Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Search results for: Packet loss

47 Analysis of Cooperative Hybrid ARQ with Adaptive Modulation and Coding on a Correlated Fading Channel Environment

Authors: Ibrahim Ozkan

Abstract:

In this study, a cross-layer design which combines adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) and hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) techniques for a cooperative wireless network is investigated analytically. Previous analyses of such systems in the literature are confined to the case where the fading channel is independent at each retransmission, which can be unrealistic unless the channel is varying very fast. On the other hand, temporal channel correlation can have a significant impact on the performance of HARQ systems. In this study, utilizing a Markov channel model which accounts for the temporal correlation, the performance of non-cooperative and cooperative networks are investigated in terms of packet loss rate and throughput metrics for Chase combining HARQ strategy.

Keywords: cooperative network, hybrid ARQ, correlated fading, adaptive modulation and coding

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 61
46 A Survey on MAC Protocols for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: B. Cynthia Sherin, E. A. Mary Anita

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad-hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging and very promising technology that has great demand on the access capability of the existing wireless technology. VANETs help improve traffic safety and efficiency. Each vehicle can exchange their information to inform the other vehicles about the current status of the traffic flow or a dangerous situation such as an accident. To achieve these, a reliable and efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol with minimal transmission collisions is required. High speed nodes, absence of infrastructure, variations in topology and their QoS requirements makes it difficult for designing a MAC protocol in vehicular networks. There are several MAC protocols proposed for VANETs to ensure that all the vehicles could send safety messages without collisions by reducing the end-to-end delay and packet loss ratio. This paper gives an overview of the several proposed MAC protocols for VANETs along with their benefits and limitations and presents an overall classification based on their characteristics.

Keywords: QoS, VANET, V2V, V2I, MAC Protocols

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 441
45 Video-On-Demand QoE Evaluation across Different Age-Groups and Its Significance for Network Capacity

Authors: Mujtaba Roshan, John A. Schormans

Abstract:

Quality of Experience (QoE) drives churn in the broadband networks industry, and good QoE plays a large part in the retention of customers. QoE is known to be affected by the Quality of Service (QoS) factors packet loss probability (PLP), delay and delay jitter caused by the network. Earlier results have shown that the relationship between these QoS factors and QoE is non-linear, and may vary from application to application. We use the network emulator Netem as the basis for experimentation, and evaluate how QoE varies as we change the emulated QoS metrics. Focusing on Video-on-Demand, we discovered that the reported QoE may differ widely for users of different age groups, and that the most demanding age group (the youngest) can require an order of magnitude lower PLP to achieve the same QoE than is required by the most widely studied age group of users. We then used a bottleneck TCP model to evaluate the capacity cost of achieving an order of magnitude decrease in PLP, and found it be (almost always) a 3-fold increase in link capacity that was required.

Keywords: quality of service, Network Capacity, Quality of Experience, packet loss probability

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 495
44 Network Coding with Buffer Scheme in Multicast for Broadband Wireless Network

Authors: Gunasekaran Raja, Ramkumar Jayaraman, Rajakumar Arul, Kottilingam Kottursamy

Abstract:

Broadband Wireless Network (BWN) is the promising technology nowadays due to the increased number of smartphones. Buffering scheme using network coding considers the reliability and proper degree distribution in Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) multi-hop network. Using network coding, a secure way of transmission is performed which helps in improving throughput and reduces the packet loss in the multicast network. At the outset, improved network coding is proposed in multicast wireless mesh network. Considering the problem of performance overhead, degree distribution makes a decision while performing buffer in the encoding / decoding process. Consequently, BuS (Buffer Scheme) based on network coding is proposed in the multi-hop network. Here the encoding process introduces buffer for temporary storage to transmit packets with proper degree distribution. The simulation results depend on the number of packets received in the encoding/decoding with proper degree distribution using buffering scheme.

