Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Atif Zafar

27 Combination of Geological, Geophysical and Reservoir Engineering Analyses in Field Development: A Case Study

Authors: Atif Zafar, Fan Haijun

Abstract:

A sequence of different Reservoir Engineering methods and tools in reservoir characterization and field development are presented in this paper. The real data of Jin Gas Field of L-Basin of Pakistan is used. The basic concept behind this work is to enlighten the importance of well test analysis in a broader way (i.e. reservoir characterization and field development) unlike to just determine the permeability and skin parameters. Normally in the case of reservoir characterization we rely on well test analysis to some extent but for field development plan, the well test analysis has become a forgotten tool specifically for locations of new development wells. This paper describes the successful implementation of well test analysis in Jin Gas Field where the main uncertainties are identified during initial stage of field development when location of new development well was marked only on the basis of G&G (Geologic and Geophysical) data. The seismic interpretation could not encounter one of the boundary (fault, sub-seismic fault, heterogeneity) near the main and only producing well of Jin Gas Field whereas the results of the model from the well test analysis played a very crucial rule in order to propose the location of second well of the newly discovered field. The results from different methods of well test analysis of Jin Gas Field are also integrated with and supported by other tools of Reservoir Engineering i.e. Material Balance Method and Volumetric Method. In this way, a comprehensive way out and algorithm is obtained in order to integrate the well test analyses with Geological and Geophysical analyses for reservoir characterization and field development. On the strong basis of this working and algorithm, it was successfully evaluated that the proposed location of new development well was not justified and it must be somewhere else except South direction.

Keywords: Field development, reservoir characterization, reservoir engineering, well test analysis.

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26 Sidelobe Reduction in Cognitive Radio Systems Using Hybrid Technique

Authors: Atif Elahi, Ijaz Mansoor Qureshi, Mehreen Atif, Noor Gul

Abstract:

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is one of the best candidates for dynamic spectrum access due to its flexibility of spectrum shaping. However, the high sidelobes of the OFDM signal that result in high out-of-band radiation, introduce significant interference to the users operating in its vicinity. This problem becomes more critical in cognitive radio (CR) system that enables the secondary users (SUs) users to access the spectrum holes not used by the primary users (PUs) at that time. In this paper, we present a generalized OFDM framework that has a capability of describing any sidelobe suppression techniques, despite of whether one or a number of techniques are used. Based on that framework, we propose cancellation carrier (CC) technique in conjunction with the generalized sidelobe canceller (GSC) to reduce the out-of-band radiation in the region where the licensed users are operating. Simulation results show that the proposed technique can reduce the out-of-band radiation better when compared with the existing techniques found in the literature.

Keywords: Cognitive radio, cancellation carriers, generalized sidelobe canceller, out-of-band radiation, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing.

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25 PP-FSM: Peer to Peer File Share for Multimedia

Authors: Arsalan Ali Shah, Zafar I. Malik, Shaukat Ali

Abstract:

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is a self-organizing resource sharing network with no centralized authority or infrastructure, which makes it unpredictable and vulnerable. In this paper, we propose architecture to make the peer-to-peer network more centralized, predictable, and safer to use by implementing trust and stopping free riding.

Keywords: File Share, Free Riding, Peer-to-Peer, Trust.

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24 AGHAZ : An Expert System Based approach for the Translation of English to Urdu

Authors: Uzair Muhammad, Kashif Bilal, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation (MT 3) of English text to its Urdu equivalent is a difficult challenge. Lot of attempts has been made, but a few limited solutions are provided till now. We present a direct approach, using an expert system to translate English text into its equivalent Urdu, using The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0 (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) Range: 0600–06FF. The expert system works with a knowledge base that contains grammatical patterns of English and Urdu, as well as a tense and gender-aware dictionary of Urdu words (with their English equivalents).

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS12 Tagging for Urdu, Expert Systems.

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23 UTHM Hand: Mechanics Behind The Dexterous Anthropomorphic Hand

Authors: Amran Mohd Zaid, M. Atif Yaqub, Mohd Rizal Arshad, Md Saidin Wahab

Abstract:

A multi fingered dexterous anthropomorphic hand is being developed by the authors. The focus of the hand is the replacement of human operators in hazardous environments and also in environments where zero tolerance is observed for the human errors. The robotic hand will comprise of five fingers (four fingers and one thumb) each having four degrees of freedom (DOF) which can perform flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and also circumduction. For the actuation purpose pneumatic muscles and springs will be used. The paper exemplifies the mechanical design for the robotic hand. It also describes different mechanical designs that have been developed before date.

