Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 34

Search results for: CO2 capture

34 Statistical Analysis and Optimization of a Process for CO2 Capture

Authors: Muftah H. El-Naas, Ameera F. Mohammad, Mabruk I. Suleiman, Mohamed Al Musharfy, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage technologies play a significant role in contributing to the control of climate change through the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. The present study evaluates and optimizes CO2 capture through a process, where carbon dioxide is passed into pH adjusted high salinity water and reacted with sodium chloride to form a precipitate of sodium bicarbonate. This process is based on a modified Solvay process with higher CO2 capture efficiency, higher sodium removal, and higher pH level without the use of ammonia. The process was tested in a bubble column semi-batch reactor and was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). CO2 capture efficiency and sodium removal were optimized in terms of major operating parameters based on four levels and variables in Central Composite Design (CCD). The operating parameters were gas flow rate (0.5–1.5 L/min), reactor temperature (10 to 50 oC), buffer concentration (0.2-2.6%) and water salinity (25-197 g NaCl/L). The experimental data were fitted to a second-order polynomial using multiple regression and analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The optimum values of the selected variables were obtained using response optimizer. The optimum conditions were tested experimentally using desalination reject brine with salinity ranging from 65,000 to 75,000 mg/L. The CO2 capture efficiency in 180 min was 99% and the maximum sodium removal was 35%. The experimental and predicted values were within 95% confidence interval, which demonstrates that the developed model can successfully predict the capture efficiency and sodium removal using the modified Solvay method.

Keywords: Bubble column reactor, CO2 capture, Response Surface Methodology, water desalination.

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33 Experimental Study of CO2 Absorption in Different Blend Solutions as Solvent for CO2 Capture

Authors: Rouzbeh Ramezani, Renzo Di Felice

Abstract:

Nowadays, removal of CO2 as one of the major contributors to global warming using alternative solvents with high CO2 absorption efficiency, is an important industrial operation. In this study, three amines, including 2-methylpiperazine, potassium sarcosinate and potassium lysinate as potential additives, were added to the potassium carbonate solution as a base solvent for CO2 capture. In order to study the absorption performance of CO2 in terms of loading capacity of CO2 and absorption rate, the absorption experiments in a blend of additives with potassium carbonate were carried out using the vapor-liquid equilibrium apparatus at a temperature of 313.15 K, CO2 partial pressures ranging from 0 to 50 kPa and at mole fractions 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4. Furthermore, the performance of CO2 absorption in these blend solutions was compared with pure monoethanolamine and with pure potassium carbonate. Finally, a correlation with good accuracy was developed using the nonlinear regression analysis in order to predict CO2 loading capacity.

Keywords: Absorption rate, carbon dioxide, CO2 capture, global warming, loading capacity.

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32 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: A General Review on Adsorbents

Authors: Mohammad Songolzadeh, Maryam Takht Ravanchi, Mansooreh Soleimani

Abstract:

CO2 is the primary anthropogenic greenhouse gas, accounting for 77% of the human contribution to the greenhouse effect in 2004. In the recent years, global concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere is increasing rapidly. CO2 emissions have an impact on global climate change. Anthropogenic CO2 is emitted primarily from fossil fuel combustion. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one option for reducing CO2 emissions. There are three major approaches for CCS: post-combustion capture, pre-combustion capture and oxyfuel process. Post-combustion capture offers some advantages as existing combustion technologies can still be used without radical changes on them. There are several post combustion gas separation and capture technologies being investigated, namely; (a) absorption, (b) cryogenic separation, (c) membrane separation (d) micro algal biofixation and (e) adsorption. Apart from establishing new techniques, the exploration of capture materials with high separation performance and low capital cost are paramount importance. However, the application of adsorption from either technology, require easily regenerable and durable adsorbents with a high CO2 adsorption capacity. It has recently been reported that the cost of the CO2 capture can be reduced by using this technology. In this paper, the research progress (from experimental results) in adsorbents for CO2 adsorption, storage, and separations were reviewed and future research directions were suggested as well.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, pre-combustion, postcombustion, adsorption

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31 Simulation of Co2 Capture Process

Authors: K. Movagharnejad, M. Akbari

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide capture process has been simulated and studied under different process conditions. It has been shown that several process parameters such as lean amine temperature, number of adsorber stages, number of stripper stages and stripper pressure affect different process conditions and outputs such as carbon dioxide removal and reboiler duty. It may be concluded that the simulation of carbon dioxide capture process can help to estimate the best process conditions.

