Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1401

Search results for: growth

1401 An Analysis of the Relationship between Manufacturing Growth and Economic Growth in South Africa: A Cointegration Approach

Authors: Johannes T. Tsoku, Teboho J. Mosikari, Diteboho Xaba, Thatoyaone Modise

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between manufacturing growth and economic growth in South Africa using quarterly data ranging from 2001 to 2014. The paper employed the Johansen cointegration to test the Kaldor’s hypothesis. The Johansen cointegration results revealed that there is a long run relationship between GDP, manufacturing, service and employment. The Granger causality results revealed that there is a unidirectional causality running from manufacturing growth to GDP growth. The overall findings of the study confirm that Kaldor’s first law of growth is applicable in South African economy. Therefore, investment strategies and policies should be alignment towards promoting growth in the manufacturing sector in order to boost the economic growth of South Africa.

Keywords: Cointegration, economic growth, Kaldor’s law, manufacturing growth.

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1400 Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: The Case of Mexico

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Abstract:

The causality between energy consumption and economic growth has been an important issue in the economic literature. This paper studies the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth in Mexico for the period of 1971-2011. In so doing, unit root and causality tests are applied. The results show that energy consumption and economic growth series are stationary and there is also a causality relationship running from economic growth to electricity consumption. Therefore, any energy conservation policy would have little or no impact at all on economic growth in México.

Keywords: Causality, economic growth, electricity consumption, Mexico.

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1399 Poverty, Inequality and Growth: A Survey of the Literature and Some Facts from Turkey

Authors: Fatma Didin Sonmez

Abstract:

This survey of recent literature examines the link between growth and poverty. It is widely accepted that economic growth is a necessary condition for sustainable poverty reduction. But it is the fact that the economic growth of some countries has been pro-poor while others not. Some factors such as labor market, policies and demographic factors may lead to a weak relationship between economic performance and poverty rate. In this sense pro-growth policies should be pro-poor to increase the poverty alleviation effects of the growth. The purpose of this study is to review the recent studies on the effects of macroeconomic policies on poverty and inequality and to review the poverty analyses which examine the relationship between growth, poverty and inequality. Also this study provides some facts about the relationship between economic growth, inequality and poverty from Turkey. Keywordseconomic growth, inequality, macroeconomic policy, poverty

Keywords: economic growth, inequality, macroeconomic policy, poverty

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1398 Multi-Faceted Growth in Creative Industries

Authors: Sanja Pfeifer, Nataša Šarlija, Marina Jeger, Ana Bilandžić

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the different facets of growth among micro, small and medium-sized firms in Croatia and to analyze the differences between models designed for all micro, small and medium-sized firms and those in creative industries. Three growth prediction models were designed and tested using the growth of sales, employment and assets of the company as dependent variables. The key drivers of sales growth are: prudent use of cash, industry affiliation and higher share of intangible assets. Growth of assets depends on retained profits, internal and external sources of financing, as well as industry affiliation. Growth in employment is closely related to sources of financing, in particular, debt and it occurs less frequently than growth in sales and assets. The findings confirm the assumption that growth strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in creative industries have specific differences in comparison to SMEs in general. Interestingly, only 2.2% of growing enterprises achieve growth in employment, assets and sales simultaneously.

Keywords: Creative industries, growth prediction model, growth determinants, growth measures.

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1397 Role of Investment in the Course of Economic Growth in Pakistan

Authors: Maqbool Hussain Sial, Maaida Hussain Hashmi, Sofia Anwar

Abstract:

The present research was focused to investigate the role of investment in the course of economic growth with reference to Pakistan. The study analyzed the role of the public and private investment and impact of the political and macroeconomic uncertainty on economic growth of Pakistan by using the vector autoregressive approach (VAR). In long-run both public and private investment showed a positive impact on economic growth but the growth was largely driven by private investment as compared to public investment. Government consumption expenditure, economic uncertainty and political instability hampered the economic growth of Pakistan. In short-run the private investment positively influences the growth but there was negative and insignificant effect of the public investment and government consumption expenditure on the growth. There was a positive relationship found between economic uncertainty (proxy for inflation) and GDP in short run.

