting chemical products in industries such as detergents, leather, photographic, textile, and especially in food and pharmaceutical industries. Fermentation is an advantageous process to produce gluconic acid. Mathematical modeling is important in the design and operation of fermentation process. In fact, kinetic data must be available for modeling. The kinetic parameters of gluconic acid production by Aspergillus niger in batch culture was studied in this research at initial substrate concentration of 150, 200 and 250 g/l. The kinetic models used were logistic equation for growth, Luedeking-Piret equation for gluconic acid formation, and Luedeking-Piret-like equation for glucose consumption. The Kinetic parameters in the model were obtained by minimizing non linear least squares curve fitting.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, fermentation, gluconic acid, kinetic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2581
1272 The Gasoil Hydrofining Kinetics Constants Identification
Authors: C. Patrascioiu, V. Matei, N. Nicolae
The paper describes the experiments and the kinetic parameters calculus of the gasoil hydrofining. They are presented experimental results of gasoil hidrofining using Mo and promoted with Ni on aluminum support catalyst. The authors have adapted a kinetic model gasoil hydrofining. Using this proposed kinetic model and the experimental data they have calculated the parameters of the model. The numerical calculus is based on minimizing the difference between the experimental sulf concentration and kinetic model estimation.
Keywords: Hydrofining, kinetic, modeling, optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1896
1271 A Biomimetic Approach for the Multi-Objective Optimization of Kinetic Façade Design
Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim
A kinetic façade responds to user requirements and environmental conditions. In designing a kinetic façade, kinetic patterns play a key role in determining its performance. This paper proposes a biomimetic method for the multi-objective optimization for kinetic façade design. The autonomous decentralized control system is combined with flocking algorithm. The flocking agents are autonomously reacting to sensor values and bring about kinetic patterns changing over time. A series of experiments were conducted to verify the potential and limitations of the flocking based decentralized control. As a result, it could show the highest performance balancing multiple objectives such as solar radiation and openness among the comparison group.
Keywords: Biomimicry, flocking algorithm, autonomous decentralized control, multi-objective optimization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1067
1270 Thermodynamic Equilibrium of Nitrogen Species Discharge: Comparison with Global Model
Authors: Saktioto, F.D Ismail, P.P. Yupapin, J. Ali
Abstract:The equilibrium process of plasma nitrogen species by chemical kinetic reactions along various pressures is successfully investigated. The equilibrium process is required in industrial application to obtain the stable condition when heating up the material for having homogenous reaction. Nitrogen species densities is modeled by a continuity equation and extended Arrhenius form. These equations are used to integrate the change of density over the time. The integration is to acquire density and the reaction rate of each reaction where temperature and time dependence are imposed. A comparison is made with global model within pressure range of 1- 100mTorr and the temperature of electron is set to be higher than other nitrogen species. The results shows that the chemical kinetic model only agrees for high pressure because of no power imposed; while the global model considers the external power along the pressure range then the electron and nitrogen species give highly quantity densities by factor of 3 to 5.
Keywords: chemical kinetic model, Arrhenius equation, nitrogen plasma, low pressure dischargeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1612
1269 Ocean Wave Kinetic Energy Harvesting System for Automated Sub Sea Sensors
Authors: Amir Anvar, Dong Yang Li
This paper presents an overview of the Ocean wave kinetic energy harvesting system. Energy harvesting is a concept by which energy is captured, stored, and utilized using various sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Ocean wave energy harvesting in which the kinetic and potential energy contained in the natural oscillations of Ocean waves are converted into electric power. The kinetic energy harvesting system could be used for a number of areas. The main applications that we have discussed in this paper are to how generate the energy from Ocean wave energy (kinetic energy) to electric energy that is to eliminate the requirement for continual battery replacement.
Keywords: Energy harvesting, power system, oceanic, sensors, autonomous.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4212
1268 Modeling Aggregation of Insoluble Phase in Reactors
Authors: A. Brener, B. Ismailov, G. Berdalieva
In the paper we submit the modification of kinetic Smoluchowski equation for binary aggregation applying to systems with chemical reactions of first and second orders in which the main product is insoluble. The goal of this work is to create theoretical foundation and engineering procedures for calculating the chemical apparatuses in the conditions of joint course of chemical reactions and processes of aggregation of insoluble dispersed phases which are formed in working zones of the reactor.
Keywords: Binary aggregation, Clusters, Chemical reactions, Insoluble phases.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1368
1267 The Effect of Raindrop Kinetic Energy on Soil Erodibility
Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef
Soil erosion is a very complex phenomenon, resulting from detachment and transport of soil particles by erosion agents. The kinetic energy of raindrop is the energy available for detachment and transport by splashing rain. The soil erodibility is defined as the ability of soil to resist to erosion. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted in the laboratory using rainfall simulator to study the effect of the kinetic energy of rain (Ec) on the soil erodibility (K). The soil used was a sandy agricultural soil of 62.08% coarse sand, 19.14% fine sand, 6.39% fine silt, 5.18% coarse silt and 7.21% clay. The obtained results show that the kinetic energy of raindrops evolves as a power law with soil erodibility.
Keywords: Erosion, runoff, raindrop kinetic energy, soil erodibility, rainfall intensity, raindrop fall velocity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3924
1266 Application of Nano-Zero Valent Iron for Treating Metolachlor in Aqueous Solution
Authors: P. Suntornchot, T. Satapanajaru, S.D. Comfort
Abstract:Water, soil and sediment contaminated with metolachlor poses a threat to the environment and human health. We determined the effectiveness of nano-zerovalent iron (NZVI) to dechlorinate metolachlor [2-chloro-n-(2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenyl)-n- (1-methoxypropan-2-yl)acetamide] in pH solution and the presence of aluminium salt. The optimum dosage of degradation of 100 mlL-1 metolachlor was 1% (w/v) NZVI. The degradation kinetic rate (kobs) was 0.218×10-3 min-1 and specific first-order rates (kSA) was 8.72×10-7 L m-2min-1. By treating aqueous solutions of metolachlor with NZVI, metolachlor destruction rate were increased as the pH decrease from 10 to 4. Lowering solution pH removes Fe (III) passivating layers from the NZVI and makes it free for reductive transformations. Destruction kinetic rates were 20.8×10-3 min-1 for pH4, 18.9×10-3 min-1 for pH7, 13.8×10-3 min-1 for pH10. In addition, destruction kinetic of metolachlor by NZVI was enhanced when aluminium sulfate was added. The destruction kinetic rate were 20.4×10-3 min-1 for 0.05% Al(SO4)3 and 60×10-3 min-1 for 0.1% Al(SO4)3.
Keywords: destruction, kinetic rate, metolachlor, nano-zerovalent ironProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1300
1265 Removal of Phenylurea Herbicides from Waters by using Chemical Oxidation Treatments
Authors: F. Javier Benitez, Carolina Garcia, Juan Luis Acero, Francisco J. Real
Four phenylurea herbicides (isoproturon, chlortoluron, diuron and linuron) were dissolved in different water matrices in order to study their chemical degradation by using UV radiation, ozone and some advanced oxidation processes (UV/H2O2, O3/H2O2, Fenton reagent and the photo- Fenton system). The waters used were: ultra-pure water, a commercial mineral water, a groundwater and a surface water taken from a reservoir. Elimination levels were established for each herbicide and for several global quality parameters, and a kinetic study was performed in order to determine basic kinetic parameters of each reaction between the target phenylureas and these oxidizing systems.
Keywords: Phenylurea herbicides, UV radiation; Ozone, Fenton reagent, Hydroxyl radicals, Rate constants, Quantum yieldsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1805
1264 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed
Abstract:In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.
Keywords: Gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 495
1263 Kinetic Parameter Estimation from Thermogravimetry and Microscale Combustion Calorimetry
Authors: Rhoda Afriyie Mensah, Lin Jiang, Solomon Asante-Okyere, Xu Qiang, Cong Jin
Flammability analysis of extruded polystyrene (XPS) has become crucial due to its utilization as insulation material for energy efficient buildings. Using the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods, the degradation kinetics of two pure XPS from the local market, red and grey ones, were obtained from the results of thermogravity analysis (TG) and microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) experiments performed under the same heating rates. From the experiments, it was discovered that red XPS released more heat than grey XPS and both materials showed two mass loss stages. Consequently, the kinetic parameters for red XPS were higher than grey XPS. A comparative evaluation of activation energies from MCC and TG showed an insignificant degree of deviation signifying an equivalent apparent activation energy from both methods. However, different activation energy profiles as a result of the different chemical pathways were presented when the dependencies of the activation energies on extent of conversion for TG and MCC were compared.