Keywords: Absorption, carbon dioxide capture, desorption, process simulation.

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30 Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect

Authors: Yasuhisa Tamura, Koji Yamaoka, Masataka Uehara, Takeshi Shima

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.

Keywords: Flying disc, throwing movement, Kinect, capture, feedback

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29 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Taekyoon Park, Seok Goo Lee, Sung Ho Kim, Ung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Chonghun Han

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: CCS, Caron Dioxide, Carbon Capture and Storage, Simulation, Optimization.

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28 Motion Capture Based Wizard of Oz Technique for Humanoid Robot

Authors: Rafal Stegierski, Krzysztof Dmitruk

Abstract:

The paper focus on robotic telepresence system build around humanoid robot operated with controller-less Wizard of Oz technique. Proposed solution gives possibility to quick start acting as a operator with short, if any, initial training.

Keywords: Robotics, Motion Capture, Wizard of Oz, Humanoid Robots, Human Robot Interaction.

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27 Design, Development and Evaluation of a Portable Recording System to Capture Dynamic Presentations Using the Teacher´s Tablet PC

Authors: Enrique Barra, Abel Carril, Aldo Gordillo, Joaquín Salvachúa, Juan Quemada

Abstract:

Computers and multimedia equipment have improved a lot in the last years. They have reduced their cost and size while at the same time increased their capabilities. These improvements allowed us to design and implement a portable recording system that also integrates the teacher´s tablet PC to capture what he/she writes on the slides and all that happens in it. This paper explains this system in detail and the validation of the recordings that we did after using it to record all the lectures the “Communications Software” course in our university. The results show that pupils used the recordings for different purposes and consider them useful for a variety of things, especially after missing a lecture.

Keywords: Recording System, capture dynamic presentations, lecture recording.

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26 Quantification of Soft Tissue Artefacts Using Motion Capture Data and Ultrasound Depth Measurements

Authors: Azadeh Rouhandeh, Chris Joslin, Zhen Qu, Yuu Ono

Abstract:

The centre of rotation of the hip joint is needed for an accurate simulation of the joint performance in many applications such as pre-operative planning simulation, human gait analysis, and hip joint disorders. In human movement analysis, the hip joint center can be estimated using a functional method based on the relative motion of the femur to pelvis measured using reflective markers attached to the skin surface. The principal source of errors in estimation of hip joint centre location using functional methods is soft tissue artefacts due to the relative motion between the markers and bone. One of the main objectives in human movement analysis is the assessment of soft tissue artefact as the accuracy of functional methods depends upon it. Various studies have described the movement of soft tissue artefact invasively, such as intra-cortical pins, external fixators, percutaneous skeletal trackers, and Roentgen photogrammetry. The goal of this study is to present a non-invasive method to assess the displacements of the markers relative to the underlying bone using optical motion capture data and tissue thickness from ultrasound measurements during flexion, extension, and abduction (all with knee extended) of the hip joint. Results show that the artefact skin marker displacements are non-linear and larger in areas closer to the hip joint. Also marker displacements are dependent on the movement type and relatively larger in abduction movement. The quantification of soft tissue artefacts can be used as a basis for a correction procedure for hip joint kinematics.

Keywords: Hip joint centre, motion capture, soft tissue artefact, ultrasound depth measurement.

