Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 207

Search results for: calcium carbonate

207 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz

Abstract:

In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: Tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature.

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206 Efficacy of Combined CHAp and Lanthanum Carbonate in Therapy for Hyperphosphatemia

Authors: Andreea Cârâc, Elena Moroşan, Ana Corina Ioniță, Rica Boscencu, Geta Cârâc

Abstract:

Although, lanthanum carbonate has not been approved by the FDA for treatment of hyperphosphatemia, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of the combination of Calcium hydroxyapatite (CHAp) and Lanthanum Carbonate (LaC) for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia on mice. CHAp was prepared by co-precipitation method using Ca(OH)2, H3PO4, NH4OH with calcination at 1200ºC. Lanthanum carbonate was prepared by chemical method using NaHCO3 and LaCl3 at low pH environment, below 4.0. The structures were characterized by FTIR spectra and SEM -EDX analysis. The study group included 16 subjects-mice divided into four groups according to the administered substance: lanthanum carbonate (group A), CHAp (group B), lanthanum carbonate + CHAp (group C) and salt water (group D). The results indicate a phosphate decrease when subjects (mice) were treated with CHAp and lanthanum carbonate (0.5% CMC), in a single dose of 1500 mg/kg. Serum phosphate concentration decreased [(from 4.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL) to 4.05 ± 0.2 mg/dL), P < 0.01] in group A and in group C (to 3.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL) at 12 hours from the administration. The combination of CHAp and lanthanum carbonate is a suitable regimen for hyperphosphatemia treatment because it avoids both the hypercalcemia of CaCO3 and the adverse effects of CHAp.

Keywords: Calcium hydroxyapatite, hyperphosphatemia, lanthanum carbonate, phosphatebinder, structures.

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205 A New Strategy for Minimizing Precipitations during ASP Flooding in Carbonate Reservoirs

Authors: Khaled Abdalla Elraies, Shuaib Ahmed

Abstract:

A large quantity of world-s oil reserves exists in carbonate reservoirs. Carbonate reservoirs are very sensitive to chemical enhanced oil recovery process because of containing large amount of calcite, dolomite and calcium sulfate minerals. These minerals cause major obstacles during alkali-surfactant-polymer (ASP) flooding. Alkali reacts with these minerals and form undesired precipitations which plug effective porous openings, reduce permeability and cause scale occurrence at the wellbore. In this paper, a new chemical combination consists of acrylic acid and alkali was used to minimize precipitation problem during ASP flooding. A series of fluid-fluid compatibility tests were performed using acrylic acid and different concentrations of alkaline. Two types of alkalis namely; sodium carbonate and sodium metaborate were screened. As a result, the combination of acrylic acid and sodium carbonate was not effective in preventing calcium and magnesium precipitations. However, acrylic acid and sodium metaborate showed promising results for keeping all solutions without any precipitations. The ratio of acrylic acid to sodium metaborate of 0.7:1.0 was found to be optimum for achieving a compatible solution for 30 days at 80oC.

Keywords: Fluid-fluid compatibility test, Carbonate reservoirs, Precipitations and ASP flooding.

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204 Prospects in Waste Oil Shale Ash Sustainable Valorization

Authors: Olga Velts, Mai Uibu, Juha Kallas, Rein Kuusik

Abstract:

An innovative approach utilizing highly alkaline oil shale waste ash and carbon dioxide gas (CO2), associated with power production, as a resource for production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is introduced in this paper. The specifics and feasibility of the integrated ash valorization and CO2 sequestration process by indirect aqueous carbonation of lime-consisting ash were elaborated and the main parameters established. Detailed description of the formed precipitates was included. Complimentary carbonation experiments with commercial CaO fine powder were conducted for comparative characterization of the final products obtained on the basis of two different raw materials. Finally, the expected CO2 uptake was evaluated.

Keywords: Calcium Carbonate, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration, Oil Shale Ash, Waste Valorization.