Keywords: Robotic hand, Multi-fingered hand, dextrous hand, anthropomorphic hand, pneumatic muscles.

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22 Extracting Multiword Expressions in Machine Translation from English to Urdu using Relational Data Approach

Authors: Kashif Bilal, Uzair Muhammad, Atif Khan, M. Nasir Khan

Abstract:

Machine Translation, (hereafter in this document referred to as the "MT") faces a lot of complex problems from its origination. Extracting multiword expressions is also one of the complex problems in MT. Finding multiword expressions during translating a sentence from English into Urdu, through existing solutions, takes a lot of time and occupies system resources. We have designed a simple relational data approach, in which we simply set a bit in dictionary (database) for multiword, to find and handle multiword expression. This approach handles multiword efficiently.

Keywords: Machine Translation, Multiword Expressions, Urdulanguage processing, POS (stands for Parts of Speech) Tagging forUrdu, Expert Systems.

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21 A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model

Authors: Hina Gull, Farooque Azam, Wasi Haider Butt, Sardar Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

The software system goes through a number of stages during its life and a software process model gives a standard format for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a new software development process model named as “Divide and Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.

Keywords: Process Model, Waterfall, divide and conquer, Requirements.

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20 Software Architectural Design Ontology

Authors: Muhammad Irfan Marwat, Sadaqat Jan, Syed Zafar Ali Shah

Abstract:

Software Architecture plays a key role in software development but absence of formal description of Software Architecture causes different impede in software development. To cope with these difficulties, ontology has been used as artifact. This paper proposes ontology for Software Architectural design based on IEEE model for architecture description and Kruchten 4+1 model for viewpoints classification. For categorization of style and views, ISO/IEC 42010 has been used. Corpus method has been used to evaluate ontology. The main aim of the proposed ontology is to classify and locate Software Architectural design information.

Keywords: Software Architecture Ontology, Semantic based Software Architecture, Software Architecture, Ontology, Software Engineering.

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19 Context-Aware Querying in Multimedia Databases – A Futuristic Approach

Authors: Nadeem Iftikhar, Zouhaib Zafar, Shaukat Ali

Abstract:

Efficient retrieval of multimedia objects has gained enormous focus in recent years. A number of techniques have been suggested for retrieval of textual information; however, relatively little has been suggested for efficient retrieval of multimedia objects. In this paper we have proposed a generic architecture for contextaware retrieval of multimedia objects. The proposed framework combines the well-known approaches of text-based retrieval and context-aware retrieval to formulate architecture for accurate retrieval of multimedia data.

Keywords: Context-aware retrieval, information retrieval, multimedia databases, multimedia data.

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18 PEIBM- Perceiving Emotions using an Intelligent Behavioral Model

Authors: Maryam Humayun, Zafar I. Malik, Shaukat Ali

Abstract:

Computer animation is a widely adopted technique used to specify the movement of various objects on screen. The key issue of this technique is the specification of motion. Motion Control Methods are such methods which are used to specify the actions of objects. This paper discusses the various types of motion control methods with special focus on behavioral animation. A behavioral model is also proposed which takes into account the emotions and perceptions of an actor which in turn generate its behavior. This model makes use of an expert system to generate tasks for the actors which specify the actions to be performed in the virtual environment.

Keywords: Behavioral animation, emotion, expert system, perception.

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17 A Pilot Study for the Optimization of Routes for Waste Collection Vehicles for the Göçmenköy District of Lefkoşa

Authors: Nergiz Fırıncı, Aysun Çelik, Ertan Akün, Md. Atif Khan

Abstract:

A pilot project was carried out in 2007 by the senior students of Cyprus International University, aiming to minimize the total cost of waste collection in Northern Cyprus. Many developed and developing countries have cut their transportation costs – which lies between 30-40% – down at a rate of 40% percent, by implementing network models for their route assignments. Accordingly, a network model was implemented at Göçmenköy district, to optimize and standardize waste collection works. The work environment of the employees were also redesigned to provide maximum ergonomy and to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. Following the collection of the required data including waste densities, lengths of roads and population, a model was constructed to allocate the optimal route assignment for the waste collection trucks at Göçmenköy district.