Keywords: Network Coding, multicast, buffer, degree distribution, encoding and decoding, broadband wireless networks

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1173
43 An Energy Aware Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Network Using Connected Dominant Set

Authors: M. Santhalakshmi, P Suganthi

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have many advantages. Their deployment is easier and faster than wired sensor networks or other wireless networks, as they do not need fixed infrastructure. Nodes are partitioned into many small groups named clusters to aggregate data through network organization. WSN clustering guarantees performance achievement of sensor nodes. Sensor nodes energy consumption is reduced by eliminating redundant energy use and balancing energy sensor nodes use over a network. The aim of such clustering protocols is to prolong network life. Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a popular protocol in WSN. LEACH is a clustering protocol in which the random rotations of local cluster heads are utilized in order to distribute energy load among all sensor nodes in the network. This paper proposes Connected Dominant Set (CDS) based cluster formation. CDS aggregates data in a promising approach for reducing routing overhead since messages are transmitted only within virtual backbone by means of CDS and also data aggregating lowers the ratio of responding hosts to the hosts existing in virtual backbones. CDS tries to increase networks lifetime considering such parameters as sensors lifetime, remaining and consumption energies in order to have an almost optimal data aggregation within networks. Experimental results proved CDS outperformed LEACH regarding number of cluster formations, average packet loss rate, average end to end delay, life computation, and remaining energy computation.

Keywords: Clustering, Wireless Sensor Network, data aggregation, connected dominant set

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 682
42 Survey on Handover Security Issues in WiMAX Networks

Authors: R. Chithra, B. Kalaavathi, K. S. Aruna Shivani

Abstract:

Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a broadband technology, which can effectively transmit a data across a group of users using Multicast and Broadcast Service. WiMAX belongs to a family of (IEEE 802.16) standards and is evolving as a fourth generation technology. WiMAX is the next generation technology that offers wireless access over long distances. MBS zone, which is a group of base stations that are broadcasting the same multicast packets which defines Multicast and Broadcast services. Handover is a process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another channel. The handover causes authentication, delay, packet loss, jitter that mainly affects the communication. In this paper, we present a survey on handover security issues in WiMAX.

Keywords: WiMAX, handover, Multicast and Broadcast Security

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1022
41 Message Framework for Disaster Management: An Application Model for Mines

Authors: A. Baloğlu, A. Çınar

Abstract:

Different tools and technologies were implemented for Crisis Response and Management (CRM) which is generally using available network infrastructure for information exchange. Depending on type of disaster or crisis, network infrastructure could be affected and it could not be able to provide reliable connectivity. Thus any tool or technology that depends on the connectivity could not be able to fulfill its functionalities. As a solution, a new message exchange framework has been developed. Framework provides offline/online information exchange platform for CRM Information Systems (CRMIS) and it uses XML compression and packet prioritization algorithms and is based on open source web technologies. By introducing offline capabilities to the web technologies, framework will be able to perform message exchange on unreliable networks. The experiments done on the simulation environment provide promising results on low bandwidth networks (56kbps and 28.8 kbps) with up to 50% packet loss and the solution is to successfully transfer all the information on these low quality networks where the traditional 2 and 3 tier applications failed.

Keywords: Web services, Mining, crisis response and management, XML messaging, XML compression

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1534
40 On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition

Authors: Gamze Uslu, Sebnem Baydere, Alper K. Demir

Abstract:

In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces  high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.

Keywords: Support Vector Machines, Wireless Sensor Networks, Activity Recognition, acceleration sensor, packet loss

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2204
39 Modeling and Control Design of a Centralized Adaptive Cruise Control System

Authors: Markus Mazzola, Gunther Schaaf

Abstract:

A vehicle driving with an Adaptive Cruise Control System (ACC) is usually controlled decentrally, based on the information of radar systems and in some publications based on C2X-Communication (CACC) to guarantee stable platoons. In this paper we present a Model Predictive Control (MPC) design of a centralized, server-based ACC-System, whereby the vehicular platoon is modeled and controlled as a whole. It is then proven that the proposed MPC design guarantees asymptotic stability and hence string stability of the platoon. The Networked MPC design is chosen to be able to integrate system constraints optimally as well as to reduce the effects of communication delay and packet loss. The performance of the proposed controller is then simulated and analyzed in an LTE communication scenario using the LTE/EPC Network Simulator LENA, which is based on the ns-3 network simulator.

Keywords: Adaptive Cruise Control, centralized server, string stability, Networked Model Predictive Control

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2439
38 Significant Role Analysis of Transmission Control Protocols in 4G Cellular Systems

Authors: Ghassan A. Abed, Bayan M. Sabbar

Abstract:

The society of 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is completed developing Long Term Evolution Advanced (LTE-Advanced) systems as a standard 4G cellular system. This generation goals to produce conditions for a new radio-access technology geared to higher data rates, low latency, and better spectral efficiency. LTE-Advanced is an evolutionary step in the continuing development of LTE where the description in this article is based on LTE release 10. This paper provides a model of the traffic links of 4G system represented by LTE-Advanced system with the effect of the Transmission Control Protocols (TCP) and Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) in term of throughput and packet loss. Furthermore, the article presents the investigation and the analysis the behavior of SCTP and TCP variants over the 4G cellular systems. The traffic model and the scenario of the simulation developed using the network simulator NS-2 using different TCP source variants.