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203 Study of Pipes Scaling of Purified Wastewater Intended for the Irrigation of Agadir Golf Grass

Authors: A. Driouiche, S. Mohareb, A. Hadfi

Abstract:

In Morocco’s Agadir region, the reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green spaces has faced the problem of scaling of the pipes of these waters. This research paper aims at studying the phenomenon of scaling caused by the treated wastewater from the Mzar sewage treatment plant. These waters are used in the irrigation of golf turf for the Ocean Golf Resort. Ocean Golf, located about 10 km from the center of the city of Agadir, is one of the most important recreation centers in Morocco. The course is a Belt Collins design with 27 holes, and is quite open with deep challenging bunkers. The formation of solid deposits in the irrigation systems has led to a decrease in their lifetime and, consequently, a loss of load and performance. Thus, the sprinklers used in golf turf irrigation are plugged in the first weeks of operation. To study this phenomenon, the wastewater used for the irrigation of the golf turf was taken and analyzed at various points, and also samples of scale formed in the circuits of the passage of these waters were characterized. This characterization of the scale was performed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of the physicochemical analysis of the waters show that they are full of bicarbonates (653 mg/L), chloride (478 mg/L), nitrate (412 mg/L), sodium (425 mg/L) and calcium (199mg/L). Their pH is slightly alkaline. The analysis of the scale reveals that it is rich in calcium and phosphorus. It is formed of calcium carbonate (CaCO₃), silica (SiO₂), calcium silicate (Ca₂SiO₄), hydroxylapatite (Ca₁₀P₆O₂₆), calcium carbonate and phosphate (Ca₁₀(PO₄) 6CO₃) and silicate calcium and magnesium (Ca₅MgSi₃O₁₂).

Keywords: Agadir, irrigation, scaling water, wastewater.

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202 The Effect of Vibration on the Absorption of CO2 with Chemical Reaction in Aqueous Solution of Calcium Hydroxide

Authors: B. Sohbi, M. Emtir, M. Elgarni

Abstract:

An interesting method to produce calcium carbonate is based in a gas-liquid reaction between carbon dioxide and aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide. The design parameters for gas-liquid phase are flow regime, individual mass transfer, gas-liquid specific interfacial area. Most studies on gas-liquid phase were devoted to the experimental determination of some of these parameters, and more specifically, of the mass transfer coefficient, kLa which depends fundamentally on the superficial gas velocity and on the physical properties of absorption phase. The principle investigation was directed to study the effect of the vibration on the mass transfer coefficient kLa in gas-liquid phase during absorption of CO2 in the in aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide. The vibration with a higher frequency increase the mass transfer coefficient kLa, but vibration with lower frequency didn-t improve it, the mass transfer coefficient kLa increase with increase the superficial gas velocity.

Keywords: Environment technology, mass transfer coefficient, absorption, CO2, calcium hydroxide.

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201 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Modified CaCO3 /PP Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, K. Borvornchettanuwat, N. Chantanachai, K. Thonglor

Abstract:

Inorganic nanoparticles filled polymer composites have extended their multiple functionalities to various applications, including mechanical reinforcement, gas barrier, dimensional stability, heat distortion temperature, flame-retardant, and thermal conductivity. Sodium stearate-modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were prepared using surface modification method. The results showed that sodium stearate attached to the surface of CaCO3 nanoparticles with the chemical bond. The effect of modified CaCO3 nanoparticles on thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that CaCO3 significantly affected the crystallization temperature and crystallization degree of PP. Effect of the modified CaCO3 content on mechanical properties of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites was also studied. The results showed that the modified CaCO3 can effectively improve the mechanical properties of PP. In comparison with PP, the impact strength of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites increased by about 65% and the hardness increased by about 5%.

Keywords: Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Modified Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Stearate, Surface Treatment

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200 A Study of Calcination and Carbonation of Cockle Shell

Authors: N.A. Rashidi, M. Mohamed, S.Yusup

Abstract:

Calcium oxide (CaO) as carbon dioxide (CO2) adsorbent at the elevated temperature has been very well-received thus far. The CaO can be synthesized from natural calcium carbonate (CaCO3) sources through the reversible calcination-carbonation process. In the study, cockle shell has been selected as CaO precursors. The objectives of the study are to investigate the performance of calcination and carbonation with respect to different temperature, heating rate, particle size and the duration time. Overall, better performance is shown at the calcination temperature of 850oC for 40 minutes, heating rate of 20oC/min, particle size of < 0.125mm and the carbonation temperature is at 650oC. The synthesized materials have been characterized by nitrogen physisorption and surface morphology analysis. The effectiveness of the synthesized cockle shell in capturing CO2 (0.72 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) which is comparable to the commercialized adsorbent (0.60 kg CO2/kg adsorbent) makes them as the most promising materials for CO2 capture.

Keywords: Calcination, Calcium oxide, Carbonation, Cockle shell

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199 Effects of Operating Conditions on Calcium Carbonate Fouling in a Plate Heat Exchanger

Authors: K. Pana-Suppamassadu, P. Jeimrittiwong, P. Narataruksa, S. Tungkamani

Abstract:

The aim of this work is to investigate on the internalflow patterns in a plate heat exchanger channel, which affect the rate of sedimentation fouling on the heat transfer surface of the plate heat exchanger. The research methodologies were the computer simulation using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and the experimental works. COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS™ Version 3.3 was used to simulate the velocity flow fields to verify the low and high flow regions. The results from the CFD technique were then compared with the images obtained from the experiments in which the fouling test rig was set up with a singlechannel plate heat exchanger to monitor the fouling of calcium carbonate. Two parameters were varied i.e., the crossing angle of the two plate: 55/55, 10/10, and 55/10 degree, and the fluid flow rate at the inlet: 0.0566, 0.1132 and 0.1698 m/s. The type of plate “GX-12" (the surface area 0.12 m2, the depth 2.9 mm, the width of fluid flow 215 mm and the thickness of stainless plate of 0.5 mm) was used in this study. The results indicated that the velocity distribution for the case of 55/55 degree seems to be very well organized when compared with the others. Also, an increase in the inlet velocity resulted in the reduction of fouling rate on the surface of plate heat exchangers.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, crossing angles, finite element method, plate heat exchanger.

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198 Experimental Study of Kiwi Juice under Sonication and Carbonation

Authors: N. Dizadji, P. Entezar, A. Afsari

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the experimental impacts of ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them on the quality of fresh kiwi juice. Today, non-thermal methods like ultrasonic, which have imperceptible effects on some properties of the juice such as taste, flavor and color, are commonly used for killing microorganisms.In this paper, some properties of kiwi fruit juice under ultrasonic, carbonate and a combination of them has been researched. Those properties include pH, acidity, transparency and Brix. Its impact on microorganisms has been studied as well.The results show that using a combination of carbonate and sonicate make the cavitation more severe without a perceptible effect on nonactivation of microorganisms.

Keywords: carbonate, juice, inactivation, ultrasonic

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197 Electrolytic Dissolutions of UO2 and SIMFUEL in Carbonate Solutions at Several pHs

Authors: Kwang-Wook Kim, Geun-Il Park, Eil-Hee Lee, Kune-Woo Lee, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Electrolytic dissolution characteristics of UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes were studied at several potentials in carbonate solutions of a high concentration at several pHs. The electrolytic uranium dissolution was much affected by a corrosion product of UO2CO3 generated at the electrode during the dissolution in carbonate solution. The corrosion product distorted the voltammogram at UO2 and SIMFUEL electrodes in the potential region of oxygen evolution and increased the overpotential of oxygen evolution at the electrode. The effective dissolution in a carbonate solution could be obtained at an applied potential such as +4 V (vs SSE) or more which had an overpotential of oxygen evolution high enough to rupture the corrosion product on the electrode surface.

Keywords: Anodic, Electrolytic, Dissolution, SIMFUEL, Uranium dioxide, Carbonate

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196 Deicing and Corrosive Performances of Calcium Acetate Deicer Made from Bamboo-Vinegar

Authors: Xinyuan Jiang, Genan Li, Zhiping Wu

Abstract:

Calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) is environmentally benign deicing chemicals that can replace sodium chloride that is widely used on roads and highways at present for snow and ice control to provide safe driving conditions during winter. The price of CMA from petroleum-derived acetic acid is quite expensive. The bamboo vinegar is the by-product from bamboo charcoal production. The bamboo vinegar was used to prepare calcium acetate as raw materials, and its deicing and corrosive performances were studied in this paper. The results show that the freezing temperature of calcium acetate is lower than that of sodium chloride when they have same molar concentration, the deicing performance of calcium acetate is better than that of sodium chloride when they have same moles, while the deicing performance of sodium chloride is better than that of calcium acetate. The corrosion of sodium chloride on iron-nail and steel-nail is larger than that of calcium acetate whether they have same mass concentration or same molar concentration, and the corrosion of sodium chloride and calcium acetate on iron-nail is larger than that on steel-nail, and calcium acetate almost hasn't corrosion on steel-nail.

Keywords: bamboo vinegar, calcium acetate, corrosion, deicer, deicing performance

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195 A Model to Study the Effect of Excess Buffers and Na+ Ions on Ca2+ Diffusion in Neuron Cell

Authors: Vikas Tewari, Shivendra Tewari, K. R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Calcium is a vital second messenger used in signal transduction. Calcium controls secretion, cell movement, muscular contraction, cell differentiation, ciliary beating and so on. Two theories have been used to simplify the system of reaction-diffusion equations of calcium into a single equation. One is excess buffer approximation (EBA) which assumes that mobile buffer is present in excess and cannot be saturated. The other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA), which assumes that calcium binding to buffer is rapid compared to calcium diffusion rate. In the present work, attempt has been made to develop a model for calcium diffusion under excess buffer approximation in neuron cells. This model incorporates the effect of [Na+] influx on [Ca2+] diffusion,variable calcium and sodium sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, sodium and calcium channels. The proposed mathematical model leads to a system of partial differential equations which have been solved numerically using Forward Time Centered Space (FTCS) approach. The numerical results have been used to study the relationships among different types of parameters such as buffer concentration, association rate, calcium permeability.

Keywords: Excess buffer approximation, Na+ influx, sodium calcium exchange protein, sarcolemmal calcium atpase pump, forward time centred space.

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194 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: Bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, combinative nutrition, nutrient synergy.

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193 A Numerical Model to Study the Rapid Buffering Approximation near an Open Ca2+ Channel for an Unsteady State Case

Authors: Leena Sharma

Abstract:

Chemical reaction and diffusion are important phenomena in quantitative neurobiology and biophysics. The knowledge of the dynamics of calcium Ca2+ is very important in cellular physiology because Ca2+ binds to many proteins and regulates their activity and interactions Calcium waves propagate inside cells due to a regenerative mechanism known as calcium-induced calcium release. Buffer-mediated calcium diffusion in the cytosol plays a crucial role in the process. A mathematical model has been developed for calcium waves by assuming the buffers are in equilibrium with calcium i.e., the rapid buffering approximation for a one dimensional unsteady state case. This model incorporates important physical and physiological parameters like dissociation rate, diffusion rate, total buffer concentration and influx. The finite difference method has been employed to predict [Ca2+] and buffer concentration time course regardless of the calcium influx. The comparative studies of the effect of the rapid buffered diffusion and kinetic parameters of the model on the concentration time course have been performed.

Keywords: Calcium Profile, Rapid Buffering Approximation, Influx, Dissociation rate constant.

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192 A Model to Study the Effect of Na+ ions on Ca2+diffusion under Rapid Buffering Approximation

Authors: Vikas Tewari, K.R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Calcium is very important for communication among the neurons. It is vital in a number of cell processes such as secretion, cell movement, cell differentiation. To reduce the system of reactiondiffusion equations of [Ca2+] into a single equation, two theories have been proposed one is excess buffer approximation (EBA) other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA). The RBA is more realistic than the EBA as it considers both the mobile and stationary endogenous buffers. It is valid near the mouth of the channel. In this work we have studied the effects of different types of buffers on calcium diffusion under RBA. The novel thing studied is the effect of sodium ions on calcium diffusion. The model has been made realistic by considering factors such as variable [Ca2+], [Na+] sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein(NCX), Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump. The proposed mathematical leads to a system of partial differential equations which has been solved numerically to study the relationships between different parameters such as buffer concentration, buffer disassociation rate, calcium permeability. We have used Forward Time Centred Space (FTCS) approach to solve the system of partial differential equations.

Keywords: rapid buffer approximation, sodium-calcium exchangeprotein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, buffer disassociationrate, forward time centred space.

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191 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen

Abstract:

Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic coprecipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during coprecipitation (1, 10 and 100 μg.ml-1). From x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: Biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, Protein, Titanium.

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190 Microwave Assisted Solvent-Free Catalytic Transesterification of Glycerol to Glycerol Carbonate

Authors: Wai Keng Teng, Gek Cheng Ngoh, Rozita Yusoff, Mohamed Kheireddine Aroua, Joe Shen Heng

Abstract:

As a by-product of the biodiesel industries, glycerol has been vastly generated which surpasses the market demand. It is imperative to develop an efficient glycerol valorization processes in minimizing the net energy requirement and intensifying the biodiesel production. In this study, base-catalyzed transesterification of glycerol with dimethyl carbonate using microwave irradiation as heating method to produce glycerol carbonate was conducted by varying grades of glycerol, i.e. 70%, 86% and 99% purity, that is obtained from biodiesel plant. Metal oxide catalysts were used with varying operating parameters including reaction time, DMC/glycerol molar ratio, catalyst weight %, temperature and stirring speed. From the study on the effect of different operating parameters it was found that the type of catalyst used has the most significant effect on the transesterification reaction. Amidst the metal oxide catalysts examined, CaO gave the best performance. This study indicates the feasibility of producing glycerol carbonate using different grade of glycerol in both conventional thermal activation and microwave irradiation with CaO as catalyst. Microwave assisted transesterification (MAT) of glycerol into glycerol carbonate has demonstrated itself as an energy efficient route by achieving 94.2% yield of GC at 65°C, 5 minutes reaction time, 1 wt% CaO and DMC/glycerol molar ratio of 2. The advantages of MAT transesterification route has made the direct utilization of bioglycerol from biodiesel production without the need of purification. This has marked a more economical and less-energy intensive glycerol carbonate synthesis route.

Keywords: Biodiesel, glycerol, glycerol carbonate, microwave irradiation.

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189 Finite Volume Model to Study The Effect of Voltage Gated Ca2+ Channel on Cytosolic Calcium Advection Diffusion

Authors: Brajesh Kumar Jha, Neeru Adlakha, M. N. Mehta

Abstract:

Mathematical and computational modeling of calcium signalling in nerve cells has produced considerable insights into how the cells contracts with other cells under the variation of biophysical and physiological parameters. The modeling of calcium signaling in astrocytes has become more sophisticated. The modeling effort has provided insight to understand the cell contraction. Main objective of this work is to study the effect of voltage gated (Operated) calcium channel (VOC) on calcium profile in the form of advection diffusion equation. A mathematical model is developed in the form of advection diffusion equation for the calcium profile. The model incorporates the important physiological parameter like diffusion coefficient etc. Appropriate boundary conditions have been framed. Finite volume method is employed to solve the problem. A program has been developed using in MATLAB 7.5 for the entire problem and simulated on an AMD-Turion 32-bite machine to compute the numerical results.

Keywords: Ca2+ Profile, Advection Diffusion, VOC, FVM.

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188 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

Abstract:

In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds — the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content — much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: Antioxidant, Stearate, Carbon black, Polyethylene.

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187 Using Sugar Mill Waste for Biobased Epoxy Composites

Authors: Ulku Soydal, Mustafa Esen Marti, Gulnare Ahmetli

Abstract:

In this study, precipitated calcium carbonate lime waste (LW) from sugar beet process was recycled as the raw material for the preparation of composite materials. Epoxidized soybean oil (ESO) was used as a co-matrix in 50 wt% with DGEBA type epoxy resin (ER). XRD was used for characterization of composites. Effects of ESO and LW filler amounts on mechanical properties of neat ER were investigated. Modification of ER with ESO remarkably enhanced plasticity of ER.

Keywords: Epoxy resin, biocomposite, lime waste, mechanical properties.

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186 Study of Influencing Factors on the Flowability of Jute Nonwoven Reinforced Sheet Molding Compound

Authors: Miriam I. Lautenschläger, Max H. Scheiwe, Kay A. Weidenmann, Frank Henning, Peter Elsner

Abstract:

Due to increasing environmental awareness jute fibers are more often used in fiber reinforced composites. In the Sheet Molding Compound (SMC) process, the mold cavity is filled via material flow allowing more complex component design. But, the difficulty of using jute fibers in this process is the decreased capacity of fiber movement in the mold. A comparative flow study with jute nonwoven reinforced SMC was conducted examining the influence of the fiber volume content, the grammage of the jute nonwoven textile and a mechanical modification of the nonwoven textile on the flowability. The nonwoven textile reinforcement was selected to support homogeneous fiber distribution. Trials were performed using two SMC paste formulations differing only in filler type. Platy-shaped kaolin with a mean particle size of 0.8 μm and ashlar calcium carbonate with a mean particle size of 2.7 μm were selected as fillers. Ensuring comparability of the two SMC paste formulations the filler content was determined to reach equal initial viscosity for both systems. The calcium carbonate filled paste was set as reference. The flow study was conducted using a jute nonwoven textile with 300 g/m² as reference. The manufactured SMC sheets were stacked and centrally placed in a square mold. The mold coverage was varied between 25 and 90% keeping the weight of the stack for comparison constant. Comparing the influence of the two fillers kaolin yielded better results regarding a homogeneous fiber distribution. A mold coverage of about 68% was already sufficient to homogeneously fill the mold cavity whereas for calcium carbonate filled system about 79% mold coverage was necessary. The flow study revealed a strong influence of the fiber volume content on the flowability. A fiber volume content of 12 vol.-% and 25 vol.-% were compared for both SMC formulations. The lower fiber volume content strongly supported fiber transport whereas 25 vol.-% showed insignificant influence. The results indicate a limiting fiber volume content for the flowability. The influence of the nonwoven textile grammage was determined using nonwoven jute material with 500 g/m² and a fiber volume content of 20 vol.-%. The 500 g/m² reinforcement material showed inferior results with regard to fiber movement. A mold coverage of about 90 % was required to prevent the destruction of the nonwoven structure. Below this mold coverage the 500 g/m² nonwoven material was ripped and torn apart. Low mold coverages led to damage of the textile reinforcement. Due to the ripped nonwoven structure the textile was modified with cuts in order to facilitate fiber movement in the mold. Parallel cuts of about 20 mm length and 20 mm distance to each other were applied to the textile and stacked with varying orientations prior to molding. Stacks with unidirectional orientated cuts over stacks with cuts in various directions e.g. (0°, 45°, 90°, -45°) were investigated. The mechanical modification supported tearing of the textile without achieving benefit for the flowability.

Keywords: Filler, flowability, jute fiber, nonwoven, sheet molding compound.

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185 Study of Salinity Stress and Calcium Interaction on Morphological and Physiological Traits of Vicia villosa under Hydroponic Condition

Authors: Raheleh Khademian, Roghayeh Aminian

Abstract:

For the study of salinity stress on Vicia villosa and calcium effect for modulation of that, an experiment was conducted under hydroponic condition, and some important morphological and physiological characteristics were evaluated. This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments include salinity stress in three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and calcium in two levels (content in Hoagland solution and double content). The results showed that all morphological and physiological traits include root and shoot length, root and shoot wet and dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, RWC, CMS, and biological yield was significantly different from the control and is affected by the salinity stress severely. But, calcium effect on them was not significant despite of decreasing salinity effect.

Keywords: Vicia villossa, salinity stress, calcium, hydroponic.

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184 Influence of Calcium Intake Level to Osteoporptic Vertebral bone and Degenerated Disc in Biomechanical Study

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Ji Hyung Park, Chi Hoon Kim, Tae Woo Lee, Beob Yi Lee, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to analyze the generation of osteoporotic vertebral bone induced by lack of calcium during growth period and analyze its effects for disc degeneration, based on biomechanical and histomorphometrical study. Mechanical and histomorphological characteristics of lumbar vertebral bones and discs of rats with calcium free diet (CFD) were detected and tracked by using high resolution in-vivo micro-computed tomography (in-vivo micro-CT), finite element (FE) and histological analysis. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, approximate weight 170g) were randomly divided into two groups (CFD group: 10, NOR group: 10). The CFD group was maintained on a refmed calcium-controlled semisynthetic diet without added calcium, to induce osteoporosis. All lumbar (L 1-L6) were scanned by using in vivo micro-CT with 35i.un resolution at 0, 4, 8 weeks to track the effects of CFD on the generation of osteoporosis. The fmdings of the present study indicated that calcium insufficiency was the main factor in the generation of osteoporosis and it induced lumbar vertebral disc degeneration. This study is a valuable experiment to firstly evaluate osteoporotic vertebral bone and disc degeneration induced by lack of calcium during growth period from a biomechanical and histomorphometrical point of view.

Keywords: Calcium free diet, Disc degeneration, Osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, Finite element analysis, Histology.

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183 Characterization of Fish Bone Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

Authors: Sarina Sulaiman, N. Khairudin, P. Jamal, M. Z. Alam, Zaki Zainudin, S. Azmi

Abstract:

In this study, fish bone waste was used as a new catalyst for biodiesel production. Instead of discarding the fish bone waste, it will be utilized as a source for catalyst that can provide significant benefit to the environment. Also, it can be substitute as a calcium oxide source instead of using eggshell, crab shell and snail shell. The XRD and SEM analysis proved that calcined fish bone contains calcium oxide, calcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. The catalyst was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD).

Keywords: Calcinations, fish bone, transesterification, waste catalyst.

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182 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan

Abstract:

Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of the well logging analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology, and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya oil field is one of the giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in this oilfield. Neurolog software was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software. Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite, and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4- 0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: Lithology, Porosity, Water Saturation, Carbonate Formation, Mishrif Formation.

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181 Closed Form Solution to problem of Calcium Diffusion in Cylindrical Shaped Neuron Cell

Authors: Amrita Tripathi, Neeru Adlakha

Abstract:

Calcium [Ca2+] dynamics is studied as a potential form of neuron excitability that can control many irregular processes like metabolism, secretion etc. Ca2+ ion enters presynaptic terminal and increases the synaptic strength and thus triggers the neurotransmitter release. The modeling and analysis of calcium dynamics in neuron cell becomes necessary for deeper understanding of the processes involved. A mathematical model has been developed for cylindrical shaped neuron cell by incorporating physiological parameters like buffer, diffusion coefficient, and association rate. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed. The closed form solution has been developed in terms of modified Bessel function. A computer program has been developed in MATLAB 7.11 for the whole approach.

Keywords: Laplace Transform, Modified Bessel function, reaction diffusion equation, diffusion coefficient, excess buffer, calcium influx

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180 Quality Attributes of Various Spray Dried Pulp Powder Prepared from Low Temperature Stored Calcium Salts Pretreated Guava Fruits

Authors: Renu Rahel, A. S. Chauhan, K. Srinivasulu, R. Ravi, V. B. Kudachikar

Abstract:

The effect of calcium salts on the storage stability and on the quality attributes of both fresh and processed product (guava powder) of white flesh guavas (var ‘Allahabad safeda’) was studied. The pulp behavioral studies of fully ripened guava fruits indicated that fruits pretreated with 3% and 4.5% calcium chloride had the least viscosity. The guava pulp powder using spray drying technique was developed and its storage stability and the moisture sorption studies were carried out for product quality evaluation at normal storage condition (27°C; 65%RH). Results revealed that powder obtained from 3% calcium chloride pretreated guavas was found to be at par with the powder obtained from control guavas after 90 days of normal storage. Studies on microbiological quality of guava pulp powder indicated that among the treatments powder obtained from guava fruit pretreated with 3% calcium chloride to be the most effective through restricting microbial counts of total plate count, yeast, mold, Staphylococcus and E. coli below their permissible limit. Moisture sorption studies of guava powder revealed that foil laminate 12μm PET/9 μm foil/38-40 μm is the most suitable packaging material recommended.

Keywords: White flesh guava, calcium salts, spray drying, powder, storage stability.

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179 Reaction Kinetics of Biodiesel Production from Refined Cottonseed Oil Using Calcium Oxide

Authors: Ude N. Callistus, Amulu F. Ndidi, Onukwuli D. Okechukwu, Amulu E. Patrick

Abstract:

Power law approximation was used in this study to evaluate the reaction orders of calcium oxide, CaO catalyzed transesterification of refined cottonseed oil and methanol. The kinetics study was carried out at temperatures of 45, 55 and 65 oC. The kinetic parameters such as reaction order 2.02 and rate constant 2.8 hr-1g-1cat, obtained at the temperature of 65 oC best fitted the kinetic model. The activation energy, Ea obtained was 127.744 KJ/mol. The results indicate that the transesterification reaction of the refined cottonseed oil using calcium oxide catalyst is approximately second order reaction.

Keywords: Refined cottonseed oil, transesterification, CaO, heterogeneous catalysts, kinetic model.

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178 Anticoagulatory Role of an Ergot Mesylate: Hydergine

Authors: Fareeha A., Irfan Z Qureshi

Abstract:

Thrombosis can be life threatening, necessitating therefore its instant treatment. Hydergine, a nootropic agent is used as a cognition enhancer in stroke patients but relatively little is known about its anti-thrombolytic effect. To investigate this aspect, in vivo and ex vivo experiments were designed and conducted. Three groups of rats were injected 1.5mg, 3.0mg and 4.5mg hydergine intraperitonealy with and without prior exposure to fresh plasma. Positive and negative controls were run in parallel. Animals were sacrificed after 1.5hrs and BT, CT, PT, INR, APTT, plasma calcium levels were estimated. For ex vivo analyses, each 1ml blood aspirated was exposed to 0.1mg, 0.2mg, 0.3mg dose of hydergine with parallel controls. Parameters analyzed were as above. Statistical analysis was through one-way ANOVA. Dunken-s and Tukey-s tests provided intra-group variance. BT, CT, PT, INR and APTT increased while calcium levels dropped significantly (P<0.05). Ex vivo, CT, PT and APTT were elevated while plasma calcium levels lowered significantly (P<0.05). Our study suggests that hydergine may act as a thrombolytic agent but warrants further studies to elucidate this role of ergot mesylates.

Keywords: Hydergine, Coagulation assays, plasma calcium, ergot mesylates, thrombosis.

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