Search results for: Secondary Structure
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3071

Search results for: Secondary Structure

3071 Protein Secondary Structure Prediction

Authors: Manpreet Singh, Parvinder Singh Sandhu, Reet Kamal Kaur

Abstract:

Protein structure determination and prediction has been a focal research subject in the field of bioinformatics due to the importance of protein structure in understanding the biological and chemical activities of organisms. The experimental methods used by biotechnologists to determine the structures of proteins demand sophisticated equipment and time. A host of computational methods are developed to predict the location of secondary structure elements in proteins for complementing or creating insights into experimental results. However, prediction accuracies of these methods rarely exceed 70%.

Keywords: Protein, Secondary Structure, Prediction, DNA, RNA.

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3070 Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Parallelized Rule Induction from Coverings

Authors: Leong Lee, Cyriac Kandoth, Jennifer L. Leopold, Ronald L. Frank

Abstract:

Protein 3D structure prediction has always been an important research area in bioinformatics. In particular, the prediction of secondary structure has been a well-studied research topic. Despite the recent breakthrough of combining multiple sequence alignment information and artificial intelligence algorithms to predict protein secondary structure, the Q3 accuracy of various computational prediction algorithms rarely has exceeded 75%. In a previous paper [1], this research team presented a rule-based method called RT-RICO (Relaxed Threshold Rule Induction from Coverings) to predict protein secondary structure. The average Q3 accuracy on the sample datasets using RT-RICO was 80.3%, an improvement over comparable computational methods. Although this demonstrated that RT-RICO might be a promising approach for predicting secondary structure, the algorithm-s computational complexity and program running time limited its use. Herein a parallelized implementation of a slightly modified RT-RICO approach is presented. This new version of the algorithm facilitated the testing of a much larger dataset of 396 protein domains [2]. Parallelized RTRICO achieved a Q3 score of 74.6%, which is higher than the consensus prediction accuracy of 72.9% that was achieved for the same test dataset by a combination of four secondary structure prediction methods [2].

Keywords: data mining, protein secondary structure prediction, parallelization.

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3069 CompPSA: A Component-Based Pairwise RNA Secondary Structure Alignment Algorithm

Authors: Ghada Badr, Arwa Alturki

Abstract:

The biological function of an RNA molecule depends on its structure. The objective of the alignment is finding the homology between two or more RNA secondary structures. Knowing the common functionalities between two RNA structures allows a better understanding and a discovery of other relationships between them. Besides, identifying non-coding RNAs -that is not translated into a protein- is a popular application in which RNA structural alignment is the first step A few methods for RNA structure-to-structure alignment have been developed. Most of these methods are partial structure-to-structure, sequence-to-structure, or structure-to-sequence alignment. Less attention is given in the literature to the use of efficient RNA structure representation and the structure-to-structure alignment methods are lacking. In this paper, we introduce an O(N2) Component-based Pairwise RNA Structure Alignment (CompPSA) algorithm, where structures are given as a component-based representation and where N is the maximum number of components in the two structures. The proposed algorithm compares the two RNA secondary structures based on their weighted component features rather than on their base-pair details. Extensive experiments are conducted illustrating the efficiency of the CompPSA algorithm when compared to other approaches and on different real and simulated datasets. The CompPSA algorithm shows an accurate similarity measure between components. The algorithm gives the flexibility for the user to align the two RNA structures based on their weighted features (position, full length, and/or stem length). Moreover, the algorithm proves scalability and efficiency in time and memory performance.

Keywords: Alignment, RNA secondary structure, pairwise, component-based, data mining.

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3068 Dimensionality Reduction of PSSM Matrix and its Influence on Secondary Structure and Relative Solvent Accessibility Predictions

Authors: Rafał Adamczak

Abstract:

State-of-the-art methods for secondary structure (Porter, Psi-PRED, SAM-T99sec, Sable) and solvent accessibility (Sable, ACCpro) predictions use evolutionary profiles represented by the position specific scoring matrix (PSSM). It has been demonstrated that evolutionary profiles are the most important features in the feature space for these predictions. Unfortunately applying PSSM matrix leads to high dimensional feature spaces that may create problems with parameter optimization and generalization. Several recently published suggested that applying feature extraction for the PSSM matrix may result in improvements in secondary structure predictions. However, none of the top performing methods considered here utilizes dimensionality reduction to improve generalization. In the present study, we used simple and fast methods for features selection (t-statistics, information gain) that allow us to decrease the dimensionality of PSSM matrix by 75% and improve generalization in the case of secondary structure prediction compared to the Sable server.

