Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 746

Search results for: Mishrif Formation.

746 Determination of Lithology, Porosity and Water Saturation for Mishrif Carbonate Formation

Authors: F. S. Kadhim, A. Samsuri, H. Alwan

Abstract:

Well logging records can help to answer many questions from a wide range of special interested information and basic petrophysical properties to formation evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. The accurate calculations of porosity in carbonate reservoirs are the most challenging aspects of the well logging analysis. Many equations have been developed over the years based on known physical principles or on empirically derived relationships, which are used to calculate porosity, estimate lithology, and water saturation; however these parameters are calculated from well logs by using modern technique in a current study. Nasiriya oil field is one of the giant oilfields in the Middle East, and the formation under study is the Mishrif carbonate formation which is the shallowest hydrocarbon bearing zone in this oilfield. Neurolog software was used to digitize the scanned copies of the available logs. Environmental corrections had been made as per Schlumberger charts 2005, which supplied in the Interactive Petrophysics software. Three saturation models have been used to calculate water saturation of carbonate formations, which are simple Archie equation, Dual water model, and Indonesia model. Results indicate that the Mishrif formation consists mainly of limestone, some dolomite, and shale. The porosity interpretation shows that the logging tools have a good quality after making the environmental corrections. The average formation water saturation for Mishrif formation is around 0.4- 0.6.This study is provided accurate behavior of petrophysical properties with depth for this formation by using modern software.

Keywords: Lithology, Porosity, Water Saturation, Carbonate Formation, Mishrif Formation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3686
745 Stratigraghy and Identifying Boundaries of Mozduran Formation with Magnetite Method in East Kopet-Dagh Basin

Authors: Z. Kadivar, M. Vahidinia, A. Mousavinia

Abstract:

Kopet-Dagh Mountain Range is located in the north and northeast of Iran. Mozduran Formation in the east of Kopet-Dagh is mainly composed of limestone, dolomite, with shale and sandstone interbedded. Mozduran Formation is reservoir rock of the Khangiran gas field. The location of the study was east Kopet-Dagh basin (Northeast Iran) where the deliberate thickness of formation is 418 meters. In the present study, a total of 57 samples were gathered. Moreover, 100 thin sections were made out of 52 samples. According to the findings of the thin section study, 18 genera and nine species of foraminifera and algae were identified. Based on the index fossils, the age of the Mozduran Formation was identified as Upper Jurassic (Kimmerdgian-Tithonian) in the east of Kopet-Dagh basin. According to the magnetite data (total intensity and RTP map), there is a disconformity (low intensity) between the Kashaf-Rood Formation and Mozduran Formation. At the top, where among Mozduran Formation and Shurijeh Formation, is high intensity and a widespread disconformity (high intensity).

Keywords: Upper Jurassic, magnetometer, Mozduran formation, stratigraphy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 740
744 Formation Control of Mobile Robots

Authors: Krishna S. Raghuwaiya, Shonal Singh, Jito Vanualailai

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the formation control problem for car-like mobile robots. A team of nonholonomic mobile robots navigate in a terrain with obstacles, while maintaining a desired formation, using a leader-following strategy. A set of artificial potential field functions is proposed using the direct Lyapunov method for the avoidance of obstacles and attraction to their designated targets. The effectiveness of the proposed control laws to verify the feasibility of the model is demonstrated through computer simulations

Keywords: Control, Formation, Lyapunov, Nonholonomic

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
743 Early Formation of Adipocere in Subtropical Climate

Authors: Asit K Sikary, O. P. Murty

Abstract:

In this study, we have collected cases with adipocere formation, which were from the South Delhi region (average room temperature 27-390C) and autopsied at our centre. Details of the circumstances of the death, cause and time of death, surrounding environment and demographic profile of the deceased were taken into account. Total 16 cases were included in this study. Adipocere formation was predominantly present over cheeks, shoulder, breast, flanks, buttocks, and thighs. Out of 16, 11 cases were found in a dry atmosphere, 5 cases were brought from the water. There were 5 cases in which adipocere formation was seen in less than 2 days, and among them, in 1 case, as early as one day. This study showed that adipocere formation can be seen as early as 1 day in a hot and humid environment.