Keywords: Investment, Government Consumption, Growth, Co-integration, Pakistan.

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1396 Corruption, Economic Growth, and Income Inequality: Evidence from Ten Countries in Asia

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes the panel vector error correction model (PVECM) to examine the relationship among corruption, economic growth, and income inequality experienced within ten Asian countries over the 1995 to 2010 period. According to the empirical results, we do not support the common perception that corruption decreases economic growth. On the contrary, we found that corruption increases economic growth. Meanwhile, an increase in economic growth will cause an increase in income inequality, although the effect is insignificant. Similarly, an increase in income inequality will cause an increase in economic growth but a decrease in corruption, although the effect is also insignificant.

Keywords: Corruption, economic growth, income inequality, panel vector error correction model

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1395 Economic Analysis of Endogenous Growth Model with ICT Capital

Authors: Shoji Katagiri, Hugang Han

Abstract:

This paper clarifies the role of ICT capital in economic growth. Albeit ICT remarkably contributes to economic growth, there are few studies on ICT capital in ICT sector from theoretical point of view. In this paper, production function of ICT which is used as input of intermediate good in final good and ICT sectors is incorporated into our model. In this setting, we analyze the role of ICT on balance growth path and show the possibility of general equilibrium solutions for this model. Through the simulation of the equilibrium solutions, we find that when ICT impacts on economy and economic growth increases, it is necessary that increases of efficiency at ICT sector and of accumulation of non-ICT and ICT capitals occur simultaneously.

Keywords: Endogenous economic growth, ICT, intensity, capital accumulation.

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1394 A Coherent Relationship between EconomicGrowth and Unemployment: An Empirical Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: T. Hussain, M. W. Siddiqi, A. Iqbal

Abstract:

The study is aimed to test causal relationship between growth and unemployment, using time series data for Pakistan from 1972 to 2006. Growth is considered to be a pathway to decrease the level of unemployment. Unemployment is a social and political issue. It is a phenomenon where human resources are wasted leading to deacceleration in growth. Johanson Cointegration shows that there is long run relationship between growth and unemployment. For short run dynamics and causality, the study utilizes Vector Error Correction Model (VECM). The results of VECM indicate that there is short and long run causal relation between growth and unemployment including capital, labor and human capital as explanatory variables.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Unemployment, Cointegrationand Causality.

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1393 The External Debt in the Context of Economic Growth: The Sample of Turkey

Authors: Ayşen Edirneligil, Mehmet Mucuk

Abstract:

In developing countries, one of the most important restrictions about the economic growth is the lack of national savings which are supposed to finance the investments. In order to overcome this restriction and achieve the higher rate of economic growth by increasing the level of output, countries choose the external borrowing. However, there is a dispute in the literature over the correlation between external debt and economic growth. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of external debt on Turkish economic growth by using VAR analysis with the quarterly data over the period of 2002:01-2014:04. In this respect, Johansen Cointegration Test, Impulse- Response Function and Variance Decomposition Tests will be used for analyses. Empirical findings show that there is no cointegration in the long run.

Keywords: Economic growth, external debt, time series analysis, Turkish economy.

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1392 Effects of Hypoxic Duration at Different Growth Stages on Yield Potential of Waxy Corn (Zea mays L.)

Authors: S. Boonlertnirun, R. Suvannasara, K. Boonlertnirun

Abstract:

Hypoxia has negative effects on growth and crop yield, its severity is so varied depending on crop growth stages, duration of hypoxia and crop species. The objective was to evaluate the sensitive growth stage and the duration of hypoxia negatively affecting growth and yield of waxy corn. Pot experiment was conducted using a split plot in randomized complete block with 3 growth stages: V3 (3-4 true leaves), V7 (7-8 true leaves) and R1 (silking stage), and 3 hypoxic durations: 6, 9 and 12 days, in an open –ended outdoor greenhouse during January to March 2013. The results revealed that different growth stages had significantly (p < 0.5) different responses to hypoxia, seeing that the sensitive growth stage affecting plant height, yield and yield components was mostly detected in V7 growth stage whereas leaf greenness and days to silking were sensitive to hypoxia at R1 growth stage. Different hypoxic durations significantly affected yield and yield components, hypoxic duration of 12 days showed the most negative effect greater than the others. In this present study, it can be concluded that waxy corn plants were waterlogged at V7 growth stage for 12 days had the most negative effect on yield and yield components.

