Search results for: Stephen Ward
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 91

Search results for: Stephen Ward

91 Simulating Pathogen Transport with in a Naturally Ventilated Hospital Ward

Authors: C. A. Gilkeson, C. J. Noakes, P. A. Sleigh, M. A. I. Khan, M. A. Camargo-Valero

Abstract:

Understanding how airborne pathogens are transported through hospital wards is essential for determining the infection risk to patients and healthcare workers. This study utilizes Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to explore possible pathogen transport within a six-bed partitioned Nightingalestyle hospital ward. Grid independence of a ward model was addressed using the Grid Convergence Index (GCI) from solutions obtained using three fullystructured grids. Pathogens were simulated using source terms in conjunction with a scalar transport equation and a RANS turbulence model. Errors were found to be less than 4% in the calculation of air velocities but an average of 13% was seen in the scalar field. A parametric study of variations in the pathogen release point illustrated that its distribution is strongly influenced by the local velocity field and the degree of air mixing present.

Keywords: Natural, Ventilation, Pathogen, Transport

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90 The Learning Impact of a 4-Dimensional Digital Construction Learning Environment

Authors: Chris Landorf, Stephen Ward

Abstract:

This paper addresses a virtual environment approach to work integrated learning for students in construction-related disciplines. The virtual approach provides a safe and pedagogically rigorous environment where students can apply theoretical knowledge in a simulated real-world context. The paper describes the development of a 4-dimensional digital construction environment and associated learning activities funded by the Australian Office for Learning and Teaching. The environment was trialled with over 1,300 students and evaluated through questionnaires, observational studies and coursework analysis. Results demonstrate a positive impact on students’ technical learning and collaboration skills, but there is need for further research in relation to critical thinking skills and work-readiness.

Keywords: Architectural education, construction industry, digital learning environments, immersive learning.

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89 Revisiting Hospital Ward Design Basics for Sustainable Family Integration

Authors: Ibrahim Abubakar Alkali, Abubakar Sarkile Kawuwa, Ibrahim Sani Khalil

Abstract:

The concept of space and function forms the bedrock for spatial configuration in architectural design. Thus, the effectiveness and functionality of an architectural product depends their cordial relationship. This applies to all buildings especially to a hospital ward setting designed to accommodate various complex and diverse functions. Health care facilities design, especially an inpatient setting, is governed by many regulations and technical requirements. It is also affected by many less defined needs, particularly, response to culture and the need to provide for patient families’ presence and participation. The spatial configuration of the hospital ward setting in developing countries has no consideration for the patient’s families despite the significant role they play in promoting recovery. Attempts to integrate facilities for patients’ families have always been challenging, especially in developing countries like Nigeria, where accommodation for inpatients is predominantly in an open ward system. In addition, the situation is compounded by culture, which significantly dictates healthcare practices in Africa. Therefore, achieving such a hospital ward setting that is patient and family-centered requires careful assessment of family care actions and transaction spaces so as to arrive at an evidence based solution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify how hospital ward spaces can be reconfigured to provide for sustainable family integration. In achieving this aim, a qualitative approach using the principles of behavioral mapping was employed in male and female medical wards of the Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria. The data obtained was analysed using classical and comparative content analysis. Patients’ families have been found to be a critical component of hospital ward design that cannot be undermined. Accordingly, bedsides, open yards, corridors and foyers have been identified as patient families’ transaction spaces that require design attention. Arriving at sustainable family integration can be achieved by revisiting the design requirements of the family transaction spaces based on the findings in order to avoid the rowdiness of the wards and uncoordinated sprawl.

Keywords: Caregiving, design basics, family integration, hospital ward, sustainability.