Keywords: Adipocere, drowning, hanging, humid environment, strangulation, subtropical climate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1462
742 Investigation of Recirculation Effects on the Formation of Vapor Bubbles in Centrifugal Pump Blades

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Shervani Tabar, Seyyed Hojjat Majidi, Zahra Poursharifi

Abstract:

Cavitation in pumps is known as the formation of vapor bubbles due to pressure drop and collapsing these bubbles. In some conditions, it has been observed that the formation of bubbles occurs at the pressure side of centrifugal pump blades. In this study, the formation of bubbles at the pressure side of blades has been investigated. Water is used in this study as the fluid and performance curves were depicted for different flow rates in an approximately constant speed. The results show that when a centrifugal pump works in low flow rates, a secondary flow namely recirculation starts to begin. In this condition, separation of flow increases which causes vortex formation and local pressure drop and eventually the formation of vapor bubbles starts.

Keywords: Cavitation, Centrifugal pump, Recirculation, Vapor bubble.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3770
741 An Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Selected Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Formation in Libya (1970–2010)

Authors: Khaled Ramadan Elbeydi

Abstract:

This study is carried out to provide an insight into the analysis of the impact of selected macro-economic variables on gross fixed capital formation in Libya using annual data over the period (1970-2010). The importance of this study comes from the ability to show the relative important factors that impact the Libyan gross fixed capital formation. This understanding would give indications to decision makers on which policy they must focus to stimulate the economy. An Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) modeling process is employed to investigate the impact of the Gross Domestic Product, Monetary Base and Trade Openness on Gross Fixed Capital Formation in Libya. The results of this study reveal that there is an equilibrium relationship between capital formation and its determinants. The results also indicate that GDP and trade openness largely explain the pattern of capital formation in Libya. The findings and recommendations provide vital information relevant for policy formulation and implementation aimed to improve capital formation in Libya.

Keywords: ARDL, Bounds test, capital formation, Cointegration, Libya.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1464
740 High Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy and Depositional Environment of Pabdeh Formation in Dashte – Arjan Area (Shiraz, Fars, Zagros, Iran)

Authors: Mirzaee Mahmoodabadi Reza, Afghah Massih, Saeedi Somaye

Abstract:

Pabdeh shaly formation (Paleocene-Oligomiocene) has been expanded in Fars, Khozestan and Lorestan. The lower lithostratigraphic limit of this formation in Shiraz area is distinguished from Gurpi formation by purple shale. Its upper limit is gradational and conformable with Asmari formation. In order to study sequence stratigraphy and microfacies of Pabdeh formation in Shiraz area, one stratigraphic section have been chosen (Zanjiran section). Petrographic studies resulted in the identification of 9 pelagic and calciturbidite microfacies. The calciturbidite microfacies have been formed when the sea level was high, the rate of carbonate deposition was high and it slumped into the deep marine. Sequence stratigraphy studies show that Pabdeh formation in the studied zone consists of two depositional sequences (DS) that the lower contact is erosional (purple shale - type one, SBI or type two, SB2) and the upper contact is correlative conformity (type two, SB2).

Keywords: Pabdeh formation, Shiraz, Microfacies, Purple Shale, Zanjiran Section, Sequence Stratigraphy

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2128
739 Application of Robot Formation Scheme for Screening Solar Energy in a Greenhouse

Authors: George K. Fourlas, Konstantinos Kalovrektis, Evangelos Fountas

Abstract:

Many agricultural and especially greenhouse applications like plant inspection, data gathering, spraying and selective harvesting could be performed by robots. In this paper multiple nonholonomic robots are used in order to create a desired formation scheme for screening solar energy in a greenhouse through data gathering. The formation consists from a leader and a team member equipped with appropriate sensors. Each robot is dedicated to its mission in the greenhouse that is predefined by the requirements of the application. The feasibility of the proposed application includes experimental results with three unmanned ground vehicles (UGV).

