Nurses’ Views on ‘Effective Nurse Leader’ Characteristics in Iraq
This research explored ward nurses’ views about the characteristics of effective nurse leaders in the context of Iraq as a developing country, where the delivery of health care continues to face disruption and change. It is well established that the provision of modern health care requires effective nurse leaders, but in countries such as Iraq the lack of effective nurse leaders is noted as a major challenge. In a descriptive quantitative study, a survey questionnaire was administered to 210 ward nurses working in two public hospitals in a major city in the north of Iraq. The participating nurses were of the opinion that the effectiveness of their nurse leaders was evident in their ability to demonstrate: good clinical knowledge, effective communication and managerial skills. They also viewed their leaders as needing to hold high-level nursing qualifications, though this was not necessarily the case in practice. Additionally, they viewed nurse leaders’ personal qualities as important, which included politeness, ethical behaviour, and trustworthiness. When considered against the issues raised in interviews with a smaller group (20) of senior nurse leaders, representative of the various occupational levels, implications identify the need for professional development that focuses on how the underpinning competencies relate to leadership and how transformational leadership is evidenced in practice.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1131469Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 741
 Al-Haddad, M. Leadership in Healthcare Management. Bahrain Medical Bulletin 25, 1 (2003).
 Cummings, G., Lee, H. & MacGregor, T. Factors contributing to nursing leadership: A systematic review. Journal of Health Services Research & Policy 13, pp. 240–248 (2008).
 Kleinman, C. Leadership roles, competencies and education. Journal of Nursing Management 33, pp. 451–455 (2003).
 Contino, D. Leadership competencies: Knowledge, skills, and aptitudes nurses need to lead organizations effectively. Critical Care Nurse 24, pp. 52-64 (2004). Retrieved from http://ccn.aacnjournals.org/content/24/3/52.long.
 El Amouri, S., & O’Neill, S. (2014). Leadership style and culturally competent care: Nurse leaders’ views of their practice in the multicultural care settings of the United Arab Emirates, Contemporary Nurse 48(2), pp. 135-149. Special issue: Supporting a Strong and Resilient Contemporary Nursing Workforce.
 Ng’Ang’a, N., & Byrne, M. W. Professional practice models for nurses in low-income countries: An integrative review. BMC Nursing, 14(44), DOI: 10.1186/s12912-015-0095-5 (2015).
 Milton, S. The neglected pillar of recovery: A study of higher education in post-war Iraq and Libya. PhD Thesis, White Rose e-Theses Online, York University, UK.
 Al Hilfi, T. K., Lafta, R., & Burnham G. Health services in Iraq. The Lancet, Vol. 381, No. 9870, pp. 939-948. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60320-7.
 Scanell-Desch, E., & Doherty, M. E. Experiences of U. S. military nurses in the Iraq and Afghanistan wars 2003-2009. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 3-12. doi: 10.1111/j.1547-5069.2009.01329.x.
 Von Dietze, E. & Orb, A. Compassionate care: A moral dimension of nursing. Nursing Inquiry 7(3), pp. 166-174 (2000).
 Heffernan, M., Quinn Griffin, M. T., Sister Rita, M. & Fitzpatrick, J. J. Self-compassion and emotional intelligence in nurses. Int J Nurs Pract 16, pp. 366-373 (2010).
 Zoinikov, T. R. (2013). From developed to developing country: Water and war in Iraq. Water Magazine. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Water Institute. Retrieved from http://water.jhu.edu/index.php/magazine/from-developed-to-developing-country-water-and-war-in-iraq (2013).
 Force, M. (2005). The relationship between effective nurse managers and nursing retention. Journal of Nursing Administration, Vol. 35, No. 7-8, pp. 336-341.
 Avolio, B. J. and Bass, B. M. (2002), Developing Potential across a Full Range of Leadership Cases on Transactional and Transformational Leadership, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
 Brown, B. J. Leadership for the future. Nursing Administration Quarterly 29(2), 111-112 (2005).
 Jormsri, P., Kunaviktikul, W., Ketefian, S. & Chaowalit, A. Moral competence in nursing practice. Nursing Ethics 12, 582-594 (2005).
 Tuckett, A. An ethic of the fitting: a conceptual framework for nursing practice. Nursing Inquiry 5, pp. 220-227 (1998).
 Miyata, A., Arai, H. & Suga, S. (2015) Nurse managers stress and coping. Open Journal of Nursing, 5, pp. 957-964. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojn.2015.511101
 Abed, S. Exploring nurses’ views on effective leadership in Iraq: Developing a framework for professional nursing leadership education. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern Queensland. Retrieved from https://eprints.usq.edu.au/26276/ (2014)
 Mannix, J., Wilkes, L., & Daly, J. Attributes of clinical leadership in contemporary nursing: An integrative overview. Contemporary Nurse, 45(1), pp. 10-21. (2013).
 Curtis, E., & O’Connell, R. Essential leadership skills for motivating and developing staff: Feature. Nursing Management, Vol. 18, Number 5, pp. 32-35 (2011).
 Arnold, E. C., & Boggs, K. Personal communication skills for nurses. St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. (2014).
 Curtis, E. A., de Vries, J., & Sheerin, F. K. Developing leadership in nursing: Exploring core factors. British Journal of Nursing, Vol. 20, Number 5, pp. 306-309 (2011).
 Heuston, M. M., & Wolf, G. A. Transformational leadership skills of successful nurse managers. Journal of Nursing Administration 41, 248-251 (2011).
 Brady, G. P., Germain, P., & Cummings, G. The influence of nursing leadership on nurse performance: A systematic literature review. Journal of Nursing Management 18, pp. 425-439 (2010).
 Pepin, J., Dubois, S., Girard, F., Tardif, J., & Ha, L., A cognitive learning model of clinical nursing leadership. Nurse Education Today, 31, pp. 268–273 (2011).
 Yoder-Wise, P., Scott, E., & Sullivan, D. Expanding leadership capacity: Educational levels for nurse leaders. Journal of nursing administration, 43(6), pp. 326-328 (2013).
 Heller, B. R., Drenkard, K., Esposito-Herr, M. B., Romano, C., Tom, S., & Valentine, N. Educating nurses for leadership roles. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 35(5), pp. 203–210 (2004).
 Garfield, R., & McCarthy, C. F. Nursing and nursing education in Iraq: challenges and opportunities. International Nursing Review, 52, pp. 180-185 (2005).
 Melvan, S. I., & Vines, D. (2010). Angel walk: nurses at war in Iraq and Afghanistan. Portland, Oregon: Arnica Publications.