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25 Human Motion Capture: New Innovations in the Field of Computer Vision

Authors: Najm Alotaibi

Abstract:

Human motion capture has become one of the major area of interest in the field of computer vision. Some of the major application areas that have been rapidly evolving include the advanced human interfaces, virtual reality and security/surveillance systems. This study provides a brief overview of the techniques and applications used for the markerless human motion capture, which deals with analyzing the human motion in the form of mathematical formulations. The major contribution of this research is that it classifies the computer vision based techniques of human motion capture based on the taxonomy, and then breaks its down into four systematically different categories of tracking, initialization, pose estimation and recognition. The detailed descriptions and the relationships descriptions are given for the techniques of tracking and pose estimation. The subcategories of each process are further described. Various hypotheses have been used by the researchers in this domain are surveyed and the evolution of these techniques have been explained. It has been concluded in the survey that most researchers have focused on using the mathematical body models for the markerless motion capture.

Keywords: Human Motion Capture, Computer Vision, Vision based, Tracking.

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24 Dynamic Time Warping in Gait Classificationof Motion Capture Data

Authors: Adam Świtoński, Agnieszka Michalczuk, Henryk Josiński, Andrzej Polański, KonradWojciechowski

Abstract:

The method of gait identification based on the nearest neighbor classification technique with motion similarity assessment by the dynamic time warping is proposed. The model based kinematic motion data, represented by the joints rotations coded by Euler angles and unit quaternions is used. The different pose distance functions in Euler angles and quaternion spaces are considered. To evaluate individual features of the subsequent joints movements during gait cycle, joint selection is carried out. To examine proposed approach database containing 353 gaits of 25 humans collected in motion capture laboratory is used. The obtained results are promising. The classifications, which takes into consideration all joints has accuracy over 91%. Only analysis of movements of hip joints allows to correctly identify gaits with almost 80% precision.

Keywords: Biometrics, dynamic time warping, gait identification, motion capture, time series classification, quaternion distance functions, attribute ranking.

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23 Sensitivity Analysis of the Heat Exchanger Design in Net Power Oxy-Combustion Cycle for Carbon Capture

Authors: Hirbod Varasteh, Hamidreza Gohari Darabkhani

Abstract:

The global warming and its impact on climate change is one of main challenges for current century. Global warming is mainly due to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) is known to be the major contributor to the GHG emission profile. Whilst the energy sector is the primary source for CO2 emission, Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) are believed to be the solution for controlling this emission. Oxyfuel combustion (Oxy-combustion) is one of the major technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. For gas turbines, several Oxy-combustion power cycles (Oxyturbine cycles) have been investigated by means of thermodynamic analysis. NetPower cycle is one of the leading oxyturbine power cycles with almost full carbon capture capability from a natural gas fired power plant. In this manuscript, sensitivity analysis of the heat exchanger design in NetPower cycle is completed by means of process modelling. The heat capacity variation and supercritical CO2 with gaseous admixtures are considered for multi-zone analysis with Aspen Plus software. It is found that the heat exchanger design has a major role to increase the efficiency of NetPower cycle. The pinch-point analysis is done to extract the composite and grand composite curve for the heat exchanger. In this paper, relationship between the cycle efficiency and the minimum approach temperature (∆Tmin) of the heat exchanger has also been evaluated.  Increase in ∆Tmin causes a decrease in the temperature of the recycle flue gases (RFG) and an overall decrease in the required power for the recycled gas compressor. The main challenge in the design of heat exchangers in power plants is a tradeoff between the capital and operational costs. To achieve lower ∆Tmin, larger size of heat exchanger is required. This means a higher capital cost but leading to a better heat recovery and lower operational cost. To achieve this, ∆Tmin is selected from the minimum point in the diagrams of capital and operational costs. This study provides an insight into the NetPower Oxy-combustion cycle’s performance analysis and operational condition based on its heat exchanger design.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, oxy-combustion, netpower cycle, oxyturbine power cycles, heat exchanger design, supercritical carbon dioxide, pinch point analysis.