Keywords: Greenhouses application, robot formation, solarenergy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1321
738 Effect of Curing Profile to Eliminate the Voids / Black Dots Formation in Underfill Epoxy for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Packaging

Authors: Zainudin Kornain, Azman Jalar, Rozaidi Rasid, Fong Chee Seng

Abstract:

Void formation in underfill is considered as failure in flip chip manufacturing process. Void formation possibly caused by several factors such as poor soldering and flux residue during die attach process, void entrapment due moisture contamination, dispense pattern process and setting up the curing process. This paper presents the comparison of single step and two steps curing profile towards the void and black dots formation in underfill for Hi-CTE Flip Chip Ceramic Ball Grid Array Package (FC-CBGA). Statistic analysis was conducted to analyze how different factors such as wafer lot, sawing technique, underfill fillet height and curing profile recipe were affected the formation of voids and black dots. A C-Mode Scanning Aqoustic Microscopy (C-SAM) was used to scan the total count of voids and black dots. It was shown that the 2 steps curing profile provided solution for void elimination and black dots in underfill after curing process.

Keywords: black dots formation, curing profile, FC-CBGA, underfill, void formation,

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3763
737 Sedimentological Study of Bivalve Fossils Site Locality in Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Thailand

Authors: Kritsada Moonpa, Kannipa Motanated, Weerapan Srichan

Abstract:

Hong Hoi Formation is a Middle Triassic deep marine succession presented in outcrops throughout the Lampang Basin of northern Thailand. The primary goal of this research is to diagnose the paleoenvironment, petrographic compositions, and sedimentary sources of the Hong Hoi Formation in Ban Huat, Ngao District. The Triassic Hong Hoi Formation is chosen because the outcrops are continuous and fossils are greatly exposed and abundant. Depositional environment is reconstructed through sedimentological studies along with facies analysis. The Hong Hoi Formation is petrographically divided into two major facies, they are: sandstones with mudstone interbeds, and mudstones or shale with sandstone interbeds. Sandstone beds are lithic arenite and lithic greywacke, volcanic lithic fragments are dominated. Sedimentary structures, paleocurrent data and lithofacies arrangement indicate that the formation deposited in a part of deep marine abyssal plain environment. The sedimentological and petrographic features suggest that during the deposition the Hong Hoi Formation received sediment supply from nearby volcanic arc. This suggested that the intensive volcanic activity within the Sukhothai Arc during the Middle Triassic is the main sediment source.

Keywords: Sukhothai Zone, petrography, Hong Hoi Formation, Lampang, Triassic.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 296
736 Application of Argumentation for Improving the Classification Accuracy in Inductive Concept Formation

Authors: Vadim Vagin, Marina Fomina, Oleg Morosin

Abstract:

This paper contains the description of argumentation approach for the problem of inductive concept formation. It is proposed to use argumentation, based on defeasible reasoning with justification degrees, to improve the quality of classification models, obtained by generalization algorithms. The experiment’s results on both clear and noisy data are also presented.

Keywords: Argumentation, justification degrees, inductive concept formation, noise, generalization.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1322
735 Clay Mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation in Shewasoor Area: Northeastern Kirkuk City, Iraq

Authors: Abbas R. Ali, Diana A. Bayiz

Abstract:

14 mudstone samples were collected within the sedimentary succession of Mukdadiya Formation (Late Miocene – Early Pliocene) from Shewasoor area at Northeastern Iraq. The samples were subjected to laboratory studies including mineralogical analysis (using X-ray Diffraction technique) in order to identify the clay mineralogy of Mukdadiya Formation of both clay and non-clay minerals. The results of non-clay minerals are: quartz, feldspar and carbonate (calcite and dolomite) minerals. The clay minerals are: montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, chlorite, and illite by the major basal reflections of each mineral. The origins of these minerals are deduced also.