Keywords: Minimization, waste collection, operations cost, transportation, ergonomy, productivity.

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16 A Frame Work for Query Results Refinement in Multimedia Databases

Authors: Humaira Liaquat, Nadeem Iftikhar, Shaukat Ali, Zohaib Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

In the current age, retrieval of relevant information from massive amount of data is a challenging job. Over the years, precise and relevant retrieval of information has attained high significance. There is a growing need in the market to build systems, which can retrieve multimedia information that precisely meets the user's current needs. In this paper, we have introduced a framework for refining query results before showing it to the user, using ambient intelligence, user profile, group profile, user location, time, day, user device type and extracted features. A prototypic tool was also developed to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Context aware retrieval, Information retrieval, Ambient Intelligence, Multimedia databases, User and group profile.

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15 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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14 Investigation of Time Delay Factors in Global Software Development

Authors: Khalid Khan, Atique Ahmad Zafar, Mohammed A. Alnuem, Hashim Khan

Abstract:

Global Software Development (GSD) projects are passing through different boundaries of a company, country and even in other continents where time zone differs between both sites. Beside many benefits of such development, research declared plenty of negative impacts on these GSD projects. It is important to understand problems which may lie during the execution of GSD project with different time zones. This research project discussed and provided different issues related to time delays in GSD projects. In this paper, authors investigated some of the time delay factors which usually lie in GSD projects with different time zones. This investigation is done through systematic review of literature. Furthermore, the practices to overcome these delay factors which have already been reported in literature and GSD organizations are also explored through literature survey and case studies.

Keywords: Case Studies, Global Software Development, Global Software Engineering, Temporal Difference, Time Delay

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13 A Systematic Mapping Study on Software Engineering Education

Authors: Bushra Malik, Saad Zafar

Abstract:

Inadequate curriculum for software engineering is considered to be one of the most common software risks. A number of solutions, on improving Software Engineering Education (SEE) have been reported in literature but there is a need to collectively present these solutions at one place. We have performed a mapping study to present a broad view of literature; published on improving the current state of SEE. Our aim is to give academicians, practitioners and researchers an international view of the current state of SEE. Our study has identified 70 primary studies that met our selection criteria, which we further classified and categorized in a well-defined Software Engineering educational framework. We found that the most researched category within the SE educational framework is Innovative Teaching Methods whereas the least amount of research was found in Student Learning and Assessment category. Our future work is to conduct a Systematic Literature Review on SEE.

Keywords: Mapping Study, Software Engineering, Software Engineering Education, Literature Survey.

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12 Construction of Intersection of Nondeterministic Finite Automata using Z Notation

Authors: Nazir Ahmad Zafar, Nabeel Sabir, Amir Ali

Abstract:

Functionalities and control behavior are both primary requirements in design of a complex system. Automata theory plays an important role in modeling behavior of a system. Z is an ideal notation which is used for describing state space of a system and then defining operations over it. Consequently, an integration of automata and Z will be an effective tool for increasing modeling power for a complex system. Further, nondeterministic finite automata (NFA) may have different implementations and therefore it is needed to verify the transformation from diagrams to a code. If we describe formal specification of an NFA before implementing it, then confidence over transformation can be increased. In this paper, we have given a procedure for integrating NFA and Z. Complement of a special type of NFA is defined. Then union of two NFAs is formalized after defining their complements. Finally, formal construction of intersection of NFAs is described. The specification of this relationship is analyzed and validated using Z/EVES tool.

Keywords: Modeling, Nondeterministic finite automata, Znotation, Integration of approaches, Validation.

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11 Effect of Increasing Road Light Luminance on Night Driving Performance of Older Adults

Authors: Said M. Easa, Maureen J. Reed, Frank Russo, Essam Dabbour, Atif Mehmood, Kathryn Curtis

Abstract:

The main objective of this study was to determine if a minimal increase in road light level (luminance) could lead to improved driving performance among older adults. Older, middleaged and younger adults were tested in a driving simulator following vision and cognitive screening. Comparisons were made for the performance of simulated night driving under two road light conditions (0.6 and 2.5 cd/m2). At each light level, the effects of self reported night driving avoidance were examined along with the vision/cognitive performance. It was found that increasing road light level from 0.6 cd/m2 to 2.5 cd/m2 resulted in improved recognition of signage on straight highway segments. The improvement depends on different driver-related factors such as vision and cognitive abilities, and confidence. On curved road sections, the results showed that driver-s performance worsened. It is concluded that while increasing road lighting may be helpful to older adults especially for sign recognition, it may also result in increased driving confidence and thus reduced attention in some driving situations.