Keywords: LTE, LTE-Advanced, ns-2, TCP, SCTP

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1592
37 Comparative Study of Scheduling Algorithms for LTE Networks

Authors: Samia Dardouri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Scheduling is the process of dynamically allocating physical resources to User Equipment (UE) based on scheduling algorithms implemented at the LTE base station. Various algorithms have been proposed by network researchers as the implementation of scheduling algorithm which represents an open issue in Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard. This paper makes an attempt to study and compare the performance of PF, MLWDF and EXP/PF scheduling algorithms. The evaluation is considered for a single cell with interference scenario for different flows such as Best effort, Video and VoIP in a pedestrian and vehicular environment using the LTE-Sim network simulator. The comparative study is conducted in terms of system throughput, fairness index, delay, packet loss ratio (PLR) and total cell spectral efficiency.

Keywords: LTE, multimedia flows, scheduling algorithms

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4376
36 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet

Abstract:

An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.

Keywords: delay, WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delivery ratio

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1932
35 Performance Analysis of a WiMax/Wi-Fi System Whilst Streaming a Video Conference Application

Authors: Patrice Obinna Umenne, Marcel O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

WiMAX and Wi-Fi are considered as the promising broadband access solutions for wireless MAN’s and LANs, respectively. In the recent works WiMAX is considered suitable as a backhaul service to connect multiple dispersed Wi-Fi ‘hotspots’. Hence a new integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi architecture has been proposed in literatures. In this paper the performance of an integrated WiMAX/Wi-Fi network has been investigated by streaming a video conference application. The difference in performance between the two protocols is compared with respect to video conferencing. The Heterogeneous network was simulated in the OPNET simulator.

Keywords: throughput, delay, packet loss, quality of service (QOS), delay variance

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2296
34 A Generator from Cascade Markov Model for Packet Loss and Subsequent Bit Error Description

Authors: Jaroslav Polec, Viliam Hirner, Michal Martinovič, Kvetoslava Kotuliaková

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel error model for packet loss and subsequent error description. The proposed model simulates the error performance of wireless communication link. The model is designed as two independent Markov chains, where the first one is used for packet generation and the second one generates correctly and incorrectly transmitted bits for received packets from the first chain. The statistical analyses of real communication on the wireless link are used for determination of model-s parameters. Using the obtained parameters and the implementation of the generator, we collected generated traffic. The obtained results generated by proposed model are compared with the real data collection.

Keywords: generator, Wireless Channel, Markov Chain, IEEE 802.11, error model, Elliot model, Gilbert model

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1585
33 Computationally Efficient Signal Quality Improvement Method for VoIP System

Authors: H. P. Singh, S. Singh

Abstract:

The voice signal in Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP) system is processed through the best effort policy based IP network, which leads to the network degradations including delay, packet loss jitter. The work in this paper presents the implementation of finite impulse response (FIR) filter for voice quality improvement in the VoIP system through distributed arithmetic (DA) algorithm. The VoIP simulations are conducted with AMR-NB 6.70 kbps and G.729a speech coders at different packet loss rates and the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using the perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show reduction in the computational complexity in the system and significant improvement in the quality of the VoIP voice signal.

Keywords: voip, packet loss, distributed arithmetic, Signal Quality, Speech Coder

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1453
32 Establish a Methodology for Testing and Optimizing GPRS Performance Case Study: Libya GSM

Authors: Mohamed Aburkhiss, Ibrahim Aref

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to establish a methodology for testing and optimizing GPRS performance over Libya GSM network as well as to propose a suitable optimization technique to improve performance. Some measurements of download, upload, throughput, round-trip time, reliability, handover, security enhancement and packet loss over a GPRS access network were carried out. Measured values are compared to the theoretical values that could be calculated beforehand. This data should be processed and delivered by the server across the wireless network to the client. The client on the fly takes those pieces of the data and process immediately. Also, we illustrate the results by describing the main parameters that affect the quality of service. Finally, Libya-s two mobile operators, Libyana Mobile Phone and Al-Madar al- Jadeed Company are selected as a case study to validate our methodology.