Keywords: Secondary structure prediction, feature selection, position specific scoring matrix.

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3067 Predicting the Minimum Free Energy RNA Secondary Structures using Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: Abdulqader M. Mohsen, Ahamad Tajudin Khader, Dhanesh Ramachandram, Abdullatif Ghallab

Abstract:

The physical methods for RNA secondary structure prediction are time consuming and expensive, thus methods for computational prediction will be a proper alternative. Various algorithms have been used for RNA structure prediction including dynamic programming and metaheuristic algorithms. Musician's behaviorinspired harmony search is a recently developed metaheuristic algorithm which has been successful in a wide variety of complex optimization problems. This paper proposes a harmony search algorithm (HSRNAFold) to find RNA secondary structure with minimum free energy and similar to the native structure. HSRNAFold is compared with dynamic programming benchmark mfold and metaheuristic algorithms (RnaPredict, SetPSO and HelixPSO). The results showed that HSRNAFold is comparable to mfold and better than metaheuristics in finding the minimum free energies and the number of correct base pairs.

Keywords: Metaheuristic algorithms, dynamic programming algorithms, harmony search optimization, RNA folding, Minimum free energy.

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3066 Predominance of Teaching Models Used by Math Teachers in Secondary Education

Authors: Verónica Diaz Quezada

Abstract:

This research examines the teaching models used by secondary math teachers when teaching logarithmic, quadratic and exponential functions. For this, descriptive case studies have been carried out on 5 secondary teachers. These teachers have been chosen from 3 scientific-humanistic and technical schools, in Chile. Data have been obtained through non-participant class observation and the application of a questionnaire and a rubric to teachers. According to the results, the didactic model that prevails is the one that starts with an interactive strategy, moves to a more content-based structure, and ends with a reinforcement stage. Nonetheless, there is always influence from teachers, their methods, and the group of students.

Keywords: Teaching models, math teachers, functions, secondary education.

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3065 Leveraging Reasoning through Discourse: A Case Study in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms

Authors: Cory A. Bennett

Abstract:

Teaching and learning through the use of discourse support students’ conceptual understanding by attending to key concepts and relationships. One discourse structure used in primary classrooms is number talks wherein students mentally calculate, discuss, and reason about the appropriateness and efficiency of their strategies. In the secondary mathematics classroom, the mathematics understudy does not often lend itself to mental calculations yet learning to reason, and articulate reasoning, is central to learning mathematics. This qualitative case study discusses how one secondary school in the Middle East adapted the number talk protocol for secondary mathematics classrooms. Several challenges in implementing ‘reasoning talks’ became apparent including shifting current discourse protocols and practices to a more student-centric model, accurately recording and probing student thinking, and specifically attending to reasoning rather than computations.

Keywords: Discourse, reasoning, secondary mathematics, teacher development.

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3064 A Metallography Study of Secondary A226 Aluminium Alloy Used in Automotive Industries

Authors: Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Mária Chalupová, Juraj Belan, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

The secondary alloy A226 is used for many automotive casting produced by mould casting and high pressure die casting. This alloy has excellent castability, good mechanical properties and cost-effectiveness. Production of primary aluminium alloys belong to heavy source fouling of life environs. The European Union calls for the emission reduction and reduction in energy consumption therefore increase production of recycled (secondary) aluminium cast alloys. The contribution is deal with influence of recycling on the quality of the casting made from A226 in automotive industry. The properties of the casting made from secondary aluminium alloys were compared with the required properties of primary aluminium alloys. The effect of recycling on microstructure was observed using combination different analytical techniques (light microscopy upon black-white etching, scanning electron microscopy - SEM upon deep etching and energy dispersive X-ray analysis - EDX). These techniques were used for the identification of the various structure parameters, which was used to compare secondary alloy microstructure with primary alloy microstructure.

Keywords: A226 secondary aluminium alloy, deep etching, mechanical properties, recycling foundry aluminium alloy.