Keywords: Driving, older adults, night-time, road lighting, attention, simulation, curves, signs.

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10 Improved Zero Text Watermarking Algorithm against Meaning Preserving Attacks

Authors: Jalil Z., Farooq M., Zafar H., Sabir M., Ashraf E.

Abstract:

Internet is largely composed of textual contents and a huge volume of digital contents gets floated over the Internet daily. The ease of information sharing and re-production has made it difficult to preserve author-s copyright. Digital watermarking came up as a solution for copyright protection of plain text problem after 1993. In this paper, we propose a zero text watermarking algorithm based on occurrence frequency of non-vowel ASCII characters and words for copyright protection of plain text. The embedding algorithm makes use of frequency non-vowel ASCII characters and words to generate a specialized author key. The extraction algorithm uses this key to extract watermark, hence identify the original copyright owner. Experimental results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm on text encountering meaning preserving attacks performed by five independent attackers.

Keywords: Copyright protection, Digital watermarking, Document authentication, Information security, Watermark.

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9 A SWOT Analysis on Institutional Environments of University of the Punjab

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Abid Hussain Ch., Atif Khalil, Misbah Malik

Abstract:

The major purpose of the study was to identify the institutional environments’ strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of University of the Punjab, Lahore. The target population of the study was teachers of University of the Punjab Lahore. The sample of 235 teachers (155 males, 80 females) were selected through multistage stratified sampling technique. A questionnaire regarding the institutional environments of University SWOT Analysis “Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” was used to collect the required data for this study. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part comprised of the demographic information (faculty, department, gender, teacher rank), while the second part included the statements regarding SWOT analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats). Reliability index (Cronbach’s Alpha) of the questionnaire was 0.87, which is statistically acceptable. Analysis of the data indicated that there was significant difference in the opinion of respondents. Teachers of Islamic studies and Laws had difference in their opinions regarding the institutional environment strengths, and opportunities and it was supported by the findings of the study. There was significant difference in opinions of male and female teachers regarding strengths and opportunities of university. And there was no significant difference in opinions of male and female teachers regarding weaknesses and threats of university.

Keywords: Institutional environments, SWOT analysis, teachers, University of the Punjab.

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8 On-line Handwritten Character Recognition: An Implementation of Counterpropagation Neural Net

Authors: Muhammad Faisal Zafar, Dzulkifli Mohamad, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

On-line handwritten scripts are usually dealt with pen tip traces from pen-down to pen-up positions. Time evaluation of the pen coordinates is also considered along with trajectory information. However, the data obtained needs a lot of preprocessing including filtering, smoothing, slant removing and size normalization before recognition process. Instead of doing such lengthy preprocessing, this paper presents a simple approach to extract the useful character information. This work evaluates the use of the counter- propagation neural network (CPN) and presents feature extraction mechanism in full detail to work with on-line handwriting recognition. The obtained recognition rates were 60% to 94% using the CPN for different sets of character samples. This paper also describes a performance study in which a recognition mechanism with multiple thresholds is evaluated for counter-propagation architecture. The results indicate that the application of multiple thresholds has significant effect on recognition mechanism. The method is applicable for off-line character recognition as well. The technique is tested for upper-case English alphabets for a number of different styles from different peoples.

Keywords: On-line character recognition, character digitization, counter-propagation neural networks, extreme coordinates.

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7 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif

Abstract:

Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: BMI, cardiovascular disease, fast food, morbidity and overweight.