Keywords: Hypoxia duration, waxy corn, growth stage.

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1391 Effects of Human Capital and Openness on Economic Growth of Developed and Developing Countries: A Panel Data Analysis

Authors: Fatma Didin Sonmez, Pinar Sener

Abstract:

Technology transfer by international trade and foreign direct investment is the most important positive outcome of open economy. It is widely accepted that new technology and knowledge have an important role in enhancing economic growth. Human capital is the other important factor assisting economic growth. In this study, the role of human capital in the growth process is examined in a view of new endogenous growth theory emphasizing on the technology transfer resulting from international trade. Using the panel data of 10 developed and 10 developing countries, impact of human capital and openness on the rate of economic growth of different countries is analysed. Evidence suggests the view that human capital and openness contribute to the economic growth in both developing and developed countries, but with different rates.

Keywords: economic growth, human capital, openness, technology

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1390 Testing the Relationship between Economic Freedoms and Growth by Panel Causality Application: Case of Middle East Countries

Authors: Ahmet Ay, Hakan Acet, Ceyhun Can Özcan

Abstract:

Economic freedoms, most emphasized issue in the recent years, are considered to affect economic growth and performance via institutional structure. In this context, a model that includes Turkey and Middle East Countries, and where the effects of economic freedom on growth are examined, was formed. For the groups of countries determined, in the study carried out by using the dataset belonging the period of 2004 - 2009, between economic freedoms and growth, a negative relationship was observed as group. In the sense of individual effects, it was identified that there was a positive relationship in terms of some Middle East Countries and Turkey.

Keywords: Economic Freedoms, Economic Growth, Freedoms.

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1389 The Relationship between Fatigue Crack Growth and Residual Stress in Rails

Authors: F. Husem, M. E. Turan, Y. Sun, H. Ahlatci, I. Tozlu

Abstract:

Residual stress and fatigue crack growth rates are important to determine mechanical behavior of rails. This study aims to make relationship between residual stress and fatigue crack growth values in rails. For this purpose, three R260 quality rails (0.6-0.8% C, 0.6-1.25 Mn) were chosen. Residual stress of samples was measured by cutting method that is related in railway standard. Then samples were machined for fatigue crack growth test and analyze was completed according to the ASTM E647 standard which gives information about parameters of rails for this test. Microstructure characterizations were examined by Light Optic Microscope (LOM). The results showed that residual stress change with fatigue crack growth rate. The sample has highest residual stress exhibits highest crack growth rate and pearlitic structure can be seen clearly for all samples by microstructure analyze.

Keywords: Residual stress, fatigue crack growth, R260, LOM, ASTM E647.

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1388 Governance and Economic Growth: Evidence of Ten Asian Countries

Authors: Chiung-Ju Huang

Abstract:

This study utilizes a frequency domain approach over the period of 1996 to 2013 to examine the causal relationship between governance and economic growth in ten Asian countries, which have different levels of democracy; classified as “Free”, “Partly Free”, and “Not Free” countries. The empirical results show that there is no Granger causality running from governance to economic growth in “Not Free” countries and “Partly Free” countries with the exception of Singapore. As for “Free” countries such as South Korea and Taiwan, there is a one-way causality running from governance to economic growth. The findings of this study indicate that policy makers in South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore could use governance index to improve their predictions of the future economic growth.

Keywords: Economic growth, frequency domain, governance, Granger causality.

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1387 Financial Deepening and Economic Growth Dynamics: Empirical Evidence from the West African Monetary Zone

Authors: Chidera G. Eze, Kennedy K. Abrokwa, Chimaobi V. Okolo

Abstract:

This paper empirically examines the dynamic relationship between financial deepening and economic growth in a monetary union. We find positive but weak evidence of impacts of financial deepening on growth for Gambia, Gabon and Sierra Leone. There is no evidence of any positive significant impact for Ghana and Nigeria. We argue that, the weak evidence between financial deepening and economic growth can be a consequence of the inability of assessing credit (long-term loans), credit worthiness, lack of information and low level of bank deposits by the private sector despite the improvement in the financial sector.

Keywords: Financial deepening, economic growth, dynamics, innovation accounting.

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1386 Model Predictive Control Using Thermal Inputs for Crystal Growth Dynamics

Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, crystal growth technologies have made progress by the requirement for the high quality of crystal materials. To control the crystal growth dynamics actively by external forces is useuful for reducing composition non-uniformity. In this study, a control method based on model predictive control using thermal inputs is proposed for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials. The control system of crystal growth dynamics considered here is governed by the continuity, momentum, energy, and mass transport equations. To establish the control method for such thermal fluid systems, we adopt model predictive control known as a kind of optimal feedback control in which the control performance over a finite future is optimized with a performance index that has a moving initial time and terminal time. The objective of this study is to establish a model predictive control method for crystal growth dynamics of semiconductor materials.

Keywords: Model predictive control, optimal control, crystal growth, process control.

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1385 On the Mathematical Model of Vascular Endothelial Growth Connected with a Tumor Proliferation

Authors: N. Khatiashvili, Ch. Pirumova, V. Akhobadze

Abstract:

In the paper the mathematical model of tumor growth is considered. New capillary network formation, which supply cancer cells with the nutrients, is taken into the account. A formula estimating a tumor growth in connection with the number of capillaries is obtained.

Keywords: Differential Equations, Mathematical Models, Vascular Endothelial, Tumor

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1384 Forest Growth Simulation: Tropical Rain Forest Stand Table Projection

Authors: Yasmin Yahya, Roslan Ismail, Samreth Vanna, Khorn Saret

Abstract:

The study on the tree growth for four species groups of commercial timber in Koh Kong province, Cambodia-s tropical rainforest is described. The simulation for these four groups had been successfully developed in the 5-year interval through year-60. Data were obtained from twenty permanent sample plots in the duration of thirteen years. The aim for this study was to develop stand table simulation system of tree growth by the species group. There were five steps involved in the development of the tree growth simulation: aggregate the tree species into meaningful groups by using cluster analysis; allocate the trees in the diameter classes by the species group; observe the diameter movement of the species group. The diameter growth rate, mortality rate and recruitment rate were calculated by using some mathematical formula. Simulation equation had been created by combining those parameters. Result showed the dissimilarity of the diameter growth among species groups.

Keywords: cluster analysis, diameter growth, simulation

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1383 The Link between Money Market and Economic Growth in Nigeria: Vector Error Correction Model Approach

Authors: Ehigiamusoe, Uyi Kizito

Abstract:

The paper examines the impact of money market on economic growth in Nigeria using data for the period 1980-2012. Econometrics techniques such as Ordinary Least Squares Method, Johanson’s Co-integration Test and Vector Error Correction Model were used to examine both the long-run and short-run relationship. Evidence from the study suggest that though a long-run relationship exists between money market and economic growth, but the present state of the Nigerian money market is significantly and negatively related to economic growth. The link between the money market and the real sector of the economy remains very weak. This implies that the market is not yet developed enough to produce the needed growth that will propel the Nigerian economy because of several challenges. It was therefore recommended that government should create the appropriate macroeconomic policies, legal framework and sustain the present reforms with a view to developing the market so as to promote productive activities, investments, and ultimately economic growth.

Keywords: Economic Growth, Investments, Money Market, Money Market Challenges, Money Market Instruments.

