Search results for: nutrient synergy.
158 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability
Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan
This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.
Keywords: Bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, combinative nutrition, nutrient synergy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 988
157 Effect of Nutrient Supply on Yield and Photosynthetic Parameters of Maize Hybrids
Authors: L. G. Karancsi, K. Máriás
We examined the crop yield results of hybrids in 2012. We found out that in the control treatments the lowest yield was reached with the hybrid PR37M81: 10,012 kg ha-1. The highest yield was in case of hybrid P37N01: 11,581 kg ha-1. As we raised the nutrient doses the lowest yield of all examined nutrient levels was in case of hybrid PR37M81. We measured at N60+PK nutrient level 12,517 kg ha-1, at N120+PK nutrient level 12,760 kg ha-1, and at N150+PK nutrient level 12,535 kg ha-1 yield results. At N60+PK and N120+PK nutrient level the highest yield was reached with the hybrid P9494 (N60+PK: 13,970 kg ha-1, N120+PK: 13,871 kg ha-1). In case of the N150+PK fertilization treatment the hybrid P37N01 gave the highest yield results (13,962 kg ha-1).
Keywords: Hybrids, maize, nutrient levels, SPAD and LAI values.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1520
156 Simulation of “Net” Nutrients Removal by Green Mussel (Perna viridis) in Estuarine and Coastal Areas
Authors: Chayarat Tantanasarit, Sandhya Babel
Green mussels (Perna viridis) can effectively remove nutrients from seawater through their filtration process. This study aims to estimate “net” nutrient removal rate by green mussel through calculation of nutrient uptake and release. Nutrients (carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus) uptake was calculated based on the mussel filtration rate. Nutrient release was evaluated from carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus released as mussel faeces. By subtracting nutrient release from nutrient uptake, net nutrient removal by green mussel can be found as 3302, 380 and 124 mg/year/indv. Mass balance model was employed to simulate nutrient removal in actual green mussel farming conditions. Mussels farm area, seawater flow rate, and amount of mussels were considered in the model. Results show that although larger quantity of green mussel farms lead to higher nutrient removal rate, the maximum green mussel cultivation should be taken into consideration as nutrients released through mussel excretion can strongly affect marine ecosystem.
Keywords: Carbon, Excretion, Filtration, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2220
155 Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Chinese Family Businesses: Proposal for a Model of Work-Life Synergy
Authors: Jenny Oliveros Lao Phillips, Arturo E. Osorio, José Alves
Abstract:Family business are the dominant form of business in the world, and Chinese family business (CFB) is a unique type of family business that relies on collective action to survive. This paper argues that in CFBs, entrepreneurial actions are transgenerational collective endeavors, and successors are groomed as stewards of the family legacy. Work-life relationship in CFBs is about synergy and not balance because the family identity is the business identity, and vice-versa. Using five in-depth case studies, this research introduces an alternative understanding of CFBs and proposes a model of work-life synergy in transgenerational entrepreneurship based on discussion of five theory-based propositions. This model explains that through emphasizing on the business family’s shared value and entrepreneurial legacy, elements of trust, shared identity and stewardship of family members are enhanced which leads to collective action and goal of the business family, resulting in transgenerational entrepreneurship. Limitations and future research are presented.
Keywords: Chinese family business, family legacy, stewardship, transgenerational entrepreneurship, work-life synergy.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 789
154 Quantitative Analysis of Nutrient Inflow from River and Groundwater to Imazu Bay in Fukuoka, Japan
Authors: Keisuke Konishi, Yoshinari Hiroshiro, Kento Terashima, Atsushi Tsutsumi
Abstract:Imazu Bay plays an important role for endangered species such as horseshoe crabs and black-faced spoonbills that stay in the bay for spawning or the passing of winter. However, this bay is semi-enclosed with slow water exchange, which could lead to eutrophication under the condition of excess nutrient inflow to the bay. Therefore, quantification of nutrient inflow is of great importance. Generally, analysis of nutrient inflow to the bays takes into consideration nutrient inflow from only the river, but that from groundwater should not be ignored for more accurate results. The main objective of this study is to estimate the amounts of nutrient inflow from river and groundwater to Imazu Bay by analyzing water budget in Zuibaiji River Basin and loads of T-N, T-P, NO3-N and NH4-N. The water budget computation in the basin is performed using groundwater recharge model and quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, and the multiplication of the measured amount of nutrient inflow with the computed discharge gives the total amount of nutrient inflow to the bay. In addition, in order to evaluate nutrient inflow to the bay, the result is compared with nutrient inflow from geologically similar river basins. The result shows that the discharge is 3.50×107 m3/year from the river and 1.04×107 m3/year from groundwater. The submarine groundwater discharge accounts for approximately 23 % of the total discharge, which is large compared to the other river basins. It is also revealed that the total nutrient inflow is not particularly large. The sum of NO3-N and NH4-N loadings from groundwater is less than 10 % of that from the river because of denitrification in groundwater. The Shin Seibu Sewage Treatment Plant located below the observation points discharges treated water of 15,400 m3/day and plans to increase it. However, the loads of T-N and T-P from the treatment plant are 3.9 mg/L and 0.19 mg/L, so that it does not contribute a lot to eutrophication.