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3063 The Use of Secondary Crystallization in Cement-Based Composites

Authors: Nikol Žižková, Šárka Keprdová, Rostislav Drochytka

Abstract:

The paper focuses on the study of the properties of cement-based composites produced using secondary crystallization (crystalline additive). In this study, cement mortar made with secondary crystallization was exposed to an aggressive environment and the influence of secondary crystallization on the degradation of the cementitious composite was investigated. The results indicate that the crystalline additive contributed to increasing the resistance of the cement-based composite to the attack of the selected environments (sodium sulphate solution and ammonium chloride solution).

Keywords: Secondary crystallization, cement-based composites, durability.

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3062 Secondary Materials Management in Latvia: Challenges and Possibilities

Authors: N. Kulakova

Abstract:

Thisresearch paper is dedicated to an actual issue in Latvia and in the whole European Union – development of the secondary materials management. The goal of this paper is to research the development of the secondary materials management in Latvia as a result to point out its main positive aspects and problems. In this research paper the author regards following issues: significance of the secondary materials management, current situation of the waste generation and utilization in Latvia comparing with other EU Member States, main problems and positive aspects of the secondary materials management in Latvia. The research author concludes that in last ten years a great work is done to develop the secondary materials market. Nevertheless following improvements are necessary: implementation of the packaging deposit system, development of the separate waste collection, increasing of the recycling capacity.

Keywords: sustainable development, secondary materials, separate waste collection, packaging deposit system.

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3061 Comprehensive Evaluation on China-s Industrial Structure Optimization from the Perspective of Coordination

Authors: Ying Wang

Abstract:

From the perspective of industrial structure coordination and based on an explicit definition for the connotation of industrial structure coordination, the synergetic coefficients are used to measure the coordination degree between three industries' input structure and output structure, and then the efficacy function method is employed to comprehensively evaluate the level of China-s industrial structure optimization. It is showed that Chinese industrial structure presented a "v-shaped" variation tendency between 1996 and 2008, and its industrial structure adjustment got obvious achievements after 2003, with the industrial structure optimization level increasing continuously. However in 2009, the level of China-s industrial structure optimization declined sharply due to the decreasing contribution degree of value added structure and energy structure coordination and the lower coordination degree of value added structure and capital structure.

Keywords: China's industrial structure, Coordination degree, Efficacy function, Synergetic coefficients

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3060 Sampling Effects on Secondary Voltage Control of Microgrids Based on Network of Multiagent

Authors: M. J. Park, S. H. Lee, C. H. Lee, O. M. Kwon

Abstract:

This paper studies a secondary voltage control framework of the microgrids based on the consensus for a communication network of multiagent. The proposed control is designed by the communication network with one-way links. The communication network is modeled by a directed graph. At this time, the concept of sampling is considered as the communication constraint among each distributed generator in the microgrids. To analyze the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids, by using Lyapunov theory and some mathematical techniques, the sufficient condition for such problem will be established regarding linear matrix inequality (LMI). Finally, some simulation results are given to illustrate the necessity of the consideration of the sampling effects on the secondary voltage control of the microgrids.

Keywords: Microgrids, secondary control, multiagent, sampling, LMI.

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3059 Maximum Common Substructure Extraction in RNA Secondary Structures Using Clique Detection Approach

Authors: Shih-Yi Chao

Abstract:

The similarity comparison of RNA secondary structures is important in studying the functions of RNAs. In recent years, most existing tools represent the secondary structures by tree-based presentation and calculate the similarity by tree alignment distance. Different to previous approaches, we propose a new method based on maximum clique detection algorithm to extract the maximum common structural elements in compared RNA secondary structures. A new graph-based similarity measurement and maximum common subgraph detection procedures for comparing purely RNA secondary structures is introduced. Given two RNA secondary structures, the proposed algorithm consists of a process to determine the score of the structural similarity, followed by comparing vertices labelling, the labelled edges and the exact degree of each vertex. The proposed algorithm also consists of a process to extract the common structural elements between compared secondary structures based on a proposed maximum clique detection of the problem. This graph-based model also can work with NC-IUB code to perform the pattern-based searching. Therefore, it can be used to identify functional RNA motifs from database or to extract common substructures between complex RNA secondary structures. We have proved the performance of this proposed algorithm by experimental results. It provides a new idea of comparing RNA secondary structures. This tool is helpful to those who are interested in structural bioinformatics.