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22 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dispersion of Microparticles Emitted by Machining Operation

Authors: F. Tafnout, E. Belut, B. Oesterlé, J.R. Fontaine

Abstract:

As a part of the development of a numerical method of close capture exhausts systems for machining devices, a test rig recreating a situation similar to a grinding operation, but in a perfectly controlled environment, is used. The properties of the obtained spray of solid particles are initially characterized using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), in order to obtain input and validation parameters for numerical simulations. The dispersion of a tracer gas (SF6) emitted simultaneously with the particle jet is then studied experimentally, as the dispersion of such a gas is representative of that of finer particles, whose aerodynamic response time is negligible. Finally, complete modeling of the test rig is achieved to allow comparison with experimental results and thus to progress towards validation of the models used to describe a twophase flow generated by machining operation.

Keywords: Pollutants, capture, tracer gas, SF6, PTV, numericalmodeling.

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21 A Study of Distinctive Models for Pre-hospital EMS in Thailand: Knowledge Capture

Authors: R. Sinthavalai, N. Memongkol, N. Patthanaprechawong, J. Viriyanantavong, C. Choosuk

Abstract:

In Thailand, the practice of pre-hospital Emergency Medical Service (EMS) in each area reveals the different growth rates and effectiveness of the practices. Those can be found as the diverse quality and quantity. To shorten the learning curve prior to speed-up the practices in other areas, story telling and lessons learnt from the effective practices are valued as meaningful knowledge. To this paper, it was to ascertain the factors, lessons learnt and best practices that have impact as contributing to the success of prehospital EMS system. Those were formulized as model prior to speedup the practice in other areas. To develop the model, Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA), which is widely recognized as a framework for organizational quality assessment and improvement, was chosen as the discussion framework. Remarkably, this study was based on the consideration of knowledge capture; however it was not to complete the loop of knowledge activities. Nevertheless, it was to highlight the recognition of knowledge capture, which is the initiation of knowledge management.

Keywords: Emergency Medical Service, Modeling, MBNQA, Thailand.

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20 Capture Zone of a Well Field in an Aquifer Bounded by Two Parallel Streams

Authors: S. Nagheli, N. Samani, D. A. Barry

Abstract:

In this paper, the velocity potential and stream function of capture zone for a well field in an aquifer bounded by two parallel streams with or without a uniform regional flow of any directions are presented. The well field includes any number of extraction or injection wells or a combination of both types with any pumping rates. To delineate the capture envelope, the potential and streamlines equations are derived by conformal mapping method. This method can help us to release constrains of other methods. The equations can be applied as useful tools to design in-situ groundwater remediation systems, to evaluate the surface–subsurface water interaction and to manage the water resources.

Keywords: Complex potential, conformal mapping, groundwater remediation, image well theory, Laplace’s equation, superposition principle.

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19 Protocol Modifications for Improved Co-Channel Wireless LAN Goodput in Partitioned Spaces

Authors: Raymond J. Jayabal, Chiew Tong Lau

Abstract:

Partitions can play a significant role in minimising cochannel interference of Wireless LANs by attenuating signals across room boundaries. This could pave the way towards higher density deployments in home and office environments through spatial channel reuse. Yet, due to protocol limitations, the latest incantation of IEEE 802.11 standard is still unable to take advantage of this fact: Despite having clearly adequate Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) over co-channel neighbouring networks in other rooms, its goodput falls significantly lower than its maximum in the absence of cochannel interferers. In this paper, we describe how this situation can be remedied via modest modifications to the standard.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN, spatial channel re-use, physical layer capture.

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18 Solubility of Water in CO2 Mixtures at Pipeline Operation Conditions

Authors: Mohammad Ahmad, Sander Gersen, Erwin Wilbers

Abstract:

Carbon capture, transport and underground storage have become a major solution to reduce CO2 emissions from power plants and other large CO2 sources. A big part of this captured CO2 stream is transported at high pressure dense phase conditions and stored in offshore underground depleted oil and gas fields. CO2 is also transported in offshore pipelines to be used for enhanced oil and gas recovery. The captured CO2 stream with impurities may contain water that causes severe corrosion problems, flow assurance failure and might damage valves and instrumentations. Thus, free water formation should be strictly prevented. The purpose of this work is to study the solubility of water in pure CO2 and in CO2 mixtures under real pipeline pressure (90-150 bar) and temperature operation conditions (5-35°C). A set up was constructed to generate experimental data. The results show the solubility of water in CO2 mixtures increasing with the increase of the temperature or/and with the increase in pressure. A drop in water solubility in CO2 is observed in the presence of impurities. The data generated were then used to assess the capabilities of two mixture models: the GERG-2008 model and the EOS-CG model. By generating the solubility data, this study contributes to determine the maximum allowable water content in CO2 pipelines.

Keywords: Carbon capture and storage, water solubility, equation of states.

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17 Parametric Analysis on Hydrogen Production using Mixtures of Pure Cellulosic and Calcium Oxide

Authors: N.A. Rashidi, S. Yusup, M.M. Ahmad

Abstract:

As the fossil fuels kept on depleting, intense research in developing hydrogen (H2) as the alternative fuel has been done to cater our tremendous demand for fuel. The potential of H2 as the ultimate clean fuel differs with the fossil fuel that releases significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the surrounding and leads to the global warming. The experimental work was carried out to study the production of H2 from palm kernel shell steam gasification at different variables such as heating rate, steam to biomass ratio and adsorbent to biomass ratio. Maximum H2 composition which is 61% (volume basis) was obtained at heating rate of 100oCmin-1, steam/biomass of 2:1 ratio, and adsorbent/biomass of 1:1 ratio. The commercial adsorbent had been modified by utilizing the alcoholwater mixture. Characteristics of both adsorbents were investigated and it is concluded that flowability and floodability of modified CaO is significantly improved.

Keywords: Biomass gasification, Calcium oxide, Carbon dioxide capture, Sorbent flowability

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16 Evaluating the Interactions of Co2-Ionic Liquid Systems through Molecular Modeling

Authors: S. Yamini Sudha, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Owing to the stringent environmental legislations, CO2 capture and sequestration is one of the viable solutions to reduce the CO2 emissions from various sources. In this context, Ionic liquids (ILs) are being investigated as suitable absorption media for CO2 capture. Due to their non-evaporative, non-toxic, and non-corrosive nature, these ILs have the potential to replace the existing solvents like aqueous amine solutions for CO2 separation technologies. Thus, the present work aims at studying the important aspects such as the interactions of CO2 molecule with different anions (F-, Br-, Cl-, NO3 -, BF4 -, PF6 -, Tf2N-, and CF3SO3 -) that are commonly used in ILs through molecular modeling. In this, the minimum energy structures have been obtained using Ab initio based calculations at MP2 (Moller-Plesset perturbation) level. Results revealed various degrees of distortion of CO2 molecule (from its linearity) with the anions studied, most likely due to the Lewis acid-base interactions between CO2 and anion. Furthermore, binding energies for the anion-CO2 complexes were also calculated. The implication of anion-CO2 interactions to the solubility of CO2 in ionic liquids is also discussed.

Keywords: CO2, Ionic liquids, capture, molecular modeling, sequestration.

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15 ISME: Integrated Style Motion Editor for 3D Humanoid Character

Authors: Ismahafezi Ismail, Mohd Shahrizal Sunar

Abstract:

The motion of a realistic 3D humanoid character is very important especially for the industries developing computer animations and games. However, this type of motion is seen with a very complex dimensional data as well as body position, orientation, and joint rotation. Integrated Style Motion Editor (ISME), on the other hand, is a method used to alter the 3D humanoid motion capture data utilised in computer animation and games development. Therefore, this study was carried out with the purpose of demonstrating a method that is able to manipulate and deform different motion styles by integrating Key Pose Deformation Technique and Trajectory Control Technique. This motion editing method allows the user to generate new motions from the original motion capture data using a simple interface control. Unlike the previous method, our method produces a realistic humanoid motion style in real time.

Keywords: Computer animation, humanoid motion, motion capture, motion editing.