Keywords: Optimization, Performance, GPRS, GSM

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1868
31 Loop-free Local Path Repair Strategy for Directed Diffusion

Authors: Basma M. Mohammad El-Basioni, Sherine M. Abd El-kader, Hussein S. Eissa

Abstract:

This paper proposes an implementation for the directed diffusion paradigm aids in studying this paradigm-s operations and evaluates its behavior according to this implementation. The directed diffusion is evaluated with respect to the loss percentage, lifetime, end-to-end delay, and throughput. From these evaluations some suggestions and modifications are proposed to improve the directed diffusion behavior according to this implementation with respect to these metrics. The proposed modifications reflect the effect of local path repair by introducing a technique called Loop-free Local Path Repair (LLPR) which improves the directed diffusion behavior especially with respect to packet loss percentage by about 92.69%. Also LLPR improves the throughput and end-to-end delay by about 55.31% and 14.06% respectively, while the lifetime decreases by about 29.79%.

Keywords: Energy-Efficiency, wireless sensor network, Attribute-value based naming scheme, data gathering, data-centric routing, locality

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1062
30 Topology Influence on TCP Congestion Control Performance in Multi-hop Ad Hoc Wireless

Authors: Haniza N., Md Khambari, M. N, Shahrin S., Adib M.Monzer Habbal, Suhaidi Hassan

Abstract:

Wireless ad hoc nodes are freely and dynamically self-organize in communicating with others. Each node can act as host or router. However it actually depends on the capability of nodes in terms of its current power level, signal strength, number of hops, routing protocol, interference and others. In this research, a study was conducted to observe the effect of hops count over different network topologies that contribute to TCP Congestion Control performance degradation. To achieve this objective, a simulation using NS-2 with different topologies have been evaluated. The comparative analysis has been discussed based on standard observation metrics: throughput, delay and packet loss ratio. As a result, there is a relationship between types of topology and hops counts towards the performance of ad hoc network. In future, the extension study will be carried out to investigate the effect of different error rate and background traffic over same topologies.

Keywords: Network Performance, Network topology, ns-2, multi-hops

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1201
29 Performance Evaluation of the OCDM/WDM Technique for Optical Packet Switches

Authors: V. Eramo, L. Piazzo, M. Listanti, A. Germoni, A Cianfrani

Abstract:

The performance of the Optical Code Division Multiplexing/ Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM/OCDM) technique for Optical Packet Switch is investigated. The impact on the performance of the impairment due to both Multiple Access Interference and Beat noise is studied. The Packet Loss Probability due to output packet contentions is evaluated as a function of the main switch and traffic parameters when Gold coherent optical codes are adopted. The Packet Loss Probability of the OCDM/WDM switch can reach 10-9 when M=16 wavelengths, Gold code of length L=511 and only 24 wavelength converters are used in the switch.

Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Optical code division multiplexing, bufferless optical packet switch

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1096
28 A Third Drop Level For TCP-RED Congestion Control Strategy

Authors: Nabhan Hamadneh, Michael Dixon, Peter Cole, David Murray

Abstract:

This work presents the Risk Threshold RED (RTRED) congestion control strategy for TCP networks. In addition to the maximum and minimum thresholds in existing RED-based strategies, we add a third dropping level. This new dropping level is the risk threshold which works with the actual and average queue sizes to detect the immediate congestion in gateways. Congestion reaction by RTRED is on time. The reaction to congestion is neither too early, to avoid unfair packet losses, nor too late to avoid packet dropping from time-outs. We compared our novel strategy with RED and ARED strategies for TCP congestion handling using a NS-2 simulation script. We found that the RTRED strategy outperformed RED and ARED.

Keywords: Congestion Control, TCP, RED, AQM

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1124
27 Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios

Authors: Omar F. Hamad, T. Marwala

Abstract:

With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.

Keywords: Overlay multicast, Available bandwidth, Max-heapform overlay, Induced packet loss, Bandwidth-latency product, Node Gain Score (NGS)

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1237
26 Characterization and Modeling of Packet Loss of a VoIP Communication

Authors: L. Estrada, D. Torres, H. Toral

Abstract:

In this work, a characterization and modeling of packet loss of a Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) communication is developed. The distributions of the number of consecutive received and lost packets (namely gap and burst) are modeled from the transition probabilities of two-state and four-state model. Measurements show that both models describe adequately the burst distribution, but the decay of gap distribution for non-homogeneous losses is better fit by the four-state model. The respective probabilities of transition between states for each model were estimated with a proposed algorithm from a set of monitored VoIP calls in order to obtain representative minimum, maximum and average values for both models.