Keywords: Clique detection, labeled vertices, RNA secondary structures, subgraph, similarity.

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3058 Polymer Industrial Floors - The Possibility of Using Secondary Raw Materials from Solar Panels

Authors: J. Kosikova, B. Vacenovska, M. Vyhnankova

Abstract:

The paper reports on the subject of recycling and further use of secondary raw materials obtained from solar panels, which is becoming a very up to date topic in recent years. Recycling these panels is very difficult and complex, and the use of resulting secondary raw materials is still not fully resolved. Within the research carried out at the Brno University of Technology, new polymer materials used for industrial floors are being developed. Secondary raw materials are incorporated into these polymers as fillers. One of the tested filler materials was glass obtained from solar panels. The following text describes procedures and results of the tests that were performed on these materials, confirming the possibility of the use of solar panel glass in industrial polymer flooring systems.

Keywords: Fillers, industrial floors, recycling, secondary raw material, solar panel.

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3057 On CR-Structure and F-Structure Satisfying Polynomial Equation

Authors: Manisha Kankarej

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show a relation between CR structure and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation. In this paper, we have checked the significance of CR structure and F-structure on Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor. It was proved that all the properties of Integrability conditions and Nijenhuis tensor are satisfied by CR structures and F-structure satisfying polynomial equation.

Keywords: CR-submainfolds, CR-structure, Integrability condition & Nijenhuis tensor.

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3056 Perceptions on Accounting Career: A Study among the Secondary School Students in a Regional Kelantan State

Authors: Hezlina Mohd Hashim, Abdul Mutalib Embong, Zullina H. Shaari

Abstract:

This study analyses the perceptions of secondary school students about the accounting profession in Malaysia. Fifty five form three and form four students who are taking accounting/commerce subjects were met. Individual-s perception data were collected through questionnaires. The results at the secondary school level suggest that the stereotypical negative image of the accountant ends, with students expressing the positive view of the work of an accountant. There were also gender differences in perceiving the accounting profession. Overall, the results of the study suggest that we are now in line in projecting positive and accurate perceptions of the accounting profession to secondary school students.

Keywords: Perceptions, secondary school students, accounting profession, Malaysia.

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3055 A Secondary Disaster Due To Inhabitant's Action after a Strong Earthquake: A Case Study of the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake

Authors: Douangmala Kounsana, Xiang Wen, Toru Takahashi

Abstract:

After a strong earthquake occurs, a secondary disaster due to strong aftershocks, flood, landslide or heavy snow can possible to occur and the secondary disaster due to resident-s action also can possible to happen. However, until now seldom researchers have paid attention at it. This paper focused on the Inhabitant-s action after the strong earthquake occurs when a terrible even becomes calm. An inappropriate behavior of people with disadvantaged climate after the worse earthquake can bring a tragedy to their life.

Keywords: Sichuan Earthquake, Secondary Disaster, Inhabitant's Action, inappropriate behavior.

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3054 Motivational Orientation of the Methodical System of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools

Authors: M. Rodionov, Z. Dedovets

Abstract:

The article analyses the composition and structure of the motivationally oriented methodological system of teaching mathematics (purpose, content, methods, forms, and means of teaching), viewed through the prism of the student as the subject of the learning process. Particular attention is paid to the problem of methods of teaching mathematics, which are represented in the form of an ordered triad of attributes corresponding to the selected characteristics. A systematic analysis of possible options and their methodological interpretation enriched existing ideas about known methods and technologies of training, and significantly expanded their nomenclature by including previously unstudied combinations of characteristics. In addition, examples outlined in this article illustrate the possibilities of enhancing the motivational capacity of a particular method or technology in the real learning practice of teaching mathematics through more free goal-setting and varying the conditions of the problem situations. The authors recommend the implementation of different strategies according to their characteristics in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.

Keywords: Education, methodological system, teaching of mathematics, teachers, lesson, students motivation, secondary school.