Keywords: Clay minerals, formation, Mukdadiya mudstone, Shewasoor, XRD.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1248
734 An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation Protocol with Low Latency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Abstract:

Data gathering is an essential operation in wireless sensor network applications. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network. Similarly, clustering is also an effective technique to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy efficient cluster formation protocol is proposed with the objective of achieving low energy dissipation and latency without sacrificing application specific quality. The objective is achieved by applying randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation and localized control for data transfers. It involves application - specific data processing, such as data aggregation or compression. The cluster formation algorithm allows each node to make independent decisions, so as to generate good clusters as the end. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol utilizes minimum energy and latency for cluster formation, there by reducing the overhead of the protocol.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Low latency, Energy sorting protocol, data processing, Cluster formation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2470
733 Ni Metallization on SiGe Nanowire

Authors: Y. Li, K. Buddharaju, X. P. Wang

Abstract:

The mechanism of nickel (Ni) metallization in silicon-germanium (Si0.5Ge0.5) alloy nanowire (NW) was studied. Transmission electron microscope imaging with in-situ annealing was conducted at temperatures of 200oC to 600°C. During rapid formation of Ni germanosilicide, loss of material from from the SiGe NW occurred which led to the formation of a thin Ni germanosilicide filament and eventual void. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis along the SiGe NW before and after annealing determined that Ge atoms tend to out-diffuse from the Ni germanosilicide towards the Ni source in the course of annealing. A model for the Ni germanosilicide formation in SiGe NW is proposed to explain this observation.

Keywords: SiGe, nanowires, germanosilicide.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1502
732 Innovative Methods of Improving Train Formation in Freight Transport

Authors: Jaroslav Masek, Juraj Camaj, Eva Nedeliakova

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the operational model for transport the single wagon consignments on railway network by using two different models of train formation. The paper gives an overview of possibilities of improving the quality of transport services. Paper deals with two models used in problematic of train formatting - time continuously and time discrete. By applying these models in practice, the transport company can guarantee a higher quality of service and expect increasing of transport performance. The models are also applicable into others transport networks. The models supplement a theoretical problem of train formation by new ways of looking to affecting the organization of wagon flows.

Keywords: Train formation, wagon flows, marshalling yard, railway technology.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1756
731 Experimental Investigation of a Mixture of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen Gas Hydrate Formation in Water-Based Drilling Mud in the Presence or Absence of Thermodynamic Inhibitors

Authors: F. Esmaeilzadeh, Y. Fayazi, J. Fathikaljahi

Abstract:

Gas hydrates form when a number of factors co-exist: free water, hydrocarbon gas, cold temperatures and high pressures are typical of the near mud-line conditions in a deepwater drilling operation. Subsequently, when drilling with water based muds, particularly on exploration wells, the risk of hydrate formation associated with a gas influx is high. The consequences of gas hydrate formation while drilling are severe, and as such, every effort should be made to ensure the risk of hydrate formation is either eliminated or significantly reduced. Thermodynamic inhibitors are used to reduce the free water content of a drilling mud, and thus suppress the hydrate formation temperature. Very little experimental work has been performed by oil and gas research companies on the evaluation of gas hydrate formation in a water-based drilling mud. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the experimental gas hydrate formation for a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide & nitrogen in a water-based drilling mud with or without presence of different concentrations of thermodynamic inhibitors including pure salt and a combination of salt with methanol or ethylene glycol at different concentrations in a static loop apparatus. The experiments were performed using a static loop apparatus consisting of a 2.4307 cm inside diameter and 800 cm long pipe. All experiments were conducted at 2200 psia. The temperature in the loop was decreased at a rate of 3.33 °F/h from initial temperature of 80 °F.

Keywords: Hydrate formation, thermodynamic inhibitor, waterbaseddrilling mud, salt, static loop apparatus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1509
730 Fuzzy Separation Bearing Control for Mobile Robots Formation

Authors: A. Bazoula, H. Maaref

Abstract:

In this article we address the problem of mobile robot formation control. Indeed, the most work, in this domain, have studied extensively classical control for keeping a formation of mobile robots. In this work, we design an FLC (Fuzzy logic Controller) controller for separation and bearing control (SBC). Indeed, the leader mobile robot is controlled to follow an arbitrary reference path, and the follower mobile robot use the FSBC (Fuzzy Separation and Bearing Control) to keep constant relative distance and constant angle to the leader robot. The efficiency and simplicity of this control law has been proven by simulation on different situation.