Keywords: packet loss, gap and burst distribution, Markovchain, VoIP measurements

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1347
25 Modeling and Analysis of Adaptive Buffer Sharing Scheme for Consecutive Packet Loss Reduction in Broadband Networks

Authors: Sakshi Kausha, R.K Sharma

Abstract:

High speed networks provide realtime variable bit rate service with diversified traffic flow characteristics and quality requirements. The variable bit rate traffic has stringent delay and packet loss requirements. The burstiness of the correlated traffic makes dynamic buffer management highly desirable to satisfy the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. This paper presents an algorithm for optimization of adaptive buffer allocation scheme for traffic based on loss of consecutive packets in data-stream and buffer occupancy level. Buffer is designed to allow the input traffic to be partitioned into different priority classes and based on the input traffic behavior it controls the threshold dynamically. This algorithm allows input packets to enter into buffer if its occupancy level is less than the threshold value for priority of that packet. The threshold is dynamically varied in runtime based on packet loss behavior. The simulation is run for two priority classes of the input traffic – realtime and non-realtime classes. The simulation results show that Adaptive Partial Buffer Sharing (ADPBS) has better performance than Static Partial Buffer Sharing (SPBS) and First In First Out (FIFO) queue under the same traffic conditions.

Keywords: Quality-of-Service, Buffer Management, Consecutive packet loss, Priority based packet discarding, partial buffersharing

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1263
24 Signing the First Packet in Amortization Scheme for Multicast Stream Authentication

Authors: Mohammed Shatnawi, Qusai Abuein, Susumu Shibusawa

Abstract:

Signature amortization schemes have been introduced for authenticating multicast streams, in which, a single signature is amortized over several packets. The hash value of each packet is computed, some hash values are appended to other packets, forming what is known as hash chain. These schemes divide the stream into blocks, each block is a number of packets, the signature packet in these schemes is either the first or the last packet of the block. Amortization schemes are efficient solutions in terms of computation and communication overhead, specially in real-time environment. The main effictive factor of amortization schemes is it-s hash chain construction. Some studies show that signing the first packet of each block reduces the receiver-s delay and prevents DoS attacks, other studies show that signing the last packet reduces the sender-s delay. To our knowledge, there is no studies that show which is better, to sign the first or the last packet in terms of authentication probability and resistance to packet loss. In th is paper we will introduce another scheme for authenticating multicast streams that is robust against packet loss, reduces the overhead, and prevents the DoS attacks experienced by the receiver in the same time. Our scheme-The Multiple Connected Chain signing the First packet (MCF) is to append the hash values of specific packets to other packets,then append some hashes to the signature packet which is sent as the first packet in the block. This scheme is aspecially efficient in terms of receiver-s delay. We discuss and evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme against those that sign the last packet of the block.

Keywords: multicast stream authentication, hash chain construction, signature amortization, authentication probability

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1181
23 Seamless Multicast Handover in Fmipv6-Based Networks

Authors: Moneeb Gohar, Seok Joo Koh, Tae-Won Um, Hyun-Woo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes a fast tree join scheme to provide seamless multicast handover in the mobile networks based on the Fast Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6). In the existing FMIPv6-based multicast handover scheme, the bi-directional tunnelling or the remote subscription is employed with the packet forwarding from the previous access router (AR) to the new AR. In general, the remote subscription approach is preferred to the bi-directional tunnelling one, since in the remote subscription scheme we can exploit an optimized multicast path from a multicast source to many mobile receivers. However, in the remote subscription scheme, if the tree joining operation takes a long time, the amount of data packets to be forwarded and buffered for multicast handover will increase, and thus the corresponding buffer may overflow, which results in severe packet losses. In order to reduce these costs associated with packet forwarding and buffering, this paper proposes the fast join to multicast tree, in which the new AR will join the multicast tree as fast as possible, so that the new multicast data packets can also arrive at the new AR, by which the packet forwarding and buffering costs can be reduced. From numerical analysis, it is shown that the proposed scheme can give better performance than the existing FMIPv6-based multicast handover schemes in terms of the multicast packet delivery costs.

Keywords: Mobile Multicast, FMIPv6, Seamless Handover, Fast Tree Join

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1050
22 SMCC: Self-Managing Congestion Control Algorithm

Authors: Sh. Jamali, A. Eftekhari

Abstract:

Transmission control protocol (TCP) Vegas detects network congestion in the early stage and successfully prevents periodic packet loss that usually occurs in TCP Reno. It has been demonstrated that TCP Vegas outperforms TCP Reno in many aspects. However, TCP Vegas suffers several problems that affect its congestion avoidance mechanism. One of the most important weaknesses in TCP Vegas is that alpha and beta depend on a good expected throughput estimate, which as we have seen, depends on a good minimum RTT estimate. In order to make the system more robust alpha and beta must be made responsive to network conditions (they are currently chosen statically). This paper proposes a modified Vegas algorithm, which can be adjusted to present good performance compared to other transmission control protocols (TCPs). In order to do this, we use PSO algorithm to tune alpha and beta. The simulation results validate the advantages of the proposed algorithm in term of performance.