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14 Toward Strengthening Social Resilience: A Case Study on Recovery of Capture Fisheries after Asia's Tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia

Authors: Zulhamsyah Imran, Masahiro Yamao

Abstract:

Social resilience has role to govern the local community and coastal fisheries resources toward sustainable fisheries development in tsunami affected area. This paper asses, explore and investigates of indigenous institutions, external and internal facilitators toward strengthening social resilience. Identification of the genuine organizations role had been conducted twice by using Rapid Assessment Appraisal, Focus Group Discussion, and in-depth interview for collecting primary and secondary data. Local wisdom had a contribution and adaptable to rebound social resilience. The Panglima Laot Lhok (sea commander) had determined and adapted role on recovery of the fishing community, particularly facilitated aid delivery to fishermen, as shown in anchovy fisheries relief case in Krueng Raya Bay. Toke Bangku (financial trader) had stimulated for reinforcement of advance payment and market channel. The other institutions supported upon linking and bridging connectivity among stakeholders. Collaborative governance can avoid conflict, reduce donor dependency and strengthen social resilience within fishing community.

Keywords: Fishing community, indigenous institution, adaptive role, collaborative, social resilience.

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13 An Immersive Motion Capture Environment

Authors: Daniel Kade, Oğuzhan Özcan, Rikard Lindell

Abstract:

Motion capturing technology has been used for quite a while and several research has been done within this area. Nevertheless, we discovered open issues within current motion capturing environments. In this paper we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the addressed research areas and show issues with current motion capturing environments. Observations, interviews and questionnaires have been used to reveal the challenges actors are currently facing in a motion capturing environment. Furthermore, the idea to create a more immersive motion capturing environment to improve the acting performances and motion capturing outcomes as a potential solution is introduced. It is hereby the goal to explain the found open issues and the developed ideas which shall serve for further research as a basis. Moreover, a methodology to address the interaction and systems design issues is proposed. A future outcome could be that motion capture actors are able to perform more naturally, especially if using a non-body-worn solution.

Keywords: Immersive acting environment, Interaction in a mediated environment, Motion capturing, MoCap.

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12 Experimental and Numerical Study on the Effects of Oxygen Methane Flames with Water Dilution for Different Pressures

Authors: J. P. Chica Cano, G. Cabot, S. de Persis, F. Foucher

Abstract:

Among all possibilities to combat global warming, CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) is presented as a great alternative to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Several strategies for CCS from industrial and power plants are being considered. The concept of combined oxy-fuel combustion has been the most alternative solution. Nevertheless, due to the high cost of pure O2 production, additional ways recently emerged. In this paper, an innovative combustion process for a gas turbine cycle was studied: it was composed of methane combustion with oxygen enhanced air (OEA), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and H2O issuing from STIG (Steam Injection Gas Turbine), and the CO2 capture was realized by membrane separator. The effect on this combustion process was emphasized, and it was shown that a study of the influence of H2O dilution on the combustion parameters by experimental and numerical approaches had to be carried out. As a consequence, the laminar burning velocities measurements were performed in a stainless steel spherical combustion from atmospheric pressure to high pressure (up to 0.5 MPa), at 473 K for an equivalence ratio at 1. These experimental results were satisfactorily compared with Chemical Workbench v.4.1 package in conjunction with GRIMech 3.0 reaction mechanism. The good correlations so obtained between experimental and calculated flame speed velocities showed the validity of the GRIMech 3.0 mechanism in this domain of combustion: high H2O dilution, low N2, medium pressure. Finally, good estimations of flame speed and pollutant emissions were determined in other conditions compatible with real gas turbine. In particular, mixtures (composed of CH4/O2/N2/H2O/ or CO2) leading to the same adiabatic temperature were investigated. Influences of oxygen enrichment and H2O dilution (compared to CO2) were disused.

Keywords: CO2 capture, oxygen enrichment, water dilution, laminar burning velocity, pollutants emissions.