Keywords: Flammability, microscale combustion calorimetry, thermogravity analysis, thermal degradation, kinetic analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 676
1262 Estimation of Bio-Kinetic Coefficients for Treatment of Brewery Wastewater
Authors: Abimbola M. Enitan, Josiah Adeyemo
Anaerobic modeling is a useful tool to describe and simulate the condition and behaviour of anaerobic treatment units for better effluent quality and biogas generation. The present investigation deals with the anaerobic treatment of brewery wastewater with varying organic loads. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) of the influent and effluent of the bioreactor were determined at various retention times to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The bio-kinetic coefficients in the modified Stover–Kincannon kinetic and methane generation models were determined to study the performance of anaerobic digestion process. At steady-state, the determination of the kinetic coefficient (K), the endogenous decay coefficient (Kd), the maximum growth rate of microorganisms (μmax), the growth yield coefficient (Y), ultimate methane yield (Bo), maximum utilization rate constant Umax and the saturation constant (KB) in the model were calculated to be 0.046 g/g COD, 0.083 (d¯¹), 0.117 (d-¹), 0.357 g/g, 0.516 (L CH4/gCODadded), 18.51 (g/L/day) and 13.64 (g/L/day) respectively. The outcome of this study will help in simulation of anaerobic model to predict usable methane and good effluent quality during the treatment of industrial wastewater. Thus, this will protect the environment, conserve natural resources, saves time and reduce cost incur by the industries for the discharge of untreated or partially treated wastewater. It will also contribute to a sustainable long-term clean development mechanism for the optimization of the methane produced from anaerobic degradation of waste in a close system.
Keywords: Brewery wastewater, methane generation model, environment, anaerobic modeling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4083
1261 The Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions on Synthetic Zeolite NaA
Authors: Dimitar Georgiev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Yancho Hristov, Irena Markovska
In this study the adsorption of Cu (II) ions from aqueous solutions on synthetic zeolite NaA was evaluated. The effect of solution temperature and the determination of the kinetic parameters of adsorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solution on zeolite NaA is important in understanding the adsorption mechanism. Variables of the system include adsorption time, temperature (293- 328K), initial solution concentration and pH for the system. The sorption kinetics of the copper ions were found to be strongly dependent on pH (the optimum pH 3-5), solute ion concentration and temperature (293 – 328 K). It was found, the pseudo-second-order model was the best choice among all the kinetic models to describe the adsorption behavior of Cu(II) onto ziolite NaA, suggesting that the adsorption mechanism might be a chemisorptions process The activation energy of adsorption (Ea) was determined as Cu(II) 13.5 kJ mol-1. The low value of Ea shows that Cu(II) adsorption process by zeolite NaA may be an activated chemical adsorption. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0) were also determined from the temperature dependence. The results show that the process of adsorption Cu(II) is spontaneous and endothermic process and rise in temperature favors the adsorption.
Keywords: Zeolite NaA, adsorption, adsorption capacity, kinetic sorptionProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2056
1260 Kinetic Studies on Microbial Production of Tannase Using Redgram Husk
Authors: S. K. Mohan, T. Viruthagiri, C. Arunkumar
Abstract:Tannase (tannin acyl hydrolase, E.C.126.96.36.199) is an important hydrolysable enzyme with innumerable applications and industrial potential. In the present study, a kinetic model has been developed for the batch fermentation used for the production of tannase by A.flavus MTCC 3783. Maximum tannase activity of 143.30 U/ml was obtained at 96 hours under optimum operating conditions at 35oC, an initial pH of 5.5 and with an inducer tannic acid concentration of 3% (w/v) for a fermentation period of 120 hours. The biomass concentration reaches a maximum of 6.62 g/l at 96 hours and further there was no increase in biomass concentration till the end of the fermentation. Various unstructured kinetic models were analyzed to simulate the experimental values of microbial growth, tannase activity and substrate concentration. The Logistic model for microbial growth , Luedeking - Piret model for production of tannase and Substrate utilization kinetic model for utilization of substrate were capable of predicting the fermentation profile with high coefficient of determination (R2) values of 0.980, 0.942 and 0.983 respectively. The results indicated that the unstructured models were able to describe the fermentation kinetics more effectively.
Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, Batch fermentation, Kinetic model, Tannase, Unstructured models.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1449
1259 Estimating Enzyme Kinetic Parameters from Apparent KMs and Vmaxs
Authors: Simon Brown, Noorzaid Muhamad, David C Simcock
Abstract:The kinetic properties of enzymes are often reported using the apparent KM and Vmax appropriate to the standard Michaelis-Menten enzyme. However, this model is inappropriate to enzymes that have more than one substrate or where the rate expression does not apply for other reasons. Consequently, it is desirable to have a means of estimating the appropriate kinetic parameters from the apparent values of KM and Vmax reported for each substrate. We provide a means of estimating the range within which the parameters should lie and apply the method to data for glutamate dehydrogenase from the nematode parasite of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta.
Keywords: enzyme kinetics, glutamate dehydrogenase, intervalanalysis, parameter estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1713
1258 Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies of Lead Adsorption on Activated Carbon Derived from Mangrove Propagule Waste by Phosphoric Acid Activation
Authors: Widi Astuti, Rizki Agus Hermawan, Hariono Mukti, Nurul Retno Sugiyono
The removal of lead ion (Pb2+) from aqueous solution by activated carbon with phosphoric acid activation employing mangrove propagule as precursor was investigated in a batch adsorption system. Batch studies were carried out to address various experimental parameters including pH and contact time. The Langmuir and Freundlich models were able to describe the adsorption equilibrium, while the pseudo first order and pseudo second order models were used to describe kinetic process of Pb2+ adsorption. The results show that the adsorption data are seen in accordance with Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second order kinetic model.
Keywords: Activated carbon, adsorption, equilibrium, kinetic, Pb2+, mangrove propagule.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 609
1257 Development of a Kinetic Model for the Photodegradation of 4-Chlorophenol using a XeBr Excilamp
Authors: M. Gomez, M. D. Murcia, E. Gomez, J. L. Gomez, N. Christofi
Abstract:Excilamps are new UV sources with great potential for application in wastewater treatment. In the present work, a XeBr excilamp emitting radiation at 283 nm has been used for the photodegradation of 4-chlorophenol within a range of concentrations from 50 to 500 mg L-1. Total removal of 4-chlorophenol was achieved for all concentrations assayed. The two main photoproduct intermediates formed along the photodegradation process, benzoquinone and hydroquinone, although not being completely removed, remain at very low residual concentrations. Such concentrations are insignificant compared to the 4-chlorophenol initial ones and non-toxic. In order to simulate the process and scaleup, a kinetic model has been developed and validated from the experimental data.
Keywords: 4-chlorophenol, excilamps, kinetic model, photodegradation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1263
1256 Double Immobilized Lipase for the Kinetic Resolution of Secondary Alcohols
Authors: A. Ursoiu, C. Paul, C. Marcu, M. Ungurean, F. Péter
Sol-gel immobilization of enzymes, which can improve considerably their properties, is now one of the most used techniques. By deposition of the entrapped lipase on a solid support, a new and improved biocatalyst was obtained, which can be used with excellent results in acylation reactions. In this paper, lipase B from Candida antarctica was double immobilized on different adsorbents. These biocatalysts were employed in the kinetic resolution of several aliphatic secondary alcohols in organic medium. High total recovery yields of enzymatic activity, up to 560%, were obtained. For all the studied alcohols the enantiomeric ratios E were over 200. The influence of the reaction medium was studied for the kinetic resolution of 2-pentanol.
Keywords: Double immobilization, enantioselectivity, kineticresolution, lipase, racemates, sol-gel entrapment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1551
1255 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide
Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick
Abstract:Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.