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88 Strategies for Patient Families Integration in Caregiving: A Consensus Opinion

Authors: Ibrahim A. Alkali

Abstract:

There is no reservation on the outstanding contribution of patient families in restoration of hospitalised patients, hence their consideration as essential component of hospital ward regimen. The psychological and emotional support a patient requires has been found to be solely provided by the patient’s family. However, consideration of their presence as one of the major functional requirements of an inpatient setting design have always been a source of disquiet, especially in developing countries where policies, norms and protocols of healthcare administration have no consideration for the patients’ family. This have been a major challenge to the hospital ward facilities, a concern for the hospital administration and patient management. The study therefore is aimed at obtaining a consensus opinion on the best approach for family integration in the design of an inpatient setting.  A one day visioning charrette involving Architects, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Healthcare assistants and representatives from the Patient families was conducted with the aim of arriving at a consensus opinion on practical design approach for sustainable family integration. Patient’s family are found to be decisive character of hospital ward regimen that cannot be undermined. However, several challenges that impede family integration were identified and subsequently a recommendation for an ideal approach. This will serve as a guide to both architects and hospital management in implementing much desired Patient and Family Centred Care.

Keywords: Caregiving, Inpatient setting, Integration, Patient Families.

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87 Nurses’ Views on ‘Effective Nurse Leader’ Characteristics in Iraq

Authors: S. Abed, S. O’Neill

Abstract:

This research explored ward nurses’ views about the characteristics of effective nurse leaders in the context of Iraq as a developing country, where the delivery of health care continues to face disruption and change. It is well established that the provision of modern health care requires effective nurse leaders, but in countries such as Iraq the lack of effective nurse leaders is noted as a major challenge. In a descriptive quantitative study, a survey questionnaire was administered to 210 ward nurses working in two public hospitals in a major city in the north of Iraq. The participating nurses were of the opinion that the effectiveness of their nurse leaders was evident in their ability to demonstrate: good clinical knowledge, effective communication and managerial skills. They also viewed their leaders as needing to hold high-level nursing qualifications, though this was not necessarily the case in practice. Additionally, they viewed nurse leaders’ personal qualities as important, which included politeness, ethical behaviour, and trustworthiness. When considered against the issues raised in interviews with a smaller group (20) of senior nurse leaders, representative of the various occupational levels, implications identify the need for professional development that focuses on how the underpinning competencies relate to leadership and how transformational leadership is evidenced in practice.

Keywords: Health care, nurse education, nurse leadership, nursing in Iraq, transformational leadership.

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86 Classification of Business Models of Italian Bancassurance by Balance Sheet Indicators

Authors: Andrea Bellucci, Martina Tofi

Abstract:

The aim of paper is to analyze business models of bancassurance in Italy for life business. The life insurance business is very developed in the Italian market and banks branches have 80% of the market share. Given its maturity, the life insurance market needs to consolidate its organizational form to allow for the development of non-life business, which nowadays collects few premiums but represents a great opportunity to enlarge the market share of bancassurance using its strength in the distribution channel while the market share of independent agents is decreasing. Starting with the main business model of bancassurance for life business, this paper will analyze the performances of life companies in the Italian market by balance sheet indicators and by main discriminant variables of business models. The study will observe trends from 2013 to 2015 for the Italian market by exploiting a database managed by Associazione Nazionale delle Imprese di Assicurazione (ANIA). The applied approach is based on a bottom-up analysis starting with variables and indicators to define business models’ classification. The statistical classification algorithm proposed by Ward is employed to design business models’ profiles. Results from the analysis will be a representation of the main business models built by their profile related to indicators. In that way, an unsupervised analysis is developed that has the limit of its judgmental dimension based on research opinion, but it is possible to obtain a design of effective business models.

Keywords: Balance sheet indicators, Bancassurance, business models, ward algorithm.

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85 Job Satisfaction of Midwives Working in Labor Ward of the Lady Dufferin Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: B. Muhammadani

Abstract:

Health workforce is a fundamental component of health system and plays a significant role in delivering effective health care services. However, there is a crucial shortage of skilled personnel which make them prone to work in stressful conditions. In spite of excessively high workload and burnout among the staff, little attention is given to their job satisfaction level which has serious implications on the productivity and effective performance of staff to achieve organizational goals. Therefore, this study aims to explore the job satisfaction of midwives working in the labor ward of the Lady Dufferin Hospital, Karachi. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. The short version of Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire was administered on a convenient sample group of 22 midwives to gather information on their job satisfaction. The results demonstrated that midwives were overall satisfied with their job. The level of job satisfaction was however found different in various positions within midwifery cadre. The head of midwives was highly satisfied as compared to midwifery staff who works under the supervision of head. The level of satisfaction of team leaders fall between the head and staff of midwifery. Similar trends were observed for both intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction. Such evidences on these issues are essential and useful as it helps explore the attitudes of individuals towards work which has direct implications on access to quality care services. Strategic interventions are required at organizational level to provide motivators and satisfiers to health workers for their work related satisfaction and enhanced motivation.

Keywords: Health workforce, job satisfaction, motivation, workload, burnout, midwives, health system.

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84 The Relationship between Burnout, Negative Affectivity and Organizational Citizenship Behavior for Human Services Employees

Authors: Stephen B. Schepman, Michael A. Zarate

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between Burnout, Negative Affectivity, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) for social service workers at two agencies serving homeless populations. Thirty two subjects completed surveys. Significant correlations between major variables and subscales were found.

Keywords: Burnout, negative affectivity, organizationalcitizenship.

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83 Instructional Design and Development Utilizing Technology: A Student Perspective

Authors: Lisa M. Weltzer-Ward, Abbie Brown

Abstract:

The sequence Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate (ADDIE) provides a powerful methodology for designing computer-based educational materials. Helping students to understand this design process sequence may be achieved by providing them with direct, guided experience. This article examines such help and guidance and the overall learning process from a student-s personal experience.

Keywords: ADDIE, education, instructional design, web design.

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82 A New Heuristic Approach for the Stock- Cutting Problems

Authors: Stephen C. H. Leung, Defu Zhang

Abstract:

This paper addresses a stock-cutting problem with rotation of items and without the guillotine cutting constraint. In order to solve the large-scale problem effectively and efficiently, we propose a simple but fast heuristic algorithm. It is shown that this heuristic outperforms the latest published algorithms for large-scale problem instances.

Keywords: Combinatorial optimization, heuristic, large-scale, stock-cutting.

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81 Categorical Clustering By Converting Associated Information

Authors: Dongmin Cai, Stephen S-T Yau

Abstract:

Lacking an inherent “natural" dissimilarity measure between objects in categorical dataset presents special difficulties in clustering analysis. However, each categorical attributes from a given dataset provides natural probability and information in the sense of Shannon. In this paper, we proposed a novel method which heuristically converts categorical attributes to numerical values by exploiting such associated information. We conduct an experimental study with real-life categorical dataset. The experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

Keywords: Categorical, Clustering, Converting, Information

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80 Validation of an Acuity Measurement Tool for Maternity Services

Authors: Cherryl Lowe

Abstract:

Background - The TrendCare Patient Dependency System is currently used by a large number of maternity Services across Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. In 2012, 2013 and 2014 validation studies were initiated in all three countries to validate the acuity tools used for women in labour, and postnatal mothers and babies. This paper will present the findings of the validation study. Aim - The aim of this study was to; identify if the care hours provided by the TrendCare acuity system was an accurate reflection of the care required by women and babies; obtain evidence of changes required to acuity indicators and/or category timings to ensure the TrendCare acuity system remains reliable and valid across a range of maternity care models in three countries. Method - A non-experimental action research methodology was used across maternity services in four District Health Boards in New Zealand, a large tertiary and a large secondary maternity service in Singapore and a large public maternity service in Australia. Standardised data collection forms and timing devices were used to collect midwife contact times, with women and babies included in the study. Rejection processes excluded samples when care was not completed/rationed, and contact timing forms were incomplete. The variances between actual timed midwife/mother/baby contact and the TrendCare acuity category times were identified and investigated. Results - Thirty two (88.9%) of the 36 TrendCare acuity category timings, fell within the variance tolerance levels when compared to the actual timings recorded for midwifery care. Four (11.1%) TrendCare categories provided less minutes of care than the actual timings and exceeded the variance tolerance level. These were all night shift category timings. Nine postnatal categories were not able to be compared as the sample size for these categories was statistically insignificant. 100% of labour ward TrendCare categories matched actual timings for midwifery care, all falling within the variance tolerance levels. The actual time provided by core midwifery staff to assist lead maternity carer (LMC) midwives in New Zealand labour wards showed a significant deviation to previous studies. The findings of the study demonstrated the need for additional time allocations in TrendCare to accommodate an increased level of assistance given to LMC midwives. Conclusion - The results demonstrated the importance of regularly validating the TrendCare category timings with actual timings of the care hours provided. It was evident from the findings that variances to models of care and length of stay in maternity units have increased midwifery workloads on the night shift. The level of assistance provided by the core labour ward staff to the LMC midwife has increased substantially. Outcomes - As a consequence of this study, changes were made to the night duty TrendCare maternity categories, additional acuity indicators were developed and times for assisting LMC midwives in labour ward increased. The updated TrendCare version was delivered to maternity services in 2014.

Keywords: Maternity, acuity, midwifery research, midwifery workloads.

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79 Laser Forming of Titanium and Its Alloys – An Overview

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Mukul Shukla, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Laser beam forming is a novel technique developed for the joining of metallic components. In this study, an overview of the laser beam forming process, areas of application, the basic mechanisms of the laser beam forming process, some recent research studies and the need to focus more research effort on improving the laser-material interaction of laser beam forming of titanium and its alloys are presented.

Keywords: Aerospace, Deformation, Laser forming, Mechanisms, Titanium, Titanium alloy.

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78 Development of an Autonomous Greenhouse Gas Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Cormac Fay, Stephen Beirne, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

This paper describes the designs of a first and second generation autonomous gas monitoring system and the successful field trial of the final system (2nd generation). Infrared sensing technology is used to detect and measure the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) at point sources. The ability to monitor real-time events is further enhanced through the implementation of both GSM and Bluetooth technologies to communicate these data in real-time. These systems are robust, reliable and a necessary tool where the monitoring of gas events in real-time are needed.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, infrared sensing, autonomous system.

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77 Union Membership with Import Liberalization

Authors: Stephen B. Blumenfeld, Aaron Crawford, Andres G. Victorio

Abstract:

New Zealand-s product markets experienced a surge in import competition beginning from the late 1970-s when its government began to promote a policy of more open markets. This study considers how the trade liberalization aspect of the policy may have influenced unionization and union-organizing success. For describing the trade liberalization, a model shows how the removal of import tariffs can lead to countervailing influences upon the union membership of a domestic firm. The evidence supports the prediction that union membership has been decreased rather than increased. In the context of debates concerning globalization, it can be said that the power of unions has been diminished.

Keywords: Imports, tariffs, unions, wages.

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76 Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In this work, we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. Morgan Ward in [14], [15] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences and formulas for elliptic divisibility sequences with rank two over finite field Fp. We study elliptic divisibility sequences with rank three, four and five over a finite field Fp, where p > 3 is a prime and give general terms of these sequences and then we determine elliptic and singular curves associated with these sequences.

Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, singular elliptic divisibilitysequences, elliptic curves, singular curves.

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75 Inclusive Housing in Australia – A Voluntary Response

Authors: M. Ward, J. Franz, B. Adkins

Abstract:

The lack of inclusive housing in Australia contributes to the marginalization and exclusion of people with disability and older people from family and community life. The Australian government has handed over the responsibility of increasing the supply of inclusive housing to the housing industry through an agreed national access standard and a voluntary strategy. Voluntary strategies have not been successful in other constituencies and little is known about what would work in Australia today. Findings from a research project into the voluntariness of the housing industry indicate that a reliable and consistent supply is unlikely without an equivalent increase in demand. The strategy has, however, an important role to play in the task of changing housing industry practices towards building more inclusive communities.

Keywords: Australia, housing, inclusion, voluntary, industry

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74 Friction Stir Welding Process: A Green Technology

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process invented and patented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in the United Kingdom in 1991 for butt and lap welding of metals and plastics. This paper highlights the benefits of friction stir welding process as an energy efficient and a green technology process in the field of welding. Compared to the other conventional welding processes, its benefits, typical applications and its use in joining similar and dissimilar materials are also presented.

Keywords: Dissimilar materials, Friction Stir Welding, Green technology, similar materials.

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73 Landfill Gas Monitoring at Borehole Wells using an Autonomous Environmental Monitoring System

Authors: Breda M. Kiernan, Stephen Beirne, Cormac Fay, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

An autonomous environmental monitoring system (Smart Landfill) has been constructed for the quantitative measurement of the components of landfill gas found at borehole wells at the perimeter of landfill sites. The main components of landfill gas are the greenhouse gases, methane and carbon dioxide and have been monitored in the range 0-5 % volume. This monitoring system has not only been tested in the laboratory but has been deployed in multiple field trials and the data collected successfully compared with on-site monitors. This success shows the potential of this system for application in environments where reliable gas monitoring is crucial.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring, greenhouse gas, landfill gas, sensor deployment

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72 Carbon Nanotubes Synthesized Using Sugar Cane as a Percursor

Authors: Vanessa Romanovicz, Beatriz A. Berns, Stephen D. Carpenter, Deyse Carpenter

Abstract:

This article deals with the carbon nanotubes (CNT) synthesized from a novel precursor, sugar cane and Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO). The objective was to produce CNTs to be used as catalyst supports for Proton Exchange Membranes. The influence of temperature, inert gas flow rate and concentration of the precursor is presented. The CNTs prepared were characterized using TEM, XRD, Raman Spectroscopy, and the surface area determined by BET. The results show that it is possible to form CNT from sugar cane by pyrolysis and the CNTs are the type multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The MWCNTs are short and closed at the two ends with very small surface area of SBET= 3.691m,/g.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, sugar cane, fuel cell, catalyst support.

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71 Salicylhydroxamic Acid Inhibits the Growth of Candida albicans

Authors: Shu-Ying Marissa Pang, Stephen Tristram, Simon Brown

Abstract:

Candida spp. are common and aggressive pathogens. Because of the growing resistance of Candida spp. to current antifungals, novel targets, found in Candida spp. but not in humans or other flora, have to be identified. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is one such possibility. This enzyme is insensitive to cyanide, but is sensitive to compounds such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), disulfiram and n-alkyl gallates. The growth Candida albicans was inhibited by SHAM (Ki = 9-15 mM) and cyanide (Ki = 2-4 mM), albeit to differing extents. The rate of O2 uptake was inhibited by less than 10% by 25 mM SHAM and by about 90% by 250 μM KCN. Although SHAM substantially inhibited the growth of C. albicans, it is unlikely that the inhibition of AOX was the cause. Salicylhydroxamic acid is used therapeutically in the treatment of urinary tract infections and urolithiasis, but it also has some potential in the treatment of C. albicans infection.

Keywords: alternative oxidase, Candida albicans, growth, respiration, salicylhydroxamic acid.

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70 Designs of Temperature Measuring Device for a Re-Configured Milling Machine

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

The design of temperature measuring approach for a re-configured milling machine to produce friction stir welds is reported in this paper. The product design specifications for the redesigning of a milling machine were first outlined and the ranking criteria were determined. Three different concepts were generated for the temperature measurement on the reconfigured system and the preferred or the best concept was selected based on the set design ranking criteria. Further simulation and performance analysis was then conducted on the concept. The Infrared Thermography (IRT) concept was selected for the temperature measurement among other concepts generated because it is an ideal and most effective system of measurement in this regard.

Keywords: Clamping system, Friction Stir Welding, Reconfiguration, Support systems.

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69 Inhibition of the Growth of Pathogenic Candida spp. by Salicylhydroxamic Acid

Authors: Shu-Ying Marissa Pang, Stephen Tristram, Simon Brown

Abstract:

Candida spp. are common and aggressive pathogens. Because of the growing resistance of Candida spp. to current antifungals, novel targets, found in Candida spp. but not in humans or other flora, have to be identified. The alternative oxidase (AOX) is one such possibility. This enzyme is insensitive to cyanide, but is sensitive to compounds such as salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM), disulfiram and n-alkyl gallates. The growth each of six Candida spp. was inhibited significantly by ~13 mM SHAM or 2 mM cyanide, albeit to differing extents. In C. dubliniensis, C. krusei and C. tropicalis the rate of O2 uptake was inhibited by 18-36% by 25 mM SHAM, but this had little or no effect on C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii or C. parapsilosis. Although SHAM substantially inhibited the growth of Candida spp., it is unlikely that the inhibition of AOX was the cause. Salicylhydroxamic acid is used therapeutically in the treatment of urinary tract infections and urolithiasis, but it also has some potential in the treatment of Candida spp. infection.

Keywords: alternative oxidase, Candida spp., growth, respiration, salicylhydroxamic acid.

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68 Expression of Security Policy in Medical Systems for Electronic Healthcare Records

Authors: Nathan C. Lea, Tony Austin, Stephen Hailes, Dipak Kalra

Abstract:

This paper introduces a tool that is being developed for the expression of information security policy controls that govern electronic healthcare records. By reference to published findings, the paper introduces the theory behind the use of knowledge management for automatic and consistent security policy assertion using the formalism called the Secutype; the development of the tool and functionality is discussed; some examples of Secutypes generated by the tool are provided; proposed integration with existing medical record systems is described. The paper is concluded with a section on further work and critique of the work achieved to date.

Keywords: Information Security Policy, Electronic Healthcare Records, Knowledge Management, Archetypes, Secutypes.

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67 Willingness and Attitude Towards Organ Donation of Nurses in Taiwan

Authors: Min-Chuan Huang, I-Ping Chen, Shu-Ying Chung

Abstract:

Taking the medical staff in an emergency ward of a medical center in Central Taiwan as the research object, the questionnaire data were collected by anonymous and voluntary reporting methods with structured questionnaires to explore organ donation’s actual situation, willingness, and attitude. Only 80 valid questionnaires were gathered. Of the 8 questions, the correct mean rate was 5.9 and the correct rate was 73.13%. According to the statistics of organ donation survey, only 8.7% have signed the consent for organ donation, 21.3% are willing but have not yet signed the consent for organ donation, 62.5% have not yet decided, and 7.5% are unwilling. The average total score (standard deviation) of attitude towards organ donation was 36.2. There is no significant difference between the demographic variables and the awareness and willingness of organ donation, but there is a significant correlation between marital status and the attitude toward organ donation.

Keywords: clinical psychology, organ donation, factors affecting psychological disorders, commitment

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66 Chemical Species Concentration Measurement via Wireless Sensors

Authors: Jer Hayes, Stephen Beirne, Breda M. Kiernan, Conor Slater, King-Tong Lau, Dermot Diamond

Abstract:

This paper describes studies carried out to investigate the viability of using wireless cameras as a tool in monitoring changes in air quality. A camera is used to monitor the change in colour of a chemically responsive polymer within view of the camera as it is exposed to varying chemical species concentration levels. The camera captures this image and the colour change is analyzed by averaging the RGB values present. This novel chemical sensing approach is compared with an established chemical sensing method using the same chemically responsive polymer coated onto LEDs. In this way, the concentration levels of acetic acid in the air can be tracked using both approaches. These approaches to chemical plume tracking have many applications for air quality monitoring.

Keywords: Environmental sensing, chemical sensors, wirelesssensor networks.

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65 Fracture Location Characterizations of Dissimilar Friction Stir Welds

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi

Abstract:

This paper reports the tensile fracture location characterizations of dissimilar friction stir welds between 5754 aluminium alloy and C11000 copper. The welds were produced using three shoulder diameter tools; namely, 15, 18 and 25 mm by varying the process parameters. The rotational speeds considered were 600, 950 and 1200 rpm while the feed rates employed were 50, 150 and 300 mm/min to represent the low, medium and high settings respectively. The tensile fracture locations were evaluated using the optical microscope to identify the fracture locations and were characterized. It was observed that 70% of the tensile samples failed in the Thermo Mechanically Affected Zone (TMAZ) of copper at the weld joints. Further evaluation of the fracture surfaces of the pulled tensile samples revealed that welds with low Ultimate Tensile Strength either have defects or intermetallics present at their joint interfaces.

Keywords: fracture location, friction stir welding, intermetallics, metallography,

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64 Towards a Competitive South African Tooling Industry

Authors: Mncedisi Trinity Dewa, Andre F. Van Der Merwe, Stephen Matope

Abstract:

Tool, Die and Mould-making (TDM) firms have been known to play a pivotal role in the growth and development of the manufacturing sectors in most economies. Their output contributes significantly to the quality, cost and delivery speed of final manufactured parts. Unfortunately, the South African Tool, Die and Mould-making manufacturers have not been competing on the local or global market in a significant way. This reality has hampered the productivity and growth of the sector thus attracting intervention. The paper explores the shortcomings South African toolmakers have to overcome to restore their competitive position globally. Results from a global benchmarking survey on the tooling sector are used to establish a roadmap of what South African toolmakers can do to become a productive, World Class force on the global market.

Keywords: Competitive performance objectives, lead time, toolmakers, world-class manufacturing.

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63 An Overview of Nano-Particles Effect on Mechanical Properties of Composites

Authors: Olatunde I. Sekunowo, Stephen I. Durowaye, Ganiyu I. Lawal

Abstract:

Composites depending on the nature of their constituents and mode of production are regarded as one of the advanced materials that drive today’s technology. This paper attempts a short review of the subject matter with a general aim of pushing to the next level the frontier of knowledge as it impacts the technology of nano-particles manufacturing. The objectives entail an effort to; aggregate recent research efforts in this field, analyse research findings and observations, streamline research efforts and support industry in taking decision on areas of fund deployment. It is envisaged that this work will serve as a quick hand-on compendium material for researchers in this field and a guide to relevant government departments wishing to fund a research whose outcomes have the potential of improving the nation’s GDP.

Keywords: Advanced materials, Composites, Mechanical properties, Nano-particles.

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62 The Boundary Element Method in Excel for Teaching Vector Calculus and Simulation

Authors: Stephen Kirkup

Abstract:

This paper discusses the implementation of the boundary element method (BEM) on an Excel spreadsheet and how it can be used in teaching vector calculus and simulation. There are two separate spreadheets, within which Laplace equation is solved by the BEM in two dimensions (LIBEM2) and axisymmetric three dimensions (LBEMA). The main algorithms are implemented in the associated programming language within Excel, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The BEM only requires a boundary mesh and hence it is a relatively accessible method. The BEM in the open spreadsheet environment is demonstrated as being useful as an aid to teaching and learning. The application of the BEM implemented on a spreadsheet for educational purposes in introductory vector calculus and simulation is explored. The development of assignment work is discussed, and sample results from student work are given. The spreadsheets were found to be useful tools in developing the students’ understanding of vector calculus and in simulating heat conduction.

Keywords: Boundary element method, laplace equation, vector calculus, simulation, education.

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