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11 The Biomechanics of Cycling with a Transtibial Prosthesis: A Case Study of a Professional Cyclist

Authors: D. Koutny, D. Palousek, P. Stoklasek, J. Rosicky, L. Tepla, M. Prochazkova, Z. Svoboda, P. Krejci

Abstract:

The article deals with biomechanics of cyclist with unilateral transtibial amputation. Transtibial amputation completely removes ankle and part of muscles of a lower leg which are responsible for production of force during pedaling and causes significant geometric and power asymmetry between the limbs during cycling movement. The primary goal of this work is to assess the effects of length adjustment of the crank on the kinematics and muscle activity of cyclist. The paper presents experimental work, which aims to find a suitable ratio of the length of kinematic components to improve overall athletic performance. The study presents the results of the kinematic analysis of the cycling movement with different crank length realized by tracking camera system together with the results of muscle activity measurements captured by electromyography and measurement of forces in the cranks by strain gauges.

Keywords: Amputation, electromyography, kinematics of cycling, leg asymmetry, motion capture, transtibial prosthesis.

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10 3D Rendering of American Sign Language Finger-Spelling: A Comparative Study of Two Animation Techniques

Authors: Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

Abstract:

In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the most effective animation technique for representing ASL (American Sign Language) finger-spelling. Specifically, in the study we compare two commonly used 3D computer animation methods (keyframe animation and motion capture) in order to ascertain which technique produces the most 'accurate', 'readable', and 'close to actual signing' (i.e. realistic) rendering of ASL finger-spelling. To accomplish this goal we have developed 20 animated clips of fingerspelled words and we have designed an experiment consisting of a web survey with rating questions. 71 subjects ages 19-45 participated in the study. Results showed that recognition of the words was correlated with the method used to animate the signs. In particular, keyframe technique produced the most accurate representation of the signs (i.e., participants were more likely to identify the words correctly in keyframed sequences rather than in motion captured ones). Further, findings showed that the animation method had an effect on the reported scores for readability and closeness to actual signing; the estimated marginal mean readability and closeness was greater for keyframed signs than for motion captured signs. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at measuring and comparing accuracy, readability and realism of ASL animations produced with different techniques.

Keywords: 3D Animation, American Sign Language, DeafEducation, Motion Capture.

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9 Data Mining to Capture User-Experience: A Case Study in Notebook Product Appearance Design

Authors: Rhoann Kerh, Chen-Fu Chien, Kuo-Yi Lin

Abstract:

In the era of rapidly increasing notebook market, consumer electronics manufacturers are facing a highly dynamic and competitive environment. In particular, the product appearance is the first part for user to distinguish the product from the product of other brands. Notebook product should differ in its appearance to engage users and contribute to the user experience (UX). The UX evaluates various product concepts to find the design for user needs; in addition, help the designer to further understand the product appearance preference of different market segment. However, few studies have been done for exploring the relationship between consumer background and the reaction of product appearance. This study aims to propose a data mining framework to capture the user’s information and the important relation between product appearance factors. The proposed framework consists of problem definition and structuring, data preparation, rules generation, and results evaluation and interpretation. An empirical study has been done in Taiwan that recruited 168 subjects from different background to experience the appearance performance of 11 different portable computers. The results assist the designers to develop product strategies based on the characteristics of consumers and the product concept that related to the UX, which help to launch the products to the right customers and increase the market shares. The results have shown the practical feasibility of the proposed framework.

Keywords: Consumers Decision Making, Product Design, Rough Set Theory, User Experience.

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8 Multi Band Frequency Synthesizer Based on ISPD PLL with Adapted LC Tuned VCO

Authors: Bilel Gassara, Mahmoud Abdellaoui, Nouri Masmoud

Abstract:

The 4G front-end transceiver needs a high performance which can be obtained mainly with an optimal architecture and a multi-band Local Oscillator. In this study, we proposed and presented a new architecture of multi-band frequency synthesizer based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (ISPD PLL) without any filters and any controlled gain block and associated with adapted multi band LC tuned VCO using a several numeric controlled capacitive branches but not binary weighted. The proposed architecture, based on 0.35μm CMOS process technology, supporting Multi-band GSM/DCS/DECT/ UMTS/WiMax application and gives a good performances: a phase noise @1MHz -127dBc and a Factor Of Merit (FOM) @ 1MHz - 186dB and a wide band frequency range (from 0.83GHz to 3.5GHz), that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic integration and 4G multi-band application.

Keywords: GSM/DCS/DECT/UMTS/WiMax, ISPD PLL, keep and capture range, Multi-Band, Synthesizer, Wireless.

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7 Discovery and Capture of Organizational Knowledge from Unstructured Information

Authors: J. Gu, W.B. Lee, C.F. Cheung, E. Tsui, W.M. Wang

Abstract:

Knowledge of an organization does not merely reside in structured form of information and data; it is also embedded in unstructured form. The discovery of such knowledge is particularly difficult as the characteristic is dynamic, scattered, massive and multiplying at high speed. Conventional methods of managing unstructured information are considered too resource demanding and time consuming to cope with the rapid information growth. In this paper, a Multi-faceted and Automatic Knowledge Elicitation System (MAKES) is introduced for the purpose of discovery and capture of organizational knowledge. A trial implementation has been conducted in a public organization to achieve the objective of decision capture and navigation from a number of meeting minutes which are autonomously organized, classified and presented in a multi-faceted taxonomy map in both document and content level. Key concepts such as critical decision made, key knowledge workers, knowledge flow and the relationship among them are elicited and displayed in predefined knowledge model and maps. Hence, the structured knowledge can be retained, shared and reused. Conducting Knowledge Management with MAKES reduces work in searching and retrieving the target decision, saves a great deal of time and manpower, and also enables an organization to keep pace with the knowledge life cycle. This is particularly important when the amount of unstructured information and data grows extremely quickly. This system approach of knowledge management can accelerate value extraction and creation cycles of organizations.

Keywords: Knowledge-Based System, Knowledge Elicitation, Knowledge Management, Taxonomy, Unstructured Information Management

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6 Sensorless Sliding Power Control of Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generator Based on MRAS Observer

Authors: Hicham Serhoud, Djilani Benattous

Abstract:

In this paper present a sensorless maximum wind power extraction for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind power generation systems with a doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG), to ensure stability and to impose the ideal feedback control solution despite of model uncertainties , using the principles of an active and reactive power controller (DPC) a robust sliding mode power control has been proposed to guarantees fast response times and precise control actions for control the active and reactive power independently. The simulation results in MATLAB/Simulink platform confirmed the good dynamic performance of power control approach for DFIGbased variable speed wind turbines.

Keywords: Doubly fed induction generator , sliding modecontrol, maximal wind energy capture, MRAS estimator

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5 Experimental Study on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles Transported in an Implant Assisted Cylindrical Tube under Magnetic Field

Authors: Anurag Gaur, Nidhi, Shashi Sharma

Abstract:

Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. This improves efficacy of the while reducing side effects. In the present work, we investigate the effect of magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration on the capturing of magnetic particles transported in a stent implanted fluidic channel. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added in the de-ionized (DI) water to prepare the Fe3O4 magnetic particle suspended fluid. This fluid is transported in a cylindrical tube of diameter 8 mm with help of a peristaltic pump at different flow rate (25-40 ml/min). A ferromagnetic coil of SS 430 has been implanted inside the cylindrical tube to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field. The capturing of magnetic nanoparticles was observed at different magnetic magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration. It is observed that capture efficiency increases from 47-67% at magnetic field 2-5kG, respectively at particle concentration 0.6mg/ml and at flow rate 30 ml/min. However, the capture efficiency decreases from 65 to 44% by increasing the flow rate from 25 to 40 ml/min, respectively. Furthermore, it is observed that capture efficiency increases from 51 to 67% by increasing the particle concentration from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: Capture efficiency, Implant assisted-Magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT), Magnetic nanoparticles, in vitro study.

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