Keywords: Autonomous mobile robot, Formation control, Fuzzy logic control, Multiple robots, Leader-Follower.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1462
729 A hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm to Cell Formation Problem and its Variants

Authors: Tai-Hsi Wu, Jinn-Yi Yeh, Chin-Chih Chang

Abstract:

Cell formation is the first step in the design of cellular manufacturing systems. In this study, a general purpose computational scheme employing a hybrid tabu search algorithm as the core is proposed to solve the cell formation problem and its variants. In the proposed scheme, great flexibilities are left to the users. The core solution searching algorithm embedded in the scheme can be easily changed to any other meta-heuristic algorithms, such as the simulated annealing, genetic algorithm, etc., based on the characteristics of the problems to be solved or the preferences the users might have. In addition, several counters are designed to control the timing of conducting intensified solution searching and diversified solution searching strategies interactively.

Keywords: Cell formation problem, Tabu search

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1482
728 Chip Formation during Turning Multiphase Microalloyed Steel

Authors: V.Sivaraman, S. Sankaran, L. Vijayaraghavan

Abstract:

Machining through turning was carried out in a lathe to study the chip formation of Multiphase Ferrite (F-B-M) microalloyed steel. Taguchi orthogonal array was employed to perform the machining. Continuous and discontinuous chips were formed for different cutting parameters like speed, feed and depth of cut. Optical and scanning electron microscope was employed to identify the chip morphology.

Keywords: Multiphase microalloyed steel, chip formation, Taguchi technique, turning, cutting parameters

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1399
727 Thermodynamic Approach of Lanthanide-Iron Double Oxides Formation

Authors: Vera Varazashvili, Murman Tsarakhov, Tamar Mirianashvili, Teimuraz Pavlenishvili, Tengiz Machaladze, Mzia Khundadze

Abstract:

Standard Gibbs energy of formation ΔGfor(298.15) of lanthanide-iron double oxides of garnet-type crystal structure R3Fe5O12 - RIG (R – are rare earth ions) from initial oxides are evaluated. The calculation is based on the data of standard entropies S298.15 and standard enthalpies ΔH298.15 of formation of compounds which are involved in the process of garnets synthesis. Gibbs energy of formation is presented as temperature function ΔGfor(T) for the range 300-1600K. The necessary starting thermodynamic data were obtained from calorimetric study of heat capacity – temperature functions and by using the semi-empirical method for calculation of ΔH298.15 of formation. Thermodynamic functions for standard temperature – enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy - are recommended as reference data for technological evaluations. Through the structural series of rare earth-iron garnets the correlation between thermodynamic properties and characteristics of lanthanide ions are elucidated.

Keywords: Calorimetry, entropy, enthalpy, heat capacity, gibbs energy of formation, rare earth iron garnets.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1595
726 Influence of After Body Shape on the Performance of Blunt Shaped Bodies as Vortex Shedders

Authors: Lavish Ordia, A. Venugopal, Amit Agrawal, S. V. Prabhu

Abstract:

The present study explores flow visualization experiments with various blunt shaped bluff bodies placed inside a circular pipe. The bodies mainly comprise of modifications of trapezoidal cylinder, most widely used in practical applications, such as vortex flowmeters. The present configuration possesses the feature of both internal and external flows with low aspect ratio. The vortex dynamics of bluff bodies in such configuration is seldom reported in the literature. Dye injection technique is employed to visualize the complex vortex formation mechanism behind the bluff bodies. The influence of orientation, slit and after body shape is studied in an attempt to obtain better understanding of the vortex formation mechanism. Various wake parameters like Strouhal number, vortex formation length and wake width are documented for these shapes. Vortex formation both with and without shear layer interaction is observed for most of the shapes.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Reynolds number, Strouhal number, vortex, vortex formation length, wake width.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2654
725 Formation of Byproducts during Regeneration of Various Graphitic Adsorbents in a Batch Electrochemical Reactor