Keywords: Refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1560
1254 Using Artificial Neural Network and Leudeking-Piret Model in the Kinetic Modeling of Microbial Production of Poly-β- Hydroxybutyrate
Authors: A.Qaderi, A. Heydarinasab, M. Ardjmand
Abstract:Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is one of the most famous biopolymers that has various applications in production of biodegradable carriers. The most important strategy for enhancing efficiency in production process and reducing the price of PHB, is the accurate expression of kinetic model of products formation and parameters that are effective on it, such as Dry Cell Weight (DCW) and substrate consumption. Considering the high capabilities of artificial neural networks in modeling and simulation of non-linear systems such as biological and chemical industries that mainly are multivariable systems, kinetic modeling of microbial production of PHB that is a complex and non-linear biological process, the three layers perceptron neural network model was used in this study. Artificial neural network educates itself and finds the hidden laws behind the data with mapping based on experimental data, of dry cell weight, substrate concentration as input and PHB concentration as output. For training the network, a series of experimental data for PHB production from Hydrogenophaga Pseudoflava by glucose carbon source was used. After training the network, two other experimental data sets that have not intervened in the network education, including dry cell concentration and substrate concentration were applied as inputs to the network, and PHB concentration was predicted by the network. Comparison of predicted data by network and experimental data, indicated a high precision predicted for both fructose and whey carbon sources. Also in present study for better understanding of the ability of neural network in modeling of biological processes, microbial production kinetic of PHB by Leudeking-Piret experimental equation was modeled. The Observed result indicated an accurate prediction of PHB concentration by artificial neural network higher than Leudeking- Piret model.
Keywords: Kinetic Modeling, Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate (PHB), Hydrogenophaga Pseudoflava, Artificial Neural Network, Leudeking-PiretProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4696
1253 Universal Kinetic Modeling of RAFT Polymerization using Moment Equations
Authors: Mehdi Salami-Kalajahi, Pejman Ganjeh-Anzabi, Vahid Haddadi-Asl, Mohammad Najafi
Abstract:In the following text, we show that by introducing universal kinetic scheme, the origin of rate retardation and inhibition period which observed in dithiobenzoate-mediated RAFT polymerization can be described properly. We develop our model by utilizing the method of moments, then we apply our model to different monomer/RAFT agent systems, both homo- and copolymerization. The modeling results are in an excellent agreement with experiments and imply the validity of universal kinetic scheme, not only for dithiobenzoate-mediated systems, but also for different types of monomer/RAFT agent ones.
Keywords: RAFT Polymerization, Mechanism, Kinetics, Moment Equations, Modeling.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1833
1252 Simulation of Lid Cavity Flow in Rectangular, Half-Circular and Beer Bucket Shapes using Quasi-Molecular Modeling
Authors: S. Kulsri, M. Jaroensutasinee, K. Jaroensutasinee
Abstract:We developed a new method based on quasimolecular modeling to simulate the cavity flow in three cavity shapes: rectangular, half-circular and bucket beer in cgs units. Each quasi-molecule was a group of particles that interacted in a fashion entirely analogous to classical Newtonian molecular interactions. When a cavity flow was simulated, the instantaneous velocity vector fields were obtained by using an inverse distance weighted interpolation method. In all three cavity shapes, fluid motion was rotated counter-clockwise. The velocity vector fields of the three cavity shapes showed a primary vortex located near the upstream corners at time t ~ 0.500 s, t ~ 0.450 s and t ~ 0.350 s, respectively. The configurational kinetic energy of the cavities increased as time increased until the kinetic energy reached a maximum at time t ~ 0.02 s and, then, the kinetic energy decreased as time increased. The rectangular cavity system showed the lowest kinetic energy, while the half-circular cavity system showed the highest kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of rectangular, beer bucket and half-circular cavities fluctuated about stable average values 35.62 x 103, 38.04 x 103 and 40.80 x 103 ergs/particle, respectively. This indicated that the half-circular shapes were the most suitable shape for a shrimp pond because the water in shrimp pond flows best when we compared with rectangular and beer bucket shape.
