Search results for: non-deterministic effects.
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2907

Search results for: non-deterministic effects.

2907 Construction of Intersection of Nondeterministic Finite Automata using Z Notation

Authors: Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Nabeel Sabir, Amir Ali

Abstract:

Functionalities and control behavior are both primary requirements in design of a complex system. Automata theory plays an important role in modeling behavior of a system. Z is an ideal notation which is used for describing state space of a system and then defining operations over it. Consequently, an integration of automata and Z will be an effective tool for increasing modeling power for a complex system. Further, nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) may have different implementations and therefore it is needed to verify the transformation from diagrams to a code. If we describe formal specification of an NFA before implementing it, then confidence over transformation can be increased. In this paper, we have given a procedure for integrating NFA and Z. Complement of a special type of NFA is defined. Then union of two NFAs is formalized after defining their complements. Finally, formal construction of intersection of NFAs is described. The specification of this relationship is analyzed and validated using Z/EVES tool.

Keywords: Modeling, Nondeterministic finite automata, Znotation, Integration of approaches, Validation.

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2906 Using ε Value in Describe Regular Languages by Using Finite Automata, Operation on Languages and the Changing Algorithm Implementation

Authors: Abdulmajid Mukhtar Afat

Abstract:

This paper aims at introducing nondeterministic finite automata with ε value which is used to perform some operations on languages. a program is created to implement the algorithm that converts nondeterministic finite automata with ε value (ε-NFA) to deterministic finite automata (DFA).The program is written in c++ programming language. The program inputs are FA 5-tuples from text file and then classifies it into either DFA/NFA or ε -NFA. For DFA, the program will get the string w and decide whether it is accepted or rejected. The tracking path for an accepted string is saved by the program. In case of NFA or ε-NFA automation, the program changes the automation to DFA to enable tracking and to decide if the string w exists in the regular language or not.

Keywords: Finite automata, DFA, NFA, ε-NFA, Eclose, operations on languages.

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2905 The Different Ways to Describe Regular Languages by Using Finite Automata and the Changing Algorithm Implementation

Authors: Abdulmajid Mukhtar Afat

Abstract:

This paper aims at introducing finite automata theory, the different ways to describe regular languages and create a program to implement the subset construction algorithms to convert nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) to deterministic finite automata (DFA). This program is written in c++ programming language. The program reads FA 5tuples from text file and then classifies it into either DFA or NFA. For DFA, the program will read the string w and decide whether it is acceptable or not. If accepted, the program will save the tracking path and point it out. On the other hand, when the automation is NFA, the program will change the Automation to DFA so that it is easy to track and it can decide whether the w exists in the regular language or not.

Keywords: Finite Automata, subset construction DFA, NFA.

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2904 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem

Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy

Abstract:

Power system state estimation is the process of calculating a reliable estimate of the power system state vector composed of bus voltages' angles and magnitudes from telemetered measurements on the system. This estimate of the state vector provides the description of the system necessary for the operation and security monitoring. Many methods are described in the literature for solving the state estimation problem, the most important of which are the classical weighted least squares method and the nondeterministic genetic based method; however both showed drawbacks. In this paper a modified version of the genetic algorithm power system state estimation is introduced, Sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to genetic operators is discussed, the algorithm is applied to case studies and finally it is compared with the classical weighted least squares method formulation.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, ill-conditioning, state estimation, weighted least squares.