Keywords: Eutrophication, groundwater recharge model, nutrient inflow, quasi three-dimensional two-phase groundwater flow model, Submarine groundwater discharge.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1064
153 Seasonal Variations and Different Irrigation Programs on Nutrient Concentrations of 'Starkrimson Delicious' Apple Variety
Authors: Zeliha Küçükyumuk, Cenk Küçükyumuk, İbrahim Erdal, Figen Eraslan
Abstract:This study was aimed to determine seasonal variations of leaf nutrient concentrations to define nutrient needs related to growing period and to compare irrigation programs in terms of nutrient uptake. In this study,'Starkrimson Delicious' variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used during 2009-2010 growing seasons. The study was conducted at E─ƒirdir Fruit Growing Research Station. Leaf samples were taken in five different sample seasons (May, June, July, August and September). Four different pan coefficients (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25) were applied during drip irrigation treatments in 7 days irrigation interval. Leaf K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined. The results showed that among the seasonal changes, the highest concentrations of K, Mg, P and Mn in leaves were recorded in May, followed by a decrease in the other months, while in contrast Ca and Fe showed the lowest concentration in May. Results of the study demonstrate that among irrigation programs K and Cu concentration in plants was significantly influenced. Cu concentrations decreased with seasonal variations and different irrigation programs. Thus, nutrient needs of 'Starkrimson Delicious'apple trees at different growth stages should be taken into consideration before making effective fertilization program.
Keywords: Apple orchard, irrigation programs, seasonal variations, nutrient concentrations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
152 The Effect of a Nutrient Fortified Oat Drink on Iron, Zinc, Vitamin A, and Vitamin C Status among Filipino Children
Authors: Imelda Angeles-Agdeppa, Anne C. Kurilich, Yashna Harjani, Mario V. Capanzana
The effectiveness of consuming a nutrient fortified oat drink on iron, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C status was assessed among a cohort of school-aged Filipino children. Ultimate study implementation permitted only a within-subject comparison of change in nutritional status after four months of consuming a nutrient fortified oat drink. Thirty-eight anemic children (5-8 years) consumed an oat drink fortified with iron as NaFeEDTA, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin C for 120 days. Height, weight, serum nutrient levels, anemia status and dietary intake were assessed pre and post intervention. Thirty-four anemic children completed the intervention. After 4 months of intervention, prevalence of anemia decreased by 68% and significant improvements in iron and vitamin A status were observed. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of the fortified oat drink in alleviating anemia in young children and highlight the value of fortification programs
Keywords: Anemia, Children, Fortified Oat Drink, Nutrient statusProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2234
151 Essential Micronutrient Biofortification of Sprouts Grown on Mineral Fortified Fiber Mats
Authors: Jacquelyn Nyenhuis, Jaroslaw W. Drelich
Abstract:Diets high in processed foods have been found to lack essential micro-nutrients for optimum human development and overall health. Some micro-nutrients such as copper (Cu) have been found to enhance the inflammatory response through its oxidative functions, thereby having a role in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and related complications. This research study was designed to determine if food crops could be bio-fortified with micro-nutrients by growing sprouts on mineral fortified fiber mats. In the feasibility study described in this contribution, recycled cellulose fibers and clay, saturated with either micro-nutrient copper ions or copper nanoparticles, were converted to a novel mineral-cellulose fiber carrier of essential micro-nutrient and of antimicrobial properties. Seeds of Medicago sativa (alfalfa), purchased from a commercial, organic supplier were germinated on engineered cellulose fiber mats. After the appearance of the first leaves, the sprouts were dehydrated and analyzed for Cu content. Nutrient analysis showed ~2 increase in Cu of the sprouts grown on the fiber mats with copper particles, and ~4 increase on mats with ionic copper as compared to the control samples. This study illustrates the potential for the use of engineered mats as a viable way to increase the micro-nutrient composition of locally-grown food crops and the need for additional research to determine the uptake, nutritional implications and risks of micro-nutrient bio-fortification.
Keywords: Bio-fortification, copper nutrient uptake, sprout, mineral-fortified mat, micro-nutrient uptake.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1882
150 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil
Authors: L. G. Karancsi
The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.
Keywords: Hybrid, maize, nutrient, yield, water utilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1333
149 Studies on Storage Behavior of Cabbage Head as Influenced by Organic Amendments and Inorganic Fertilizers
Authors: Ranjit Chatterjee, P. K. Paul
The influence of organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers on cabbage head was investigated to determine their effect on storage behavior and organoleptic quality. Field cabbage was raised by combining fourteen different treatments comprising of organic amendments and inorganic fertilizers at different levels. The result showed that nutrient schedule of the crop significantly influenced the physiological loss in weight (PLW) and organoleptic quality of cabbage head and judicious selection of nutrient combination can extend the storage life and reduce the post harvest detoriaration of head. The nutrient schedule comprising of higher level of FYM (16 t ha-1) along with 75% of recommended inorganic fertilizers in conjugation with seedling inoculation of biofertilizer emerged as potential nutrient source for improving storage life, marketability and maintaining nutritional and organoleptic quality under ambient storage condition.
Keywords: Cabbage head, Organic amendments, Organoleptic quality, Physiological loss in weight (PLW).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1932
148 Developing a Town Based Soil Database to Assess the Sensitive Zones in Nutrient Management
Authors: Sefa Aksu, Ünal Kızıl
Abstract:For this study, a town based soil database created in Gümüsçay District of Biga Town, Çanakkale, Turkey. Crop and livestock production are major activities in the district. Nutrient management is mainly based on commercial fertilizer application ignoring the livestock manure. Within the boundaries of district, 122 soil sampling points determined over the satellite image. Soil samples collected from the determined points with the help of handheld Global Positioning System. Labeled samples were sent to a commercial laboratory to determine 11 soil parameters including salinity, pH, lime, organic matter, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron, manganese, copper and zinc. Based on the test results soil maps for mentioned parameters were developed using remote sensing, GIS, and geostatistical analysis. In this study we developed a GIS database that will be used for soil nutrient management. Methods were explained and soil maps and their interpretations were summarized in the study.
Keywords: Geostatistics, GIS, Nutrient Management, Soil Mapping.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2232
147 Effect of Operating Conditions on Forward Osmosis for Nutrient Rejection Using Magnesium Chloride as a Draw Solution
Authors: Yatnanta Padma Devia, Tsuyoshi Imai, Takaya Higuchi, Ariyo Kanno, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine
Abstract:Advanced treatments such as forward osmosis (FO) can be used to separate or reject nutrients from secondary treated effluents. Forward osmosis uses the chemical potential across the membrane, which is the osmotic pressure gradient, to induce water to flow through the membrane from a feed solution (FS) into a draw solution (DS). The performance of FO is affected by the membrane characteristics, composition of the FS and DS, and operating conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the optimum velocity and temperature for nutrient rejection and water flux performance in FO treatments. MgCl2 was used as the DS in the FO process. The results showed that higher cross flow velocities yielded higher water fluxes. High rejection of nutrients was achieved by using a moderate cross flow velocity at 0.25 m/s. Nutrient rejection was insensitive to temperature variation, whereas water flux was significantly impacted by it. A temperature of 25°C was found to be good for nutrient rejection.
Keywords: Cross flow velocity, forward osmosis, magnesium chloride, temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2400
146 Assessing Nutrient Concentration and Trophic Status of Brahma Sarover at Kurukshetra, India
Authors: Shailendra Kumar Patidar
Eutrophication of surface water is one of the most widespread environmental problems at present. Large number of pilgrims and tourists visit sacred artificial tank known as “Brahma Sarover” located at Kurukshetra, India to take holy dip and perform religious ceremonies. The sources of pollutants include impurities in feed water, mass bathing, religious offerings and windblown particulate matter. Studies so far have focused mainly on assessing water quality for bathing purpose by using physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. No effort has been made to assess nutrient concentration and trophic status of the tank to take more appropriate measures for improving water quality on long term basis. In the present study, total nitrogen, total phosphorous and chlorophyll a measurements have been done to assess the nutrient level and trophic status of the tank. The results show presence of high concentration of nutrients and Chlorophyll a indicating mesotrophic and eutrophic state of the tank. Phosphorous has been observed as limiting nutrient in the tank water.
Keywords: Brahma Sarover, eutrophication, nutrients, trophic status.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1943
145 Effects of Sole and Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Leaf Nutrient Composition and Performance of White Yam
Authors: T. M. Agbede, A. O. Adekiya
Field experiments were conducted during 2013, 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons at Rufus Giwa Polytechnic, Owo, Ondo State, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of yam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 20 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control). The five treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The test soil was slightly acidic, low in organic carbon (OC), N, P, K, Ca and Mg. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) tuber weights and growth of yam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and OC concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased tuber weights of yam by 36%, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 19%, compared with PM alone. Sole PM increased tuber weight of yam by 15%, compared with NPK. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties, nutrient availability, compared with NPK and the NSF (control). Integrated application of CPA at 10 t ha-1 + PM at 10 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving soil physical properties, increasing nutrient availability and yam performance than sole application of any of the fertilizer materials.
Keywords: Cocoa pod ash, leaf nutrient composition, poultry manure, soil properties, yam.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1265
144 Simulation of Increased Ambient Ozone to Estimate Nutrient Content and Genetic Change in Two Thai Soybean Cultivars
Authors: Orose Rugchati, Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas
Abstract:This research studied the simulation of increased ambient ozone to estimate nutrient content and genetic changes in two Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1). Ozone stress conditions affected proteins and lipids. It was found that proteins decreased, but lipids increased. Srisumrong 1 cultivars were more sensitive to ozone stress than Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. The effect of ozone stress conditions on plant phenotype and genotype was analyzed using the AFLP technique for the 2 Thai soybean cultivars (Chiang Mai 60 and Srisumrong 1).
Keywords: simulation, ambient ozone estimate, nutrient content, genetic changes , Thai soybeanProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1260
143 Effect of Cocoa Pod Ash and Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Cocoyam Productivity of Nutrient-Depleted Tropical Alfisol
Authors: T. M. Agbede, A. O. Adekiya
An experiment was carried out for three consecutive years at Owo, southwest Nigeria. The objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of Cocoa Pod Ash (CPA) and Poultry Manure (PM) applied solely and their combined form, as sources of fertilizers on soil properties, leaf nutrient composition, growth and yield of cocoyam. Three soil amendments: CPA, PM (sole forms), CPA and PM (mixture), were applied at 7.5 t ha-1 with an inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15) at 400 kg ha-1 as a reference and a natural soil fertility, NSF (control), arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results showed that soil amendments significantly increased (p = 0.05) corm and cormel weights and growth of cocoyam, soil and leaf N, P, K, Ca and Mg, soil pH and organic carbon (OC) concentrations compared with the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM treatment increased corm and cormel weights, plant height and leaf area of cocoyam by 40, 39, 42, and 48%, respectively, compared with inorganic fertilizer (NPK) and 13, 12, 15 and 7%, respectively, compared with PM alone. Sole or mixed forms of soil amendments showed remarkable improvement in soil physical properties compared with NPK and the NSF (control). The mixture of CPA+PM applied at 7.5 t ha-1 was the most effective treatment in improving cocoyam yield and growth parameters, soil and leaf nutrient composition.
Keywords: Cocoa pod ash, cocoyam, poultry manure, soil and leaf nutrient composition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1643
142 Inadequacy of Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake in Children Aged 12-23 Months Old: An Urban Study in Central Jakarta, Indonesia
Authors: Dewi Fatmaningrum, Ade Wiradnyani
Optimal feeding, including optimal micronutrient intake, becomes one of the ways to overcome the long-term consequences of undernutrition. Macronutrient and micronutrient intake were important to a rapid growth and development of young children. The study objective was to assess macro and micronutrient intake and its adequacy in children aged 12-23 months. This survey was a cross-sectional study, involving 83 caregivers with children aged 12-23 months old in Senen Sub-district, Central Jakarta selected through simple random sampling. Data on nutrient intake was obtained through interview using single 24-hour recall. Repeated 24- hour recall to sub-sample was done to estimate the proportion of nutrient inadequacy. The highest prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was iron (52.4%), followed by vitamin C (30.9%) and zinc (28.8%). Almost 12% children had inadequate energy intake. More than half of children (62.6%) were anemic (25.3% were severely anemic). Micronutrient inadequacy, especially iron, was more problematic than macronutrient inadequacy in the study area.
Keywords: Micronutrient, macronutrient, children under five, urban setting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1480
141 A Small-Scale Flexible Test Bench for the Investigation of Fertigation Strategies in Soilless Culture
Authors: Giacomo Barbieri
Abstract:In soilless culture, the management of the nutrient solution is the most important aspect for crop growing. Fertigation dose, frequency and nutrient concentration must be planned with the objective of reaching an optimal crop growth by limiting the utilized resources and the associated costs. The definition of efficient fertigation strategies is a complex problem since fertigation requirements vary on the basis of different factors, and crops are sensitive to small variations on fertigation parameters. To the best of author knowledge, a small-scale test bench that is flexible for both nutrient solution preparation and precise irrigation is currently missing, limiting the investigations in standard practices for soilless culture. Starting from the analysis of the state of the art, this paper proposes a small-scale system that is potentially able to concurrently test different fertigation strategies. The system will be designed and implemented throughout a three year project started on August 2018. However, due to the importance of the topic within current challenges as food security and climate change, this work is spread considering that may inspire other universities and organizations.
Keywords: Soilless culture, fertigation, test bench, small-scale, automation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 930
140 Effect of Nutrient Induced Salinity on Growth, Membrane Permeability, Nitrate Reductase Activity, Proline Content and Macronutrient Concentrations of Tomato Grown in Greenhouse
Authors: Figen Eraslan, Abdel Karim Hassan Awad Elkarim, Aydın Gunes, Ali Inal
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of nutrients induced salinity on the growth, membrane permeability, nitrate reductase activity, proline content and macronutrient concentrations of tomato plants. The plants were subjected to six different treatments: 1 (control) containing basic solution, 2 basic solution+40mM of NaCl, 3 basic solution+40 mM of KNO3, 4 basic solution+20 mM of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O, 5 basic solution+20 mM of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and 6 basic solution+20 mM of KNO3+5 mM of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O+5 mM of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O. Membrane permeability was increased significantly only with addition of NaCl, and then decreased to its lower level with addition of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and Mg(NO3)2.6H2O. Proline accumulation were followed the same trend of results when they had been exposed to NaCl salinity. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was significantly affected by addition of different types of nutrient induced salinity.
Keywords: Membrane Permeability, Nitrate Reductase Activity, Nutrient induced salinity, Proline.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2499
139 Sustainable Engineering: Synergy of BIM and Environmental Assessment Tools in the Hong Kong Construction Industry
Authors: Kwok Tak Kit
The construction industry plays an important role in environmental and carbon emissions as it consumes a huge amount of natural resources and energy. Sustainable engineering involves the process of planning, design, procurement, construction and delivery in which the whole building and construction process resulting from building and construction can be effectively and sustainability managed to achieve the use of natural resources. Implementation of sustainable technology development and innovation, adoption of the advanced construction process and facilitate the facilities management to implement the energy and waste control more accurately and effectively. Study and research in the relationship of BIM and environment assessment tools lack a clear discussion. In this paper, we will focus on the synergy of BIM technology and sustainable engineering in the AEC industry and outline the key factors which enhance the use of advanced innovation, technology and method and define the role of stakeholders to achieve zero-carbon emission toward the Paris Agreement to limit global warming to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels. A case study of the adoption of Building Information Modeling (BIM) and environmental assessment tools in Hong Kong will be discussed in this paper.
Keywords: sustainability, sustainable engineering, BIM, LEEDProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 304
138 Growth and Mineral Content of Mokara chark kuan Pink Orchid as Affected by Allelopathic Lantana camara Weed
Authors: M. Nashriyah, A. R. Shamsiah, M. Salmah, S. Misman, M. N. Maizatul Akmam, M. Y. Jamaliah, M. Mazleha
Abstract:Growth and mineral nutrient elemental content were studied in Mokara chark kuan pink terrestrial orchid and wild Lantana camara weed agroecosystem. The treated subplots were encircled with L. camara plants and sprayed weekly with L. camara 10% leaf aqueous extract. Allelopathic interactions were possible through extensive invading root of L. camara plants into the treated orchid subplots and weekly L. camara leaf aqueous extract sprayings. Orchid growth was not significantly different in between the control and treated plots, but chlorosis and yellowish patches of leaves were observed in control orchid leaves. Nitrogen content in L. camara leaf was significantly higher than in orchid leaf, the order of importance of mineral nutrient contents in L. camara leaf was K>Mg>Na>N. In treated orchid leaf, the order of importance was N>K>Mg>Na. Orchid leaf N content from the treated plot was higher than control, but Mg and Na contents were almost similar.
Keywords: Growth, Lantana camara, mineral nutrient elements, Mokara chark kuan pink orchid.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1824
137 Effect of Various Concentrations of Humic Acid on Growth and Development of Eggplant Seedlings in Tissue Cultures at Low Nutrient Level
Authors: Kullanart Obsuwan, Suluck Namchote, Natdhera Sanmanee, Kamolchanok Panishkan, Sirichai Dharmvanij
Abstract:Humic acids (HAs) have been shown to activate some ion uptakes along with stimulating the lateral roots at effective concentration of micronutrients. However, the effects of HA on ion adsorption by plant roots are not easily explainable due to the varieties of HAs that differ from origins. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate the effect of various concentrations of HA obtained from the compost derived from mix manures and some agricultural wastes on the growth of eggplant seedlings (Solanum melongena L. cv. Chao Praya) in tissue cultures at low nutrient level. Egg plant seeds were surfaced sterilized and germinated in ½ Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) without HA added or in ¼ MS supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 ppm of HAs. Then, they were cultured for 4 weeks under the controlled environment. The results showed that seedlings grown on ¼MS supplemented with HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm had the average plant heights (2.49 and 2.28 cm, respectively) higher than the other treatments. Both treatments also significantly showed the maximum average fresh and dry weights (p<0.05). Also the later yielded the highest average number of leaves and the longest average root length (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically different in the number of roots among treatments (p>0.05). This suggested that HAs at the concentration of 25 and 50 ppm could improve the growth of egg plant seedlings in tissue cultures at low nutrient level (¼ MS).
Keywords: growth, seedling, humic acid, fresh weght, dry weight, tissue cultureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2354
136 Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC) Improves Nutrient Contents and Maintains Sensory Properties of Carbohydrate-based Products
Authors: W. I. Wan Rosli, M. S. Aishah
Abstract:The grey oyster mushroom, Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), is a common edible mushroom and is now grown commercially around the world for food. This fungus has been broadly used as food or food ingredients in various food products for a long time. To enhance the nutritional quality and sensory attributes of bakery-based products, PSC powder is used in the present study to partially replace wheat flour in baked product formulations. The nutrient content and sensory properties of rice-porridge and unleavened bread (paratha) incorporated with various levels of PSC powder were studied. These food items were formulated with either 0%, 2%, 4% or 6% of PSC powder. Results show PSC powder recorded β-glucan at 3.57g/100g. In sensory evaluation, consumers gave higher score to both rice-porridge and paratha bread containing 2-4% PSC compared to those that are not added with PSC powder. The paratha containing 4% PSC powder can be formulated with the intention in improving overall acceptability of paratha bread. Meanwhile, for rice-porridge, consumers prefer the formulated product added with 4% PSC powder. In conclusion, the addition of PSC powder to partially wheat flour can be recommended for the purpose of enhancing nutritional composition and maintaining the acceptability of carbohydrate-based products.
Keywords: Pleurotus sajor-caju (PSC), nutrient contents, sensory evaluationProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2352
135 Sustainable Cities: Viability of a Hybrid Aeroponic/Nutrient Film Technique System for Cultivation of Tomatoes
Authors: D. Dannehl, Z. Taylor, J. Suhl, L. Miranda, R., Ulrichs, C., Salazar, E. Fitz-Rodriguez, I. Lopez-Cruz, A. Rojano-Aguilar, G. Navas-Gomez, U. Schmidt
Growing environmental and sustainability concerns have driven continual modernization of horticultural practices, especially for urban farming. Controlled environment and soilless production methods are increasing in popularity because of their efficient resource use and intensive cropping capabilities. However, some popular substrates used for hydroponic cultivation, particularly rock wool, represent a large environmental burden in regard to their manufacture and disposal. Substrate-less hydroponic systems are effective in producing short cropping cycle plants such as lettuce or herbs, but less information is available for the production of plants with larger root-systems and longer cropping times. Here, we investigated the viability of a hybrid aeroponic/nutrient film technique (AP/NFT) system for the cultivation of greenhouse tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum ‘Panovy’). The plants grown in the AP/NFT system had a more compact phenotype, accumulated more Na+ and less P and S than the rock wool grown counterparts. Due to forced irrigation interruptions, we propose that the differences observed were cofounded by the differing severity of water-stress for plants with and without substrate. They may also be caused by a higher root zone temperature predominant in plants exposed to AP/NFT. However, leaf area, stem diameter, and number of trusses did not differ significantly. The same was found for leaf pigments and plant photosynthetic efficiency. Overall, the AP/NFT system appears to be viable for the production of greenhouse tomato, enabling the environment to be relieved by way of lessening rock wool usage.
Keywords: Aeroponic/nutrient film technique, greenhouse, nutrient dynamic, soilless culture, urban farming, waste reduction.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1488
134 Internal Behavior of Biological Nutrient Removal System for Advanced Wastewater Treatment
Authors: J. K. Choi , D. W. Kim, H. S. Shin, H. J. Yeon, B. K. Kim, Yeon. Fan, D. Chang, S. B. Han, J.M. Hur, B. R. Jung, S. M. Park
Abstract:The purpose of this research was develop a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system which has low energy consumption, sludge production, and land usage. These indicate that BNR system could be a alternative of future wastewater treatment in ubiquitous city(U-city). Organics and nitrogen compounds could be removed by this system so that secondary or tertiary stages of wastewater treatment satisfy their standards. This system was composed of oxic and anoxic filter filed with PVDC and POM media. Anoxic/oxic filter system operated under empty bed contact time of 4 hours by increasing recirculation ratio from 0 to 100 %. The system removals of total nitrogen and COD were 76.3% and 93%, respectively. To be observed internal behavior in this system SCOD, NH3-N, and NO3-N were conducted and removal shows range of 25~100%, 59~99%, and 70~100%, respectively.
Keywords: BNR, nitrification, denitrification, organics removal, anoxic, oxic, advanced treatment.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1496
133 The Effects of Crop Rotation and Nutrient Supply on the Leaf Area Values of Winter Wheat in a Long-Term Experiment
Authors: Gergely Szilágyi, Péter Pepó
Our field experiments were set at the RISF Látókép Experimental Farm of the Centre for Agricultural and Applied Economic Sciences of the University of Debrecen, on lime-coated chernozem soil. During our studies, we have investigated two winter wheat varieties (GK Öthalom, Mv Csárdás) of different genotypes. The preceding crops were sunflower and grain maize. We examined wheat leaf area index (LAI) five times during by BBCH scale. We have found that during the different stages of the vegetation period, the LAI values were different depending on the preceding crop, variety and nutrient levels. According to our results, the lowest LAI values were experienced in the control treatment, in the case of both preceding crops. According to our studies we can conclude that crop rotation and fertilizer treatment influenced the studied physiological trait to different extents.