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6 Modeling Reaction Time in Car-Following Behaviour Based on Human Factors

Authors: Atif Mehmood, Said M. Easa

Abstract:

This paper develops driver reaction-time models for car-following analysis based on human factors. The reaction time was classified as brake-reaction time (BRT) and acceleration/deceleration reaction time (ADRT). The BRT occurs when the lead vehicle is barking and its brake light is on, while the ADRT occurs when the driver reacts to adjust his/her speed using the gas pedal only. The study evaluates the effect of driver characteristics and traffic kinematic conditions on the driver reaction time in a car-following environment. The kinematic conditions introduced urgency and expectancy based on the braking behaviour of the lead vehicle at different speeds and spacing. The kinematic conditions were used for evaluating the BRT and are classified as normal, surprised, and stationary. Data were collected on a driving simulator integrated into a real car and included the BRT and ADRT (as dependent variables) and driver-s age, gender, driving experience, driving intensity (driving hours per week), vehicle speed, and spacing (as independent variables). The results showed that there was a significant difference in the BRT at normal, surprised, and stationary scenarios and supported the hypothesis that both urgency and expectancy had significant effects on BRT. Driver-s age, gender, speed, and spacing were found to be significant variables for the BRT in all scenarios. The results also showed that driver-s age and gender were significant variables for the ADRT. The research presented in this paper is part of a larger project to develop a driversensitive in-vehicle rear-end collision warning system.

Keywords: Brake reaction time, car-following, human factors, modeling.

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5 Temperature Variation Effects on I-V Characteristics of Cu-Phthalocyanine based OFET

Authors: Q. Zafar, R. Akram, Kh.S. Karimov, T.A. Khan, M. Farooq, M.M. Tahir

Abstract:

In this study we present the effect of elevated temperatures from 300K to 400K on the electrical properties of copper Phthalocyanine (CuPc) based organic field effect transistors (OFET). Thin films of organic semiconductor CuPc (40nm) and semitransparent Al (20nm) were deposited in sequence, by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with previously deposited Ag source and drain electrodes with a gap of 40 μm. Under resistive mode of operation, where gate was suspended it was observed that drain current of this organic field effect transistor (OFET) show an increase with temperature. While in grounded gate condition metal (aluminum) – semiconductor (Copper Phthalocyanine) Schottky junction dominated the output characteristics and device showed switching effect from low to high conduction states like Zener diode at higher bias voltages. This threshold voltage for switching effect has been found to be inversely proportional to temperature and shows an abrupt decrease after knee temperature of 360K. Change in dynamic resistance (Rd = dV/dI) with respect to temperature was observed to be -1%/K.

Keywords: Copper Phthalocyanine, Metal-Semiconductor Schottky Junction, Organic Field Effect Transistor, Switching effect, Temperature Sensor

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4 Technology Based Learning Environment and Student Achievement in English as a Foreign Language in Pakistan

Authors: M. Athar Hussain, M. Zafar Iqbal., M. Saeed Akhtar

Abstract:

The fast growing accessibility and capability of emerging technologies have fashioned enormous possibilities of designing, developing and implementing innovative teaching methods in the classroom. The global technological scenario has paved the way to new pedagogies in teaching-learning process focusing on technology based learning environment and its impact on student achievement. The present experimental study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of technology based learning environment on student achievement in English as a foreign language. The sample of the study was 90 students of 10th grade of a public school located in Islamabad. A pretest- posttest equivalent group design was used to compare the achievement of the two groups. A Pretest and A posttest containing 50 items each from English textbook were developed and administered. The collected data were statistically analyzed. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the mean scores of Experimental group and the Control group. The performance of Experimental group was better on posttest scores that indicted that teaching through technology based learning environment enhanced the achievement level of the students. On the basis of the results, it was recommended that teaching and learning through information and communication technologies may be adopted to enhance the language learning capability of the students.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language, Student Achievement, Technology Based Learning

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3 Exploring Perceptions and Practices About Information and Communication Technologies in Business English Teaching in Pakistan

Authors: M. Athar Hussain, N.B. Jumani, Munazza Sultana., M. Zafar Iqbal

Abstract:

Language Reforms and potential use of ICTs has been a focal area of Higher Education Commission of Pakistan. Efforts are being accelerated to incorporate fast expanding ICTs to bring qualitative improvement in language instruction in higher education. This paper explores how university teachers are benefitting from ICTs to make their English class effective and what type of problems they face in practicing ICTs during their lectures. An in-depth qualitative study was employed to understand why language teachers tend to use ICTs in their instruction and how they are practicing it. A sample of twenty teachers from five universities located in Islamabad, three from public sector and two from private sector, was selected on non-random (Snowball) sampling basis. An interview with 15 semi-structured items was used as research instruments to collect data. The findings reveal that business English teaching is facilitated and improved through the use of ICTs. The language teachers need special training regarding the practices and implementation of ICTs. It is recommended that initiatives might be taken to equip university language teachers with modern methodology incorporating ICTs as focal area and efforts might be made to remove barriers regarding the training of language teachers and proper usage of ICTs.