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2903 Introductory Design Optimisation of a Machine Tool using a Virtual Machine Concept

Authors: Johan Wall, Johan Fredin, Anders Jönsson, Göran Broman

Abstract:

Designing modern machine tools is a complex task. A simulation tool to aid the design work, a virtual machine, has therefore been developed in earlier work. The virtual machine considers the interaction between the mechanics of the machine (including structural flexibility) and the control system. This paper exemplifies the usefulness of the virtual machine as a tool for product development. An optimisation study is conducted aiming at improving the existing design of a machine tool regarding weight and manufacturing accuracy at maintained manufacturing speed. The problem can be categorised as constrained multidisciplinary multiobjective multivariable optimisation. Parameters of the control and geometric quantities of the machine are used as design variables. This results in a mix of continuous and discrete variables and an optimisation approach using a genetic algorithm is therefore deployed. The accuracy objective is evaluated according to international standards. The complete systems model shows nondeterministic behaviour. A strategy to handle this based on statistical analysis is suggested. The weight of the main moving parts is reduced by more than 30 per cent and the manufacturing accuracy is improvement by more than 60 per cent compared to the original design, with no reduction in manufacturing speed. It is also shown that interaction effects exist between the mechanics and the control, i.e. this improvement would most likely not been possible with a conventional sequential design approach within the same time, cost and general resource frame. This indicates the potential of the virtual machine concept for contributing to improved efficiency of both complex products and the development process for such products. Companies incorporating such advanced simulation tools in their product development could thus improve its own competitiveness as well as contribute to improved resource efficiency of society at large.

Keywords: Machine tools, Mechatronics, Non-deterministic, Optimisation, Product development, Virtual machine

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2902 k-Neighborhood Template A-Type Three-Dimensional Bounded Cellular Acceptor

Authors: Makoto Nagatomo, Yasuo Uchida, Makoto Sakamoto, Tuo Zhang, Tatsuma Kurogi, Takao Ito, Tsunehiro Yoshinaga, Satoshi Ikeda, Masahiro Yokomichi, Hiroshi Furutani

Abstract:

This paper presents a four-dimensional computational model, k-neighborhood template A-type three-dimensional bounded cellular acceptor (abbreviated as A-3BCA(k)), and discusses the hierarchical properties. An A-3BCA(k) is a four-dimensional automaton which consists of a pair of a converter and a configuration-reader. The former converts the given four-dimensional tape to the three- and two- dimensional configuration and the latter determines the acceptance or nonacceptance of given four-dimensional tape whether or not the derived two-dimensional configuration is accepted. We mainly investigate the difference of the accepting power based on the difference of the configuration-reader. It is shown that the difference of the accepting power of the configuration-reader tends to affect directly that of the A-3BCA(k) for the case when the converter is deterministic. On the other hand, results are not analogous for the nondeterministic case.

Keywords: Cellular acceptor, configuration-reader, converter, finite automaton, four-dimension, on-line tessellation acceptor, parallel/sequential array acceptor, turing machine.

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2901 Real-time Performance Study of EPA Periodic Data Transmission

Authors: Liu Ning, Zhong Chongquan, Teng Hongfei

Abstract:

EPA (Ethernet for Plant Automation) resolves the nondeterministic problem of standard Ethernet and accomplishes real-time communication by means of micro-segment topology and deterministic scheduling mechanism. This paper studies the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission from theoretical and experimental perspective. By analyzing information transmission characteristics and EPA deterministic scheduling mechanism, 5 indicators including delivery time, time synchronization accuracy, data-sending time offset accuracy, utilization percentage of configured timeslice and non-RTE bandwidth that can be used to specify the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission are presented and investigated. On this basis, the test principles and test methods of the indicators are respectively studied and some formulas for real-time performance of EPA system are derived. Furthermore, an experiment platform is developed to test the indicators of EPA periodic data transmission in a micro-segment. According to the analysis and the experiment, the methods to improve the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission including optimizing network structure, studying self-adaptive adjustment method of timeslice and providing data-sending time offset accuracy for configuration are proposed.

Keywords: EPA system, Industrial Ethernet, Periodic data, Real-time performance

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2900 Characterization Non-Deterministic of Optical Channels

Authors: V. A. C. Vale, E. T. L. Cöuras Ford

Abstract:

The use of optical technologies in the telecommunications has been increasing due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: Optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects.

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2899 Assessment of the Environmental Destructive Effects of Building Dams

Authors: Mohammad Reza Pirestani, Mehdi Shafaghati, Amir Ahmad Dehghani

Abstract:

From the beginning of creation, human being has ever fought against the ecosystem by changes has made in environment. The most environmental changes on the nature have been done after starting the concentrated life in the same region. Dams are one of the most important buildings in water resources and transferring. These buildings have been made from old times without access to hydrological, hydraulically, hydro mechanical information. Dams have positive and negative effects on environment. Constructing a dam relatively causes equal ecological consequences. According to different criteria, environmental effects of dams can lead short term and long term damages. These effects may influence on the situation and treatment of meteorology, biology, culture, ancient works, etc and severely causes to change and complicate it. So considering importance of positive effects of dam construction, it is necessary to minimize negative environmental effects of dams to achieve a stable development. In this article the considered effects and their solutions in influencing on assessment of destructive environmental effects of dams construction have been surveyed and presented.

Keywords: Dam, Environment, Water Resources, Assessment

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2898 Engine Power Effects on Support Interference

Authors: B.J.C. Horsten, L.L.M. Veldhuis

Abstract:

Renewed interest in propeller propulsion on aircraft configurations combined with higher propeller loads lead to the question how the effects of the propulsion on model support disturbances should be accounted for. In this paper, the determination of engine power effects on support interference of sting-mounted models is demonstrated by a measurement on a four-engine turboprop aircraft. CFD results on a more generic model are presented in order to clarify the possible mechanism behind engine power effects on support interference. The engine slipstream induces a local change in angle of sideslip at the model sting thereby influencing the sting near-field and far-field effects. Whether or not the net result of these changes in the disturbance pattern leads to a significant engine power effect depends on the configuration of the wind tunnel model and the test setup.

Keywords: CFD, engine power effects, measurements, support interference.

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2897 A Case of Study for 3D Stereoscopic Conversion in Visual Effects Industry

Authors: Jin Zhi

Abstract:

This paper covered a series of key points in terms of 2D to 3D stereoscopic conversion. A successfully applied stereoscopic conversion approach in current visual effects industry was presented. The purpose of this paper is to cover a detailed workflow and concept, which has been successfully used in 3D stereoscopic conversion for feature films in visual effects industry, and therefore to clarify the process in stereoscopic conversion production and provide a clear idea for those entry-level artists to improve an overall understanding of 3D stereoscopic in digital compositing field as well as to the higher education factor of visual effects and hopefully inspire further collaboration and participants particularly between academia and industry.

Keywords: Clean plates, Mattes, Stereoscopic conversion, 3Dprojection, Z-depth.

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2896 On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans

Authors: Rita SahaRay, Ganesh Dutta

Abstract:

In this article, experimental situations are considered where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks, for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs are presented.

Keywords: Design matrix, Hadamard matrix, Kronecker product, type 1 criteria, type 2 criteria.

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2895 EEG Indices to Time-On-Task Effects and to a Workload Manipulation (Cueing)

Authors: A. T. Kamzanova, G. Matthews, A. M. Kustubayeva, S. M. Jakupov

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of a range of EEG indices to time-on-task effects and to a workload manipulation (cueing), during performance of a resource-limited vigilance task. Effects of task period and cueing on performance and subjective state response were consistent with previous vigilance studies and with resource theory. Two EEG indices – the Task Load Index (TLI) and global lower frequency (LF) alpha power – showed effects of task period and cueing similar to those seen with correct detections. Across four successive task periods, the TLI declined and LF alpha power increased. Cueing increased TLI and decreased LF alpha. Other indices – the Engagement Index (EI), frontal theta and upper frequency (UF) alpha failed to show these effects. However, EI and frontal theta were sensitive to interactive effects of task period and cueing, which may correspond to a stronger anxiety response to the uncued task.

Keywords: brain activity, EEG, task engagement, vigilance task.

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2894 A Probabilistic Reinforcement-Based Approach to Conceptualization

Authors: Hadi Firouzi, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Babak N. Araabi

Abstract:

Conceptualization strengthens intelligent systems in generalization skill, effective knowledge representation, real-time inference, and managing uncertain and indefinite situations in addition to facilitating knowledge communication for learning agents situated in real world. Concept learning introduces a way of abstraction by which the continuous state is formed as entities called concepts which are connected to the action space and thus, they illustrate somehow the complex action space. Of computational concept learning approaches, action-based conceptualization is favored because of its simplicity and mirror neuron foundations in neuroscience. In this paper, a new biologically inspired concept learning approach based on the probabilistic framework is proposed. This approach exploits and extends the mirror neuron-s role in conceptualization for a reinforcement learning agent in nondeterministic environments. In the proposed method, instead of building a huge numerical knowledge, the concepts are learnt gradually from rewards through interaction with the environment. Moreover the probabilistic formation of the concepts is employed to deal with uncertain and dynamic nature of real problems in addition to the ability of generalization. These characteristics as a whole distinguish the proposed learning algorithm from both a pure classification algorithm and typical reinforcement learning. Simulation results show advantages of the proposed framework in terms of convergence speed as well as generalization and asymptotic behavior because of utilizing both success and failures attempts through received rewards. Experimental results, on the other hand, show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method in continuous and noisy environments for a real robotic task such as maze as well as the benefits of implementing an incremental learning scenario in artificial agents.

Keywords: Concept learning, probabilistic decision making, reinforcement learning.

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2893 Theoretical Considerations of the Influence of Mechanical Uniaxial Stress on Pixel Readout Circuits

Authors: Georgios C. Dogiamis, Bedrich J. Hosticka, Anton Grabmaier

Abstract:

In this work the effects of uniaxial mechanical stress on a pixel readout circuit are theoretically analyzed. It is the effects of mechanical stress on the in-pixel transistors do not arise at the output, when a correlated double sampling circuit is used. However, mechanical stress effects on the photodiode will directly appear at the readout chain output. Therefore, compensation techniques are needed to overcome this situation. Moreover simulation technique of mechanical stress is proposed and diverse layout as well as design recommendations are put forward, in order to minimize stress related effects on the output of a circuit. he shown, that wever, Moreover, a out

Keywords: mechanical uniaxial stress, pixel readout circuit

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2892 Health Effects of Trihalomethanes as Chlorinated Disinfection by Products: A Review Article

Authors: M. R. Mohamadshafiee, L. Taghavi

Abstract:

Trihalomethanes (THMs) were among the first disinfection byproducts to be discovered in chlorinated water. The substances form during a reaction between chlorine and organic matter in the water. Trihalomethanes are suspected to have negative effects on birth such as, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation in term births, as well as gestational age and preterm delivery. There are also some evidences showing these by-products to be mutagenic and carcinogenic, the greatest amount of evidence being related to the bladder cancer. However, there exist inconsistencies regarding such effects of THMs as different studies have provided different results in this regard. The aim of the present study is to provide a review of the related researches about the above mentioned health effects of THMs.

Keywords: Trihalomethans, by-products, disinfection, carcinogenic

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2891 Effects of FAU Zeolites on the Crystallization of Chloronitrobenzenes above the Eutectic Composition

Authors: Jeeranun Neaungjumnong, Sasikarn Yairit, Sudarat Pattanapaiboonkul, Pramoch Rangsunvigit, Santi Kulprathipanja

Abstract:

Crystallization has been used for the separation of chloronitrobenzene or CNBs, which are isomeric substances (o-, mand p-CNB) and important intermediates in chemical productions. Effects of feed composition on the crystallization of m- and p-CNB was first studied. The results conform to the binary phase diagram of m- and p-CNB. After that, effects of FAU zeolites (NaX, CaX, BaX, NaY and CaY) above the eutectic composition (63.5 and 65.0 wt% m-CNB in the feed) was also investigated. The results showed that the FAU zeolites significantly affected the precipitates, the composition of which was shifted from being rich in m-CNB to rich in p-CNB. Effects of the number of FAU zeolites on the precipitate composition was then studied. The results revealed that the precipitates from the lower number of the zeolites had higher p-CNB purity than those from the higher number of zeolite.

Keywords: Chloronitrobenzenes, crystallization, separation, eutectic

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2890 Perturbative Analysis on a Lunar Free Return Trajectory

Authors: Emre Ünal, Hasan Başaran

Abstract:

In this study, starting with a predetermined Lunar free-return trajectory, an analysis of major near-Earth perturbations is carried out. Referencing to historical Apollo-13 flight, changes in the mission’s resultant perimoon and perigee altitudes with each perturbative effect are evaluated. The perturbations that were considered are Earth oblateness effects, up to the 6th order, atmospheric drag, third body perturbations consisting of solar and planetary effects and solar radiation pressure effects. It is found that for a Moon mission, most of the main perturbative effects spoil the trajectory significantly while some came out to be negligible. It is seen that for apparent future request of constructing low cost, reliable and safe trajectories to the Moon, most of the orbital perturbations are crucial.

Keywords: Apollo-13 trajectory, atmospheric drag, lunar trajectories, oblateness effect, perturbative effects, solar radiation pressure, third body perturbations.

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2889 Searching the Stabilizing Effects of Neutron Shell Closure via Fusion Evaporation Residue Studies

Authors: B. R. S. Babu, E. Prasad, P. V. Laveen, A. M. Vinodkumar

Abstract:

Searching the “Island of stability” is a topic of extreme interest in theoretical as well as experimental modern physics today. This “island of stability” is spanned by superheavy elements (SHE's) that are produced in the laboratory. SHE's are believed to exist primarily due to the “magic” stabilizing effects of nuclear shell structure. SHE synthesis is extremely difficult due to their very low production cross section, often of the order of pico barns or less. Stabilizing effects of shell closures at proton number Z=82 and neutron number N=126 are predicted theoretically. Though stabilizing effects of Z=82 have been experimentally verified, no concluding observations have been made with N=126, so far. We measured and analyzed the total evaporation residue (ER) cross sections for a number of systems with neutron number around 126 to explore possible shell closure effects in ER cross sections, in this work.

Keywords: Superheavy element, fusion evaporation, evaporation reside, compound nucleus.

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2888 Study on the Influence of Physical Effort on the Mental Processes of Preteen Students

Authors: Constantin Pehoiu, Cristian Savu, Silviu Badea, Cristian Borida

Abstract:

The physiological effects of physical exercise on human body are relatively well known in literature, which describes in detail the changes that occur in the cardiovascular system, the respiratory one, in bones and other systems, both during exercise and after its delivery. However, the effects of exercise on mental processes are less treated. From the literature reviews discussed in this study, it can be detached the idea that we can not exactly say that physical exercise has beneficial effects on mental processes, but neither that it would have potentially negative effects. This uncertainty, reflected in the inability to indicate precise and unequivocal meaning, favorable-unfavorable physical effort in acting on mental processes, is a prime reason to undertake a study of the phenomenon influence effort administered physical education classes on the dynamics of mental processes like attention and memory.

Keywords: management, exercise, mental process, lesson.

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2887 Effects of Repetitive Strain/Stress Injury on the Human Body

Authors: Mohd Abdullah

Abstract:

This review describes some of the effects of repetitive strain/stress injury (RSI) on the human body especially among computer professionals today that spend extended hours of prolonged sitting in front of a computer day in and day out. The review briefly introduces the main factors that contribute to an increase of RSI among such computer professionals. The review briefly discusses how the human spinal column and knees are mainly affected by the onset of RSI resulting in poor posture. The root and secondary causes and effects of RSI are reviewed. The importance and value of the various breathing techniques are reviewed in an attempt to alleviate some of the effects of RSI. The review concludes with a small sample of suggested office stretches and poses geared towards at reducing RSI follows in this review. Readers will learn about the effects of RSI, as well as ways to cope with it. A better understanding of coping strategies may lead to well-being and a healthier overall lifestyle. Ultimately, the investment of time to connect with oneself with the poses and the power of the breath would promote a well-being that is overall healthier thus resulting in a better ability to cope/manage life stresses.

Keywords: Health, wellness, repetitive, chairs.

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2886 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

Abstract:

This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation.

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2885 Estimation of Stress Intensity Factors from Near Crack Tip Field

Authors: Zhuang He, Andrei Kotousov

Abstract:

All current experimental methods for determination of stress intensity factors are based on the assumption that the state of stress near the crack tip is plane stress. Therefore, these methods rely on strain and displacement measurements made outside the near crack tip region affected by the three-dimensional effects or by process zone. In this paper, we develop and validate an experimental procedure for the evaluation of stress intensity factors from the measurements of the out-of-plane displacements in the surface area controlled by 3D effects. The evaluation of stress intensity factors is possible when the process zone is sufficiently small, and the displacement field generated by the 3D effects is fully encapsulated by K-dominance region.

Keywords: Digital image correlation, stress intensity factors, three-dimensional effects, transverse displacement.

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2884 Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution Based Power Economic Dispatch of Generators with Valve-Point Effects and Multiple Fuel Options

Authors: R.Balamurugan, S.Subramanian

Abstract:

This paper presents the solution of power economic dispatch (PED) problem of generating units with valve point effects and multiple fuel options using Self-Adaptive Differential Evolution (SDE) algorithm. The global optimal solution by mathematical approaches becomes difficult for the realistic PED problem in power systems. The Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm is found to be a powerful evolutionary algorithm for global optimization in many real problems. In this paper the key parameters of control in DE algorithm such as the crossover constant CR and weight applied to random differential F are self-adapted. The PED problem formulation takes into consideration of nonsmooth fuel cost function due to valve point effects and multi fuel options of generator. The proposed approach has been examined and tested with the numerical results of PED problems with thirteen-generation units including valve-point effects, ten-generation units with multiple fuel options neglecting valve-point effects and ten-generation units including valve-point effects and multiple fuel options. The test results are promising and show the effectiveness of proposed approach for solving PED problems.

Keywords: Multiple fuels, power economic dispatch, selfadaptivedifferential evolution and valve-point effects.

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2883 The Students' Learning Effects on Dance Domain of Arts Education

Authors: Sheng-Min Cheng

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the learning effects on dance domain in Arts Curriculum at junior and senior high levels. A total of 1,366 students from 9th to 11th grade of different areas from Taiwan were administered a self-designed dance achievement test. Data were analyzed through descriptive analysis, independent sample t test, one-way ANOVA and Post hoc comparison analysis using Scheffé Test. The results showed (1) female students

Keywords: arts education, dance learning effects, secondary level students, dance talented students

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2882 Microwave Shielding of Magnetized Hydrogen Plasma in Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Afshin Moradi, Mohammad Hosain Teimourpour

Abstract:

We derive simple sets of equations to describe the microwave response of a thin film of magnetized hydrogen plasma in the presence of carbon nanotubes, which were grown by ironcatalyzed high-pressure disproportionation (HiPco). By considering the interference effects due to multiple reflections between thin plasma film interfaces, we present the effects of the continuously changing external magnetic field and plasma parameters on the reflected power, absorbed power, and transmitted power in the system. The simulation results show that the interference effects play an important role in the reflectance, transmittance and absorptance of microwave radiation at the magnetized plasma slab. As a consequence, the interference effects lead to a sinusoidal variation of the reflected intensity and can greatly reduce the amount of reflection power, but the absorption power increases.

Keywords:

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2881 A Study on Bilingual Semantic Processing: Category Effects and Age Effects

Authors: Lai Yi-Hsiu

Abstract:

The present study addressed the nature of bilingual semantic processing in Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min and examined category effects and age effects. Nineteen bilingual adults of Mandarin Chinese and Southern Min, nine monolingual seniors of Mandarin Chinese, and ten monolingual seniors of Southern Min in Taiwan individually completed two semantic tasks: Picture naming and category fluency tasks. The instruments for the naming task were sixty black-and-white pictures, including thirty-five object pictures and twenty-five action pictures. The category fluency task also consisted of two semantic categories – objects (or nouns) and actions (or verbs). The reaction time for each picture/question was additionally calculated and analyzed. Oral productions in Mandarin Chinese and in Southern Min were compared and discussed to examine the category effects and age effects. The results of the category fluency task indicated that the content of information of these seniors was comparatively deteriorated, and thus they produced a smaller number of semantic-lexical items. Significant group differences were also found in the reaction time results. Category effects were significant for both adults and seniors in the semantic fluency task. The findings of the present study will help characterize the nature of the bilingual semantic processing of adults and seniors, and contribute to the fields of contrastive and corpus linguistics.

Keywords: Bilingual semantic processing, aging, Mandarin Chinese, Southern Min.

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2880 Modeling Brand Alliance Effects Professional Services

Authors: Kristina Maiksteniene

Abstract:

Various formal and informal brand alliances are being formed in professional service firms. Professional service corporate brand is heavily dependent on brands of professional employees who comprise them, and professional employee brands are in turn dependent on the corporate brand. Prior work provides limited scientific evidence of brand alliance effects in professional service area – i.e., how professional service corporate-employee brand allies are affected by an alliance, what are brand attitude effects after alliance formation and how these effects vary with different strengths of an ally. Scientific literature analysis and theoretical modeling are the main methods of the current study. As a result, a theoretical model is constructed for estimating spillover effects of professional service corporate-employee brand alliances and for comparison among different professional service firm expertise practice models – from “brains" to “procedure" model. The resulting theoretical model lays basis for future experimental studies.

Keywords: Brand alliances, professional services, corporatebrand, employee brand.

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2879 Effects of Arcing in Air on the Microstructure, Morphology and Photoelectric Work Function of Ag- Ni (60/40) Contact Materials

Authors: Mohamed Akbi

Abstract:

The present work aims to throw light on the effects of arcing in air on the surface state of contact pastilles made of silvernickel Ag-Ni (60/40). Also, the photoelectric emission from these electrical contacts has been investigated in the spectral range of 196- 256 nm. In order to study the effects of arcing on the EWF, the metallic samples were subjected to electrical arcs in air, at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, after that, they have been introduced into the vacuum chamber of an experimental UHV set-up for EWF measurements. Both Fowler method of isothermal curves and linearized Fowler plots were used for the measurement of the EWF by the photoelectric effect. It has been found that the EWF varies with the number of applied arcs. Thus, after 500 arcs in air, the observed EWF increasing is probably due to progressive inclusion of oxide on alloy surface. Microscopic examination is necessary to get better understandings on EWF of silver alloys, for both virgin and arced electrical contacts.

Keywords: Ag-Ni contact materials, arcing effects, electron work function, Fowler methods, photoemission.

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2878 Numerical Simulation of Lightning Strike Direct Effects on Aircraft Skin Composite Laminate

Authors: Muhammad Khalil, Nader Abuelfoutouh, Gasser Abdelal, Adrian Murphy

Abstract:

Nowadays, the direct effects of lightning to aircrafts are of great importance because of the massive use of composite materials. In comparison with metallic materials, composites present several weaknesses for lightning strike direct effects. Especially, their low electrical and thermal conductivities lead to severe lightning strike damage. The lightning strike direct effects are burning, heating, magnetic force, sparking and arcing. As the problem is complex, we investigated it gradually. A magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is developed to simulate the lightning strikes in order to estimate the damages on the composite materials. Then, a coupled thermal-electrical finite element analysis is used to study the interaction between the lightning arc and the composite laminate and to investigate the material degradation.

Keywords: Composite structures, lightning multiphysics, magnetohydrodynamics, coupled thermal-electrical analysis, thermal plasmas.

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