Keywords: Quasi-molecular modelling, particle modelling, lid driven cavity flow.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1611
1251 Kinetic Study of 1-Butene Isomerization over Hydrotalcite Catalyst
Authors: S. Sripinun, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhyab, P. Praserthdam, S. Assabumrungrat
Abstract:This work studied the isomerization of 1-butene over hydrotalcite catalyst. The experiments were conducted at various gas hourly space velocity (GHSV), reaction temperature and feed concentration. No catalyst deactivation was observed over the reaction time of 16 hours. Two major reaction products were trans-2- butene and cis-2-butene. The reaction temperature played an important role on the reaction selectivity. At high operating temperatures, the selectivity of trans-2-butene was higher than the selectivity of cis-2-butene while it was opposite at lower reaction temperature. In the range of operating condition, the maximum conversion of 1-butene was found at 74% when T = 673 K and GHSV = 4 m3/h/kg-cat with trans- and cis-2-butene selectivities of 54% and 46%, respectively. Finally, the kinetic parameters of the reaction were determined.
Keywords: Hydrotalcite, isomerization, kinetic, 1-butene.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2235
1250 Comparative Kinetic Study on Alkylation of p-cresol with Tert-butyl Alcohol using Different SO3-H Functionalized Ionic Liquid Catalysts
Authors: Pandian Elavarasan, Kishore Kondamudi, Sreedevi Upadhyayula
Ionic liquids are well known as green solvents, reaction media and catalysis. Here, three different sulfonic acid functional ionic liquids prepared in the laboratory are used as catalysts in alkylation of p-cresol with tert-butyl alcohol. The kinetics on each of the catalysts was compared and a kinetic model was developed based on the product distribution over these catalysts. The kinetic parameters were estimated using Marquadt's algorithm to minimize the error function. The Arrhenius plots show a curvature which is best interpreted by the extended Arrhenius equation.
Keywords: Alkylation, p-cresol, tert-butyl alcohol, kinetics, activation parameter, extended Arrhenius equation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2300
1249 Gas-Solid Nitrocarburizing of Steels: Kinetic Modeling and Experimental Validation
Authors: L. Torchane
The study is devoted to define the optimal conditions for the nitriding of pure iron at atmospheric pressure by using NH3- Ar-C3H8 gas mixtures. After studying the mechanisms of phase formation and mass transfer at the gas-solid interface, a mathematical model is developed in order to predict the nitrogen transfer rate in the solid, the ε-carbonitride layer growth rate and the nitrogen and carbon concentration profiles. In order to validate the model and to show its possibilities, it is compared with thermogravimetric experiments, analyses and metallurgical observations (X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy and electron microprobe analysis). Results obtained allow us to demonstrate the sound correlation between the experimental results and the theoretical predictions.
Keywords: Gaseous Nitrocarburizing, Kinetic Model, Diffusion, Layer Growth Kinetic.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2050
1248 Kinetic Façade Design Using 3D Scanning to Convert Physical Models into Digital Models
Authors: Do-Jin Jang, Sung-Ah Kim
In designing a kinetic façade, it is hard for the designer to make digital models due to its complex geometry with motion. This paper aims to present a methodology of converting a point cloud of a physical model into a single digital model with a certain topology and motion. The method uses a Microsoft Kinect sensor, and color markers were defined and applied to three paper folding-inspired designs. Although the resulted digital model cannot represent the whole folding range of the physical model, the method supports the designer to conduct a performance-oriented design process with the rough physical model in the reduced folding range.
Keywords: Design media, kinetic façades, tangible user interface, 3D scanning.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1137
1247 Equilibrium, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Studies of the Biosorption of Textile Dye (Yellow Bemacid) onto Brahea edulis
Authors: G. Henini, Y. Laidani, F. Souahi, A. Labbaci, S. Hanini
Abstract:Environmental contamination is a major problem being faced by the society today. Industrial, agricultural, and domestic wastes, due to the rapid development in the technology, are discharged in the several receivers. Generally, this discharge is directed to the nearest water sources such as rivers, lakes, and seas. While the rates of development and waste production are not likely to diminish, efforts to control and dispose of wastes are appropriately rising. Wastewaters from textile industries represent a serious problem all over the world. They contain different types of synthetic dyes which are known to be a major source of environmental pollution in terms of both the volume of dye discharged and the effluent composition. From an environmental point of view, the removal of synthetic dyes is of great concern. Among several chemical and physical methods, adsorption is a promising technique due to the ease of use and low cost compared to other applications in the process of discoloration, especially if the adsorbent is inexpensive and readily available. The focus of the present study was to assess the potentiality of Brahea edulis (BE) for the removal of synthetic dye Yellow bemacid (YB) from aqueous solutions. The results obtained here may transfer to other dyes with a similar chemical structure. Biosorption studies were carried out under various parameters such as mass adsorbent particle, pH, contact time, initial dye concentration, and temperature. The biosorption kinetic data of the material (BE) was tested by the pseudo first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic models. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ΔG, enthalpy ΔH, and entropy ΔS have revealed that the adsorption of YB on the BE is feasible, spontaneous, and endothermic. The equilibrium data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, and Temkin isotherm models. The experimental results show that the percentage of biosorption increases with an increase in the biosorbent mass (0.25 g: 12 mg/g; 1.5 g: 47.44 mg/g). The maximum biosorption occurred at around pH value of 2 for the YB. The equilibrium uptake was increased with an increase in the initial dye concentration in solution (Co = 120 mg/l; q = 35.97 mg/g). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The best fit was obtained by the Langmuir model with high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.998) and a maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 35.97 mg/g for YB.
Keywords: Adsorption, Brahea edulis, isotherm, yellow bemacid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1138
1246 A Study on Removal of Toluidine Blue Dye from Aqueous Solution by Adsorption onto Neem Leaf Powder
Authors: Himanshu Patel, R. T. Vashi
Adsorption of Toluidine blue dye from aqueous solutions onto Neem Leaf Powder (NLP) has been investigated. The surface characterization of this natural material was examined by Particle size analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, temperature and contact duration on the adsorption capacities have been evaluated, in which pH has been found to be most effective parameter among all. The data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich for explaining the equilibrium characteristics of adsorption. And kinetic models like pseudo first- order, second-order model and Elovich equation were utilized to describe the kinetic data. The experimental data were well fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Free energy of adsorption (AG"), enthalpy change (AH') and entropy change (AS°) were also determined and evaluated.
Keywords: Adsorption, isotherm models, kinetic models, temperature, toluidine blue dye, surface chemistry.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1654
1245 Aging Evaluation of Ammonium Perchlorate/Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene-Based Solid Rocket Engine by Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Thermal Analysis
Authors: R. F. B. Gonçalves, E. N. Iwama, J. A. F. F. Rocco, K. Iha
Propellants based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene/Ammonium Perchlorate (HTPB/AP) are the most commonly used in most of the rocket engines used by the Brazilian Armed Forces. This work aimed at the possibility of extending its useful life (currently in 10 years) by performing kinetic-chemical analyzes of its energetic material via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and also performing computer simulation of aging process using the software Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). Thermal analysis via DSC was performed in triplicates and in three heating ratios (5 ºC, 10 ºC, and 15 ºC) of rocket motor with 11 years shelf-life, using the Arrhenius equation to obtain its activation energy, using Ozawa and Kissinger kinetic methods, allowing comparison with manufacturing period data (standard motor). In addition, the kinetic parameters of internal pressure of the combustion chamber in 08 rocket engines with 11 years of shelf-life were also acquired, for comparison purposes with the engine start-up data.
Keywords: Shelf-life, thermal analysis, Ozawa method, Kissinger method, LAMMPS software, thrust.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 626
1244 Kinetics of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)and Polystyrene (PS) Dynamic Pyrolysis
Authors: S.M. Al-Salem, P. Lettieri
Abstract:Thermo-chemical treatment (TCT) such as pyrolysis is getting recognized as a valid route for (i) materials and valuable products and petrochemicals recovery; (ii) waste recycling; and (iii) elemental characterization. Pyrolysis is also receiving renewed attention for its operational, economical and environmental advantages. In this study, samples of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) were pyrolysed in a microthermobalance reactor (using a thermogravimetric-TGA setup). Both polymers were prepared and conditioned prior to experimentation. The main objective was to determine the kinetic parameters of the depolymerization reactions that occur within the thermal degradation process. Overall kinetic rate constants (ko) and activation energies (Eo) were determined using the general kinetics theory (GKT) method previously used by a number of authors. Fitted correlations were found and validated using the GKT, errors were within ± 5%. This study represents a fundamental step to pave the way towards the development of scaling relationship for the investigation of larger scale reactors relevant to industry.
Keywords: Kinetics, PET, PS, Pyrolysis, Recycling, Petrochemicals.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3579