Strategies for Patient Families Integration in Caregiving: A Consensus Opinion
Authors: Ibrahim A. Alkali
There is no reservation on the outstanding contribution of patient families in restoration of hospitalised patients, hence their consideration as essential component of hospital ward regimen. The psychological and emotional support a patient requires has been found to be solely provided by the patient’s family. However, consideration of their presence as one of the major functional requirements of an inpatient setting design have always been a source of disquiet, especially in developing countries where policies, norms and protocols of healthcare administration have no consideration for the patients’ family. This have been a major challenge to the hospital ward facilities, a concern for the hospital administration and patient management. The study therefore is aimed at obtaining a consensus opinion on the best approach for family integration in the design of an inpatient setting. A one day visioning charrette involving Architects, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Healthcare assistants and representatives from the Patient families was conducted with the aim of arriving at a consensus opinion on practical design approach for sustainable family integration. Patient’s family are found to be decisive character of hospital ward regimen that cannot be undermined. However, several challenges that impede family integration were identified and subsequently a recommendation for an ideal approach. This will serve as a guide to both architects and hospital management in implementing much desired Patient and Family Centred Care.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1316283Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 403
 A. Alesina and P. Giuliano, ‘The power of the family’, J Econ Growth, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 93–125, May 2010.
 P. Angood et al., ‘Patient and family involvement in contemporary health care’, J Patient Saf, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 38–42, Mar. 2010.
 R. F. Bales and T. Parsons, Family: Socialization and Interaction Process. Routledge, 2014.
 I. A. Alkali, M. H. Ahmad, and I. Said, ‘The Challenges of Nigerian Hospitals in Providing for Family Participation’, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 584–586, pp. 142–151, 2014.
 P. Åstedt-Kurki, M. Paunonen, and K. Lehti, ‘Family members’ experiences of their role in a hospital: A pilot study’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 908–914, 1997.
 E. Bott and E. B. Spillius, Family and Social Network: Roles, Norms and External Relationships in Ordinary Urban Families. Routledge, 2014.
 H. Brown, ‘Hospital Domestics: Care Work in Kenyan Hospital’, Space and Culture, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 18–30, 2012.
 C. Nord, ‘The Visible Patient: Hybridity and inpatient ward design in Namibian Context’, Stolkholm, 2003.
 D. Allen, ‘Negotiating the role of expert carers on an adult hospital ward’, Sociology of Health & Illness, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 149–171, 2000.
 T. J. Litman, ‘The family as a Basic Unit in Health and Medical Care: A social-behavioral overview’, Social Science & Medicine (1967), vol. 8, no. 9–10, pp. 495–519, Sep. 1974.
 J. S. Rolland, ‘Advancing family Involvement in Collaborative Health Care: Next steps’, Families, Systems, & Health, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 104–107, 2015.
 P. Åstedt-Kurki, K. Lehti, M. Paunonen, and E. Paavilainen, ‘Family Member as a Hospital Patient: Sentiments and functioning of the family’, International Journal of Nursing Practice, vol. 5, no. 3, p. 155–163., Dec. 2001.
 E. Mattila, M. Kaunonen, P. Aalto, and P. Åstedt-Kurki, ‘The Method of Nursing Support in Hospital and Patients’ and Family Members’ Experiences of the Effectiveness of the Support’, Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 2013.
 L. L. Northouse, M. C. Katapodi, A. M. Schafenacker, and D. Weiss, ‘ The Impact of Caregiving on the Psychological Well-Being of Family Caregivers and Cancer Patients’, Seminars in Oncology Nursing, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 236–245, Nov. 2012.
 F. Botha and F. Booysen, ‘Family Functioning and Life Satisfaction and Happiness in South African Households’, Soc Indic Res, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 163–182, Oct. 2013.
 Z. Kuo, A. J. Houtrow, P. Arango, K. A. Kuhlthau, J. M. Simons, and N. M. John, ‘Family Centered Care: Current Applications and Future Directions in Paediatric Healthcare’, Maternal Child Health, vol. 16, pp. 297–305, 2012.
 L. A. Siminoff, ‘Incorporating Patient and Family Preferences into Evidence-based Medicine’, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, vol. 13, no. Suppl 3, p. S6, Dec. 2013.
 S. C. Reinhard, B. Given, N. H. Petlick, and A. Bemis, ‘Supporting Family Caregivers in Providing Care’, in Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses, R. G. Hughes, Ed. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US), 2008.
 M. Hoffman et al., ‘Utilization of Family Members to Provide Hospital Care in Malawi: The role of hospital guardians’, Malawi Medical Journal, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 74–78, 2012.
 C. R. Alalouch, ‘Hospital Ward Design: Implications for space and privacy’, Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, 2009.
 IUSS, ‘IUSS Health Facility Guide_ Adult in patient accommodation’. Department of Health,Republic of south Africa, 2013.
 Department of Health, ‘Health Building Note 04-01 – Adult in-patient Facilities’. NHS, 2013.
 R. Glanville and A. Howard, Hospitals. Metric Handbook-Planning and Design Data, 2nd ed. Great Britain: Architectural Press, 1999.
 A. Cox and P. Groves, Hospital and Healthcare Facilities. A Design and Development Guide. Published by London: Butterworths. Oxford:Butterwoth-Heinaman, 1990.
 L. Suba, ‘When Is a Charrette Session Useful?’, Brighthub Project Management, 2011. (Online). Available: http://www.brighthubpm.com/project-planning/123216-using-charrettes-in-the-project-planning-phases/. (Accessed: 01-Dec-2014).
 P. S. W. Fong, ‘Knowledge Creation in Multidisciplinary Project Teams: An empirical study of the processes and their dynamic interrelationships’, International Journal of Project Management, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 479–486, Oct. 2003.
 M. W. Knox, ‘Impact Of Charrettes And Their Characteristics on Achieved Leed Certification’, MSc, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, 2013.
 F. Rabiee, ‘Focus-Group Interview And Data Analysis’, Proc Nutr Soc, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 655–660, Nov. 2004.
 J. T. Bertrand, J. E. Brown, and V. M. Ward, ‘Techniques for Analyzing Focus Group Data’, Eval Rev, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 198–209, Apr. 1992.
 G. W. Ryan and R. H. Bernard, ‘Techniques to Identify Themes’, Field Methods, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 85–109, 2003.
 M. B. Miles, A. M. Huberman, and J. Saldaña, Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook, Third Edition edition. Thousand Oaks, Califorinia: SAGE Publications, Inc, 2013.