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1382 On Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model

Authors: Angela Unna Chukwu, Samuel Oluwafemi Oyamakin

Abstract:

We proposed a Hyperbolic Gompertz Growth Model (HGGM), which was developed by introducing a shape parameter (allometric). This was achieved by convoluting hyperbolic sine function on the intrinsic rate of growth in the classical gompertz growth equation. The resulting integral solution obtained deterministically was reprogrammed into a statistical model and used in modeling the height and diameter of Pines (Pinus caribaea). Its ability in model prediction was compared with the classical gompertz growth model, an approach which mimicked the natural variability of height/diameter increment with respect to age and therefore provides a more realistic height/diameter predictions using goodness of fit tests and model selection criteria. The Kolmogorov Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to test the compliance of the error term to normality assumptions while the independence of the error term was confirmed using the runs test. The mean function of top height/Dbh over age using the two models under study predicted closely the observed values of top height/Dbh in the hyperbolic gompertz growth models better than the source model (classical gompertz growth model) while the results of R2, Adj. R2, MSE and AIC confirmed the predictive power of the Hyperbolic Gompertz growth models over its source model.

Keywords: Height, Dbh, forest, Pinus caribaea, hyperbolic, gompertz.

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1381 Analysis of Investment in Knowledge inside OECD Countries

Authors: JunSeok Hwang, Mohsen Gerami

Abstract:

Knowledge is the foundation for growth and development. Investment in knowledge improves new method for originate knowledge society and knowledge economy. Investment in knowledge embraces expenditure on education and R&D and software. Measuring of investment in knowledge is characteristically complicated. We examine the influence of investment in knowledge in multifactor productivity growth and numbers of patent. We analyze the annual growth of investment in knowledge and we estimate portion of each country intended for produce total investment in knowledge on the whole OECD. We determine the relative efficiency of average patent numbers with average investment in knowledge and we compare GDP growth rates and growth of knowledge investment. The main purpose in this paper is to study to evaluate different aspect, influence and output of investment in knowledge in OECD countries.

Keywords: Knowledge, GDP, Multifactor productivity, Investment, efficiency.

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1380 Comparison of Growth and Biomass of Red Alga Cultured on Rope and Net

Authors: E. Kouhgardi, S. Dashti, H. Fekrandish

Abstract:

This research has been conducted to study the method of culture and comparing growth and biomass of Gracilaria corticata cultured on rope and net for 50 days through two treatments (first treatment: culture of alga on net and the second treatment: culture of alga on rope and each treatment was repeated by four cases). During culture period, the water of aquariums was replaced once every two days for 40-50%. Also, 0.3-0.5 grams of urea fertilizer was added to the culture environment for fertilization. Moreover, some of the environmental factors such as pH, salinity and temperature of the environment were measured on a daily basis. During the culture period, extent of longitudinal growth of the species of both treatments was equal. The said length was reached from 8-10 cm to 10.5-13 cm accordingly. The resulted weight in repetitions of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment in such a way as in the first treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 21.119 grams and in the second treatment, its weight reached from 10 grams to 17.663 grams. On a whole, it may be stated that that kind of alga being studied has a considerable growth with respect to its volume. The results have revealed that the percentage of daily growth and wet weight at the end of the first treatment was higher than that of the second treatment and it was registered as 0.934, 6.072 and 811.432 in the first treatment and 0.797, 4.990 and 758.071 in the second treatment respectively. This difference is significant (P<0.05). Growth and biomass of G. corticata through culture on net was more emphasizing on numerous branches due to wider bed. Moreover, higher level of the species in this method was exposed to sunlight and this increased biosynthesis and eventually increases of growth and biomass.

Keywords: Red alga, growth, biomass, culture, net, rope.

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1379 Effect of Welding Processes on Fatigue Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Joints

Authors: T.S.Balasubramanian, V.Balasubramanian, M.A.Muthumanikkam

Abstract:

This paper reports the fatigue crack growth behaviour of gas tungsten arc, electron beam and laser beam welded Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. Centre cracked tensile specimens were prepared to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behaviour. A 100kN servo hydraulic controlled fatigue testing machine was used under constant amplitude uniaxial tensile load (stress ratio of 0.1 and frequency of 10 Hz). Crack growth curves were plotted and crack growth parameters (exponent and intercept) were evaluated. Critical and threshold stress intensity factor ranges were also evaluated. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of welds was correlated with mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of welds. Of the three joints, the joint fabricated by laser beam welding exhibited higher fatigue crack growth resistance due to the presence of fine lamellar microstructure in the weld metal.