Keywords: Information and communication technologies, internet assisted learning, teaching business English, online instructional content.

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2 Three Computational Mathematics Techniques: Comparative Determination of Area under Curve

Authors: Khalid Pervaiz Akhter, Mahmood Ahmad, Ghulam Murtaza, Ishrat Shafi, Zafar Javed

Abstract:

The objective of this manuscript is to find area under the plasma concentration- time curve (AUC) for multiple doses of salbutamol sulphate sustained release tablets (Ventolin® oral tablets SR 8 mg, GSK, Pakistan) in the group of 18 healthy adults by using computational mathematics techniques. Following the administration of 4 doses of Ventolin® tablets 12 hourly to 24 healthy human subjects and bioanalysis of obtained plasma samples, plasma drug concentration-time profile was constructed. AUC, an important pharmacokinetic parameter, was measured using integrated equation of multiple oral dose regimens. The approximated AUC was also calculated by using computational mathematics techniques such as repeated rectangular, repeated trapezium and repeated Simpson's rule and compared with exact value of AUC calculated by using integrated equation of multiple oral dose regimens to find best computational mathematics method that gives AUC values closest to exact. The exact values of AUC for four consecutive doses of Ventolin® oral tablets were 150.5819473, 157.8131756, 164.4178231 and 162.78 ng.h/ml while the closest values approximated AUC values were 149.245962, 157.336171, 164.2585768 and 162.289224 ng.h/ml, respectively as found by repeated rectangular rule. The errors in the approximated values of AUC were negligible. It is concluded that all computational tools approximated values of AUC accurately but the repeated rectangular rule gives slightly better approximated values of AUC as compared to repeated trapezium and repeated Simpson's rules.

Keywords: Salbutamol sulphate, Area under curve (AUC), repeated rectangular rule, repeated trapezium rule, repeated Simpson's rule.

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1 Energy Harvesting and Storage System for Marine Applications

Authors: Sayem Zafar, Mahmood Rahi

Abstract:

Rigorous international maritime regulations are in place to limit boat and ship hydrocarbon emissions. The global sustainability goals are reducing the fuel consumption and minimizing the emissions from the ships and boats. These maritime sustainability goals have attracted a lot of research interest. Energy harvesting and storage system is designed in this study based on hybrid renewable and conventional energy systems. This energy harvesting and storage system is designed for marine applications, such as, boats and small ships. These systems can be utilized for mobile use or off-grid remote electrification. This study analyzed the use of micro power generation for boats and small ships. The energy harvesting and storage system has two distinct systems i.e. dockside shore-based system and on-board system. The shore-based system consists of a small wind turbine, photovoltaic (PV) panels, small gas turbine, hydrogen generator and high-pressure hydrogen storage tank. This dockside system is to provide easy access to the boats and small ships for supply of hydrogen. The on-board system consists of hydrogen storage tanks and fuel cells. The wind turbine and PV panels generate electricity to operate electrolyzer. A small gas turbine is used as a supplementary power system to contribute in case the hybrid renewable energy system does not provide the required energy. The electrolyzer performs the electrolysis on distilled water to produce hydrogen. The hydrogen is stored in high-pressure tanks. The hydrogen from the high-pressure tank is filled in the low-pressure tanks on-board seagoing vessels to operate the fuel cell. The boats and small ships use the hydrogen fuel cell to provide power to electric propulsion motors and for on-board auxiliary use. For shore-based system, a small wind turbine with the total length of 4.5 m and the disk diameter of 1.8 m is used. The small wind turbine dimensions make it big enough to be used to charge batteries yet small enough to be installed on the rooftops of dockside facility. The small dimensions also make the wind turbine easily transportable. In this paper, PV, sizing and solar flux are studied parametrically. System performance is evaluated under different operating and environmental conditions. The parametric study is conducted to evaluate the energy output and storage capacity of energy storage system. Results are generated for a wide range of conditions to analyze the usability of hybrid energy harvesting and storage system. This energy harvesting method significantly improves the usability and output of the renewable energy sources. It also shows that small hybrid energy systems have promising practical applications.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, fuel cell, hybrid energy system, hydrogen, wind turbine.

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