Keywords: Winter wheat, crop rotation, fertilization, genotype, LAI.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2034
132 Fungal Disinfection by Nanofiltration in Tomato Soilless Culture
Authors: R. Amooaghaie
Abstract:Principally, plants grown in soilless culture may be attacked by the same pests and diseases as cultivated traditionally in soil. The most destructive phytopathogens are fungi, such as Phythium, Phytophthora and Fusarium, followed by viruses, bacteria and nematodes. We investigated effect of carbon nanotube filters on disease management of soilless culture. Tomato seedlings transplant in plastic pots filled with a soilless media of vermiculite. The crop irrigated and fertilized using a hydroponic nutrient solution. We used carbon nanotube filters for nutrient solution disinfection. Our results show that carbon nanotube filtration significantly reduces pathogens on tomato plants. Fungal elimination (Fusarium oxysporum and Pythium spp.) was usually successful at about 96 to 99.9% all over the cultural season. It is seem that in tomato soilless culture, nanofiltration constitutes a reliable method that allows control of the development of diseases caused by pathogenic fungi
Keywords: Fusarium oxysporum, Nanofilteration, Pythium spp., Soilless culture, TomatoProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1881
131 Sludge and Compost Amendments in Tropical Soils: Impact on Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) Nutrient Content
Authors: Ml. López-Moreno, Le. Lugo Avilés, Fr. Román, J. Lugo Rosas, Ja. Hernández-Viezcas, Jr. Peralta-Videa, Jl. Gardea-Torresdey
Degradation of agricultural soils has increased rapidly during the last 20 years due to the indiscriminate use of pesticides and other anthropogenic activities. Currently, there is an urgent need of soil restoration to increase agricultural production. Utilization of sewage sludge or municipal solid waste is an important way to recycle nutrient elements and improve soil quality. With these amendments, nutrient availability in the aqueous phase might be increased and production of healthier crops can be accomplished. This research project aimed to achieve sustainable management of tropical agricultural soils, specifically in Puerto Rico, through the amendment of water treatment plant sludge’s. This practice avoids landfill disposal of sewage sludge and at the same time results costeffective practice for recycling solid waste residues. Coriander sativum was cultivated in a compost-soil-sludge mixture at different proportions. Results showed that Coriander grown in a mixture of 25% compost+50% Voladora soi+25% sludge had the best growth and development. High chlorophyll content (33.01 ± 0.8) was observed in Coriander plants cultivated in 25% compost+62.5% Coloso soil+ 12.5% sludge compared to plants grown with no sludge (32.59 ± 0.7). ICP-OES analysis showed variations in mineral element contents (macro and micronutrients) in coriander plant grown I soil amended with sludge and compost.
Keywords: Compost, Coriandrum sativum, nutrients, waste sludge.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2365
130 Comparison of Vermicompost and Vermiwash Bio-Fertilizers from Vermicomposting Waste Corn Pulp
Authors: M. M. Manyuchi, A. Phiri, P. Muredzi, T. Chitambwe
Abstract:Vermicomposting is the conversion of organic waste into bio-fertilizers through the action of earthworm. This technology is widely used for organic solid waste management. Waste corn pulp blended with cow dung manure was vermicomposted over 30 days using Eisenia fetida earthworms species. pH, temperature, moisture content, and electrical conductivity were daily monitored. The feedstock, vermicompost and vermiwash were analyzed for nutrient composition. The average temperature and moisture content in the vermi-reactor was 22.5°C and 42.5% respectively. The vermicompost and vermiwash had an almost neutral pH whilst the electrical conductivity was 21% higher in the vermicompost. The nitrogen and potassium content was 57% and 79.6% richer in the vermicompost respectively compared to the vermiwash. However, the vermiwash was 84% richer in phosphorous as compared to vermicompost. Furthermore, the vermiwash was 89.1% and 97.6% richer in Ca and Mg respectively and was 97.8% richer in Na salts compared to the vermicompost. The vermiwash also indicated a significantly higher amount of micronutrients. Both bio-fertilizers were rich in nutrients specification for fertilizers.
Keywords: Vermicompost, vermiwash, nutrient composition.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6660
129 Bifurcation Analysis of a Plankton Model with Discrete Delay
Authors: Anuj Kumar Sharma, Amit Sharma, Kulbhushan Agnihotri
In this paper, a delayed plankton-nutrient interaction model consisting of phytoplankton, zooplankton and dissolved nutrient is considered. It is assumed that some species of phytoplankton releases toxin (known as toxin producing phytoplankton (TPP)) which is harmful for zooplankton growth and this toxin releasing process follows a discrete time variation. Using delay as bifurcation parameter, the stability of interior equilibrium point is investigated and it is shown that time delay can destabilize the otherwise stable non-zero equilibrium state by inducing Hopf-bifurcation when it crosses a certain threshold value. Explicit results are derived for stability and direction of the bifurcating periodic solution by using normal form theory and center manifold arguments. Finally, outcomes of the system are validated through numerical simulations.
Keywords: Plankton, Time delay, Hopf-bifurcation, Normal form theory, Center manifold theorem.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1781