Authors: S. N. Hussain, H. M. A. Asghar, H. Sattar, N. W. Brown, E. P. L. Roberts

Abstract:

A water treatment technology employing the adsorption of dissolved organic contaminants from water and their electrochemical regeneration has been commercialized by Arvia Technology Ltd, UK. This technology focuses the adsorption of pollutants onto the surface of low surface area graphite based adsorbents followed by the anodic oxidation of adsorbed species in an electrochemical cell. However, some of the adsorbed species may lead to the formation of intermediate breakdown products due to incomplete oxidation. The information regarding the formation of breakdown products during electrochemical regeneration of these adsorbents is important for the effective application of this process to water treatment. In the present paper, the formation of the break down products during electrochemical regeneration of various graphite based adsorbents has been demonstrated.

Keywords: Arvia®, Adsorption, Electrochemical Regeneration, Breakdown products.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1549
724 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri

Abstract:

In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure, high temperature oxidation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 324
723 Examination of the Reasons for the Formation of Red Oil in Spent Caustic from Olefin Plant

Authors: Mehdi Seifollahi, Ashkan Forootan, Sajjad Bahrami Reyhan

Abstract:

Due to the complexity of olefinic plants, various environmental pollutants exist such as NOx, CO2, Tar Water, and most importantly Spent Caustic. In this paper, instead of investigating ways of treating this pollutant, we evaluated the production in relation to plant’s variable items. We primarily discussed the factors affecting the quality of the output spent caustic such as impurities in the feed of olefin plant, the amount of injected dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) in furnaces, variation in feed composition, differences among gas temperatures and the concentration of caustic solution at the bottom of the tower. The results of the laboratory proved that in the formation of Red Oil, 1,3butadiene and acetaldehyde followed free radical and aldol condensation mechanism respectively. By increasing the injection rate of DMDS, Mercaptide amount increases in the effluent. In addition, pyrolysis gasoline accumulation is directly related to caustic concentration in the tower. Increasing naphtenes in the liquid feed augments the amount of 1,3butadiene, as one of the sources of Red Oil formation. By increasing the oxygenated compound in the feed, the rate of acetaldehyde formation, as the main source of Red Oil formation, increases.

Keywords: Olefin, spent caustic, red oil, caustic wash tower.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1672
722 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

Abstract:

Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of selfsustain flight when a big airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in the airliner wake vortex. The paper presents results of a climb analysis with the goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliners cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Afterwards, flight performance of the UAV in a wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between an airliner and the UAV during a climb is determined. The results are encouraging. Therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: Flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1503
721 Effects of Initial State on Opinion Formation in Complex Social Networks with Noises

Authors: Yi Yu, Vu Xuan Nguyen, Gaoxi Xiao

Abstract:

Opinion formation in complex social networks may exhibit complex system dynamics even when based on some simplest system evolution models. An interesting and important issue is the effects of the initial state on the final steady-state opinion distribution. By carrying out extensive simulations and providing necessary discussions, we show that, while different initial opinion distributions certainly make differences to opinion evolution in social systems without noises, in systems with noises, given enough time, different initial states basically do not contribute to making any significant differences in the final steady state. Instead, it is the basal distribution of the preferred opinions that contributes to deciding the final state of the systems. We briefly explain the reasons leading to the observed conclusions. Such an observation contradicts with a long-term belief on the roles of system initial state in opinion formation, demonstrating the dominating role that opinion mutation can play in opinion formation given enough time. The observation may help to better understand certain observations of opinion evolution dynamics in real-life social networks.

Keywords: Opinion formation, Deffuant model, opinion mutation, consensus making.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 375
720 Effect of Calcium Chloride on Rheological Properties and Structure of Inulin - Whey Protein Gels

Authors: Pawel Glibowski, Agnieszka Glibowska

Abstract:

The rheological properties, structure and potential synergistic interactions of whey proteins (1-6%) and inulin (20%) in mixed gels in the presence of CaCl2 was the aim of this study. Whey proteins have a strong influence on inulin gel formation. At low concentrations (2%) whey proteins did not impair in inulin gel formation. At higher concentration (4%) whey proteins impaired inulin gelation and inulin impaired the formation of a Ca2+-induced whey protein network. The presence of whey proteins at a level allowing for protein gel network formation (6%) significantly increased the rheological parameters values of the gels. SEM micrographs showed that whey protein structure was coated by inulin moieties which could make the mixed gels firmer. The protein surface hydrophobicity measurements did not exclude synergistic interactions between inulin and whey proteins, however. The use of an electrophoretic technique did not show any stable inulin-whey protein complexes.

Keywords: gels, hydrophobicity, inulin, SEM, whey proteins.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1979
719 Formation of Civic Identity in the Process of Globalization: The Example of the U.S.A. and Kazakhstan

Authors: Elnura Assyltayeva, Zhanar Aldubasheva, Zhengisbek Tolen

Abstract:

An attempt has been made several times to identify and discuss the U.S. experience on the formation of political nation in political science. The purpose of this research paper is to identify the main aspects of the formation of civic identity in the United States and Kazakhstan, through the identification of similarities and differences that can get practical application in making decisions of national policy issues in the context of globalization, as well as to answer the questions “What should unite the citizens of Kazakhstan to the nation?" and “What should be the dominant identity: civil or ethnic (national) one?" Can Kazakhstan being multiethnic country like America, adopt its experience in the formation of a civic nation? Since it is believed that the “multi-ethnic state of the population is a characteristic feature of most modern countries in the world," it states that “inter-ethnic integration is one of the most important aspects of the problem of forming a new social community (metaetnic - Kazakh people, Kazakh nation" [1].

Keywords: nation, civic identity, nation building, globalization, interethnic relations, patriotism

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1902
718 Numerical Study of MHD Effects on Drop Formation in a T-Shaped Microchannel

Authors: M. Aghajani Haghighi, H. Emdad, K. Jafarpur, A. N. Ziaei

Abstract:

The effect of a uniform magnetic field on the formation of drops of specific size has been investigated numerically in a T-shaped microchannel. Previous researches indicated that the drop sizes of secondary stream decreases, with increasing main stream flow rate and decreasing interfacial tension. In the present study the effect of a uniform magnetic field on the main stream is considered, and it is proposed that by increasing the Hartmann number, the size of the drops of the secondary stream will be decreased.

Keywords: Drop formation, Magnetohydrodynamics, Microchannel, Volume-of-Fluid

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1414
717 Effect of High Injection Pressure on Mixture Formation, Burning Process and Combustion Characteristics in Diesel Combustion

Authors: Amir Khalid, B. Manshoor

Abstract:

The mixture formation prior to the ignition process plays as a key element in the diesel combustion. Parametric studies of mixture formation and ignition process in various injection parameter has received considerable attention in potential for reducing emissions. Purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of injection pressure on mixture formation and ignition especially during ignition delay period, which have to be significantly influences throughout the combustion process and exhaust emissions. This study investigated the effects of injection pressure on diesel combustion fundamentally using rapid compression machine. The detail behavior of mixture formation during ignition delay period was investigated using the schlieren photography system with a high speed camera. This method can capture spray evaporation, spray interference, mixture formation and flame development clearly with real images. Ignition process and flame development were investigated by direct photography method using a light sensitive high-speed color digital video camera. The injection pressure and air motion are important variable that strongly affect to the fuel evaporation, endothermic and prolysis process during ignition delay. An increased injection pressure makes spray tip penetration longer and promotes a greater amount of fuel-air mixing occurs during ignition delay. A greater quantity of fuel prepared during ignition delay period thus predominantly promotes more rapid heat release.

Keywords: Mixture Formation, Diesel Combustion, Ignition Process, Spray, Rapid Compression Machine.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2603