Keywords: Fatigue, Non ferrous metals and alloys, welding

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1378 Strategic Investment in Infrastructure Development to Facilitate Economic Growth in the United States

Authors: Arkaprabha Bhattacharyya, Makarand Hastak

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented in terms of its global reach and economic impacts. Historically, investment in infrastructure development projects has been touted to boost the economic growth of a nation. The State and Local governments responsible for delivering infrastructure assets work under tight budgets. Therefore, it is important to understand which infrastructure projects have the highest potential of boosting economic growth in the post-pandemic era. This paper presents relationships between infrastructure projects and economic growth. Statistical relationships between investment in different types of infrastructure projects (transit, water and wastewater, highways, power, manufacturing etc.) and indicators of economic growth are presented using historic data between 2002 and 2020 from the U.S. Census Bureau and U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA). The outcome of the paper is the comparison of statistical correlations between investment in different types of infrastructure projects and indicators of economic growth. The comparison of the statistical correlations is useful in ranking the types of infrastructure projects based on their ability to influence economic prosperity. Therefore, investment in the infrastructures with the higher rank will have a better chance of boosting the economic growth. Once, the ranks are derived, they can be used by the decision-makers in infrastructure investment related decision-making process.

Keywords: Economic growth, infrastructure development, infrastructure projects, strategic investment.

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1377 The Impact of Revenue Gap on Economic Growth: A Case Study of Pakistan

Authors: M. Ilyas, M. W. Siddiqi

Abstract:

This study employs auto-regressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds approach to cointegration for long run and errorcorrection modeling (ECM) for short run analysis to examine the relationship between revenue gap and economic growth for Pakistan using annual time series data over the period 1980 to 2008. The short and long run results indicate that revenue gap is statistical significant and negatively effect economic growth. The significant and negative coefficient of error correction term in ECM indicates that after a shock, the long rum equilibrium will again converge towards equilibrium about 10.406 percent within a year.

Keywords: ARDL cointegration, Economic Growth, RevenueGap, Pakistan.

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1376 Improved FP-growth Algorithm with Multiple Minimum Supports Using Maximum Constraints

Authors: Elsayeda M. Elgaml, Dina M. Ibrahim, Elsayed A. Sallam

Abstract:

Association rule mining is one of the most important fields of data mining and knowledge discovery. In this paper, we propose an efficient multiple support frequent pattern growth algorithm which we called “MSFP-growth” that enhancing the FPgrowth algorithm by making infrequent child node pruning step with multiple minimum support using maximum constrains. The algorithm is implemented, and it is compared with other common algorithms: Apriori-multiple minimum supports using maximum constraints and FP-growth. The experimental results show that the rule mining from the proposed algorithm are interesting and our algorithm achieved better performance than other algorithms without scarifying the accuracy. 

Keywords: Association Rules, FP-growth, Multiple minimum supports, Weka Tool

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1375 Growth and Stomatal Responses of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Tolerance to Salt Stress

Authors: Afrasyab Rahnama, Kazem Poustini, Reza Tavakkol-Afshari, Afshin Tavakoli

Abstract:

Plant growth is affected by the osmotic stress as well as toxicity of salt in leaves. In order to study of salt stress effects on stomatal conductance and growth rate and relationship between them as wells osmotic and Na+-specific effects on these traits, four bread wheat genotypes differing in salt tolerance were selected. Salinity was applied when the leaf 4 was fully expanded. Sodium (Na+) concentrations in flag leaf blade at 3 salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) were measured. Salt-tolerant genotypes showed higher stomatal conductance and growth rate compared to salt-sensitive ones. After 10 and 20 days exposure to salt, stomatal conductance and relative growth rate were reduced, but the reduction was greater in sensitive genotypes. Growth rate was reduced severely in the first period (1-10 days) of salt commencements and it was due to osmotic effect of salt not Na+ toxicity. In the second period (11-20 days) after salt treatment growth reduced only when salt accumulated to toxic concentrations in the leaves. A positive relationship between stomatal conductance and relative growth rate showed that stomatal conductance can be a reliable indicator of growth rate, and finally can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the osmotic stress. It seems 20 days after salinity, the major effect of salt, especially at low to moderate salinity levels on growth properties was due to the osmotic effect of salt, not to Na+-specific effects within the plant.

Keywords: Osmotic stress, relative growth rate, stomatal conductance, wheat.

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1374 Effect of Anoxia on Root Growth and Grain Yield of Wheat Cultivars

Authors: M. E. Ghobadi, M. Ghobadi

Abstract:

Waterlogging reduces shoot and root growth and final yield of wheat. Waterlogged sites have a combination of low slope, high rainfall, heavy texture and low permeability. This study was aimed the importance of waterlogging on root growth and wheat yield. In order to study the effects of different waterlogging duration (0, 10, 20 and 30 days) at growth stages (1-leaf stage, tillering stage and stem elongation stage) on root growth of wheat cultivars (Chamran, Vee/Nac and Yavaroos), one pot experiment was carried out. The experiment was a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that root dry weight and total root length in the anthesis and grain ripening stages and biological and grain yields were significantly different between cultivars, growth stages and waterlogging durations. Vee/Nac was found superior with respect to other cultivars. Susceptibility to waterlogging at different growth stages for cultivars was 1-leaf stage > tillering stage > stem elongation stage. Under waterlogging treatments, grain and biological yields, were decreased 44.5 and 39.8%, respectively. Root length and root dry weight were reduced 55.1 and 45.2%, respectively, too. In this experiment, decrease at root growth because of waterlogging reduced grain and biological yields. Based on the results, even short period (10 days) of waterlogging had unrecoverable effects on the root growth and grain yield of wheat.

Keywords: Wheat, waterlogging, root length, root dry weight, grain yield.

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1373 Effects of Chitosan as the Growth Stimulator for Grammatophyllum speciosum in Vitro Culture

Authors: Sopalun K., Thammasiri K., Ishikawa K.

Abstract:

The effects of chitosan, a biodegradable polymer, were studied in Grammatophyllum speciosum protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) in vitro culture. The chitosan concentration of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50 or 100 mg/l were supplemented in half-strength Murashige and Skoog (1/2 MS) liquid or on agar media containing 2% (w/v) sucrose. The results showed that liquid medium supplemented with 15 mg/l chitosan showed the highest relative growth rate (7-fold increase) of PLBs. On 1/2 MS agar medium supplemented with 25 mg/l chitosan gave the highest relative growth rate (4-fold increase). The relative growth rate of G. speciosum PLBs on agar medium was significantly lower than that in liquid medium. Moreover, chitosan, supplemented to agar medium promoted shoot formation but not rooting. However, supplementation at too high a level, such as 100 mg/l can inhibit growth and kill PLBs.

Keywords: Chitosan, Grammatophyllum speciosum, Growth stimulator

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1372 A Study of Growth Factors on Sustainable Manufacturing in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: Case Study of Japan Manufacturing

Authors: Tadayuki Kyoutani, Shigeyuki Haruyama, Ken Kaminishi, Zefry Darmawan

Abstract:

Japan’s semiconductor industries have developed greatly in recent years. Many were started from a Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) that found at a good circumstance and now become the prosperous industries in the world. Sustainable growth factors that support the creation of spirit value inside the Japanese company were strongly embedded through performance. Those factors were not clearly defined among each company. A series of literature research conducted to explore quantitative text mining about the definition of sustainable growth factors. Sustainable criteria were developed from previous research to verify the definition of the factors. A typical frame work was proposed as a systematical approach to develop sustainable growth factor in a specific company. Result of approach was review in certain period shows that factors influenced in sustainable growth was importance for the company to achieve the goal.

Keywords: SME, manufacture, sustainable, growth factor.

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