Keywords: Congestion Control, TCP, Self-managing

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1125
21 A Reliable Secure Multicast Key Distribution Scheme for Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: D. SuganyaDevi, G. Padmavathi

Abstract:

Reliable secure multicast communication in mobile adhoc networks is challenging due to its inherent characteristics of infrastructure-less architecture with lack of central authority, high packet loss rates and limited resources such as bandwidth, time and power. Many emerging commercial and military applications require secure multicast communication in adhoc environments. Hence key management is the fundamental challenge in achieving reliable secure communication using multicast key distribution for mobile adhoc networks. Thus in designing a reliable multicast key distribution scheme, reliability and congestion control over throughput are essential components. This paper proposes and evaluates the performance of an enhanced optimized multicast cluster tree algorithm with destination sequenced distance vector routing protocol to provide reliable multicast key distribution. Simulation results in NS2 accurately predict the performance of proposed scheme in terms of key delivery ratio and packet loss rate under varying network conditions. This proposed scheme achieves reliability, while exhibiting low packet loss rate with high key delivery ratio compared with the existing scheme.

Keywords: key distribution, mobile adhoc network, Multicast and Reliability

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1310
20 Trust Based Energy Aware Reliable Reactive Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: M. Pushpalatha, Revathi Venkataraman, T. Ramarao

Abstract:

Trust and Energy consumption is the most challenging issue in routing protocol design for Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), since mobile nodes are battery powered and nodes behaviour are unpredictable. Furthermore replacing and recharging batteries and making nodes co-operative is often impossible in critical environments like military applications. In this paper, we propose a trust based energy aware routing model in MANET. During route discovery, node with more trust and maximum energy capacity is selected as a router based on a parameter called 'Reliability'. Route request from the source is accepted by a node only if its reliability is high. Otherwise, the route request is discarded. This approach forms a reliable route from source to destination thus increasing network life time, improving energy utilization and decreasing number of packet loss during transmission.

Keywords: Energy, Reliability, Trust, Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, AODV, TEA-AODV

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2195
19 Delay and Packet Loss Analysis for Handovers between MANETs and NEMO Networks

Authors: Jirawat Thaenthong, Steven Gordon

Abstract:

MANEMO is the integration of Network Mobility (NEMO) and Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET). A MANEMO node has an interface to both a MANET and NEMO network, and therefore should choose the optimal interface for packet delivery, however such a handover between interfaces will introduce packet loss. We define the steps necessary for a MANEMO handover, using Mobile IP and NEMO to signal the new binding to the relevant Home Agent(s). The handover steps aim to minimize the packet loss by avoiding waiting for Duplicate Address Detection and Neighbour Unreachability Detection. We present expressions for handover delay and packet loss, and then use numerical examples to evaluate a MANEMO handover. The analysis shows how the packet loss depends on level of nesting within NEMO, the delay between Home Agents and the load on the MANET, and hence can be used to developing optimal MANEMO handover algorithms.

Keywords: manet, handover, network mobility, IP mobility

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1749
18 Position Based Routing Protocol with More Reliability in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Mahboobeh Abdoos, Karim Faez, Masoud Sabaei

Abstract:

Position based routing protocols are the kinds of routing protocols, which they use of nodes location information, instead of links information to routing. In position based routing protocols, it supposed that the packet source node has position information of itself and it's neighbors and packet destination node. Greedy is a very important position based routing protocol. In one of it's kinds, named MFR (Most Forward Within Radius), source node or packet forwarder node, sends packet to one of it's neighbors with most forward progress towards destination node (closest neighbor to destination). Using distance deciding metric in Greedy to forward packet to a neighbor node, is not suitable for all conditions. If closest neighbor to destination node, has high speed, in comparison with source node or intermediate packet forwarder node speed or has very low remained battery power, then packet loss probability is increased. Proposed strategy uses combination of metrics distancevelocity similarity-power, to deciding about giving the packet to which neighbor. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy has lower lost packets average than Greedy, so it has more reliability.

Keywords: Reliability, Routing, mobile ad hoc network, Position Based

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1305