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3053 Role of Direct and Secondary Traumatic Experience on Later Functioning

Authors: Pamela L. Knox, Linda R. Guthrie

Abstract:

Trauma in early life is widely regarded as a cause for adult mental health problems. This study explores the role of secondary trauma on later functioning in a sample of 359 university students enrolled in undergraduate psychology classes in the United States. Participants were initially divided into four groups based on 1) having directly experienced trauma (assaultive violence), 2) having directly experienced trauma and secondary traumatization through the unanticipated death of a close friend or family member or witnessing of an injury or shocking even), 3) having no experience of direct trauma but having experienced indirect trauma (secondary trauma), or 4) reporting no exposure. Participants completed a battery of measures on concepts associated with psychological functioning which included measures of psychological well-being, problem solving, coping and resiliency. Findings discuss differences in psychological functioning and resilience based on participants who experienced secondary traumatization and assaultive violence versus secondary traumatization alone.

Keywords: Psychological Functioning, Resiliency, Trauma, Abuse

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3052 Analysis of Secondary School Students’ Perceptions about Information Technologies through a Word Association Test

Authors: Fetah Eren, Ismail Sahin, Ismail Celik, Ahmet Oguz Akturk

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to discover secondary school students’ perceptions related to information technologies and the connections between concepts in their cognitive structures. A word association test consisting of six concepts related to information technologies is used to collect data from 244 secondary school students. Concept maps that present students’ cognitive structures are drawn with the help of frequency data. Data are analyzed and interpreted according to the connections obtained as a result of the concept maps. It is determined students associate most with these concepts—computer, Internet, and communication of the given concepts, and associate least with these concepts—computer-assisted education and information technologies. These results show the concepts, Internet, communication, and computer, are an important part of students’ cognitive structures. In addition, students mostly answer computer, phone, game, Internet and Facebook as the key concepts. These answers show students regard information technologies as a means for entertainment and free time activity, not as a means for education.

Keywords: Word association test, cognitive structure, information technology, secondary school.

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3051 Customization of Moodle Open Source LMS for Tanzania Secondary Schools’ Use

Authors: Ellen. A. Kalinga

Abstract:

Moodle is an open source learning management system that enables creation of a powerful and flexible learning environment. Many organizations, especially learning institutions have customized Moodle open source LMS for their own use. In general open source LMSs are of great interest due to many advantages they offer in terms of cost, usage and freedom to customize to fit a particular context. Tanzania Secondary School e- Learning (TanSSe-L) system is the learning management system for Tanzania secondary schools. TanSSe-L system was developed using a number of methods, one of them being customization of Moodle Open Source LMS. This paper presents few areas on the way Moodle OS LMS was customized to produce a functional TanSSe-L system fitted to the requirements and specifications of Tanzania secondary schools’ context.

Keywords: LMS, Moodle, e-Learning, Tanzania, Secondary school.

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3050 Social Structure, Involuntary Relations, and Urban Poverty

Authors: Mahmood Niroobakhsh

Abstract:

This article deals with special structuralism approaches to explain a certain kind of social problem. Widespread presence of poverty is a reminder of deep-rooted unresolved problems of social relations. The expected role from an individual for the social system recognizes poverty derived from an interrelated social structure. By the time, enabled to act on his role in the course of social interaction, reintegration of the poor in society may take place. Poverty and housing type are reflections of the underlying social structure, primarily structure’s elements, systemic interrelations, and the overall strength or weakness of that structure. Poverty varies based on social structure in that the stronger structures are less likely to produce poverty.

Keywords: Absolute poverty, relative poverty, social structure, urban poverty.

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3049 Military Court’s Jurisdiction over Military Members Who Commit General Crimes under Indonesian Military Judiciary System in Comparison with Other Countries

Authors: Dini Dewi Heniarti

Abstract:

The importance of this study is to understand how Indonesian military court asserts its jurisdiction over military members who commit general crimes within the Indonesian military judiciary system in comparison to other countries. This research employs a normative-juridical approach in combination with historical and comparative-juridical approaches. The research specification is analytical-descriptive in nature, i.e. describing or outlining the principles, basic concepts, and norms related to military judiciary system, which are further analyzed within the context of implementation and as the inputs for military justice regulation under the Indonesian legal system. Main data used in this research are secondary data, including primary, secondary and tertiary legal sources. The research focuses on secondary data, while primary data are supplementary in nature. The validity of data is checked using multi-methods commonly known as triangulation, i.e. to reflect the efforts to gain an in-depth understanding of phenomena being studied. Here, the military element is kept intact in the judiciary process with due observance of the Military Criminal Justice System and the Military Command Development Principle. The Indonesian military judiciary jurisdiction over military members committing general crimes is based on national legal system and global development while taking into account the structure, composition and position of military forces within the state structure. Jurisdiction is formulated by setting forth the substantive norm of crimes that are military in nature. At the level of adjudication jurisdiction, the military court has a jurisdiction to adjudicate military personnel who commit general offences. At the level of execution jurisdiction, the military court has a jurisdiction to execute the sentence against military members who have been convicted with a final and binding judgement. Military court's jurisdiction needs to be expanded when the country is in the state of war.

Keywords: Military courts, Jurisdiction, Military members, Military justice system.

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3048 Protein Graph Partitioning by Mutually Maximization of cycle-distributions

Authors: Frank Emmert Streib

Abstract:

The classification of the protein structure is commonly not performed for the whole protein but for structural domains, i.e., compact functional units preserved during evolution. Hence, a first step to a protein structure classification is the separation of the protein into its domains. We approach the problem of protein domain identification by proposing a novel graph theoretical algorithm. We represent the protein structure as an undirected, unweighted and unlabeled graph which nodes correspond the secondary structure elements of the protein. This graph is call the protein graph. The domains are then identified as partitions of the graph corresponding to vertices sets obtained by the maximization of an objective function, which mutually maximizes the cycle distributions found in the partitions of the graph. Our algorithm does not utilize any other kind of information besides the cycle-distribution to find the partitions. If a partition is found, the algorithm is iteratively applied to each of the resulting subgraphs. As stop criterion, we calculate numerically a significance level which indicates the stability of the predicted partition against a random rewiring of the protein graph. Hence, our algorithm terminates automatically its iterative application. We present results for one and two domain proteins and compare our results with the manually assigned domains by the SCOP database and differences are discussed.

Keywords: Graph partitioning, unweighted graph, protein domains.

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3047 Assessing Secondary School Curricula in the Light of Developing Quality of Life Standards of High School Students

Authors: O. Ali Alghtani, Y. Abdul-Ekhalq Ali, A. Abdul-Ekhalq Ali, A. Al Sadiq Abdul Majeed, N. Attian Al-Mohammadi, O. Mozel Alharbi, S. Mohamed Ismail, O. Ibrahim Asiri

Abstract:

This study assessed the curricula of secondary schools given requirements to enhance the quality of life of students. The components of quality of life were described to build a list of standards and indicators. A questionnaire assessing the dimensions of mental (cognitive and emotional), physical, digital, and social health, and environmental awareness was prepared. A descriptive-analytical approach was used on a sample of 258 teachers and educational supervisors in Tabuk. The results indicated shortcomings in the secondary school curricula regarding developing standards and indicators of components of quality of life. Results also indicated that secondary school curricula incorporated few practices to improve student’s quality of life. No significant differences were found regarding the core subject, job, gender, and years of experience.

Keywords: Assessing curricula, teacher practices, quality of life, Secondary School.

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3046 Numerical Studies on Thrust Vectoring Using Shock-Induced Self Impinging Secondary Jets

Authors: S. Vignesh, N. Vishnu, S. Vigneshwaran, M. Vishnu Anand, Dinesh Kumar Babu, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

Numerical studies have been carried out using a validated two-dimensional standard k-omega turbulence model for the design optimization of a thrust vector control system using shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet. Parametric analytical studies have been carried out at different secondary injection locations to identifying the highest unsymmetrical distribution of the main gas flow due to shock waves, which produces a desirable side force more lucratively for vectoring. The results from the parametric studies of the case on hand reveal that the shock induced self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet is more efficient in certain locations at the divergent region of a CD nozzle than a case with supersonic single jet with same mass flow rate. We observed that the best axial location of the self-impinging supersonic secondary double jet nozzle with a given jet interaction angle, built-in to a CD nozzle having area ratio 1.797, is 0.991 times the primary nozzle throat diameter from the throat location. We also observed that the flexible steering is possible after invoking ON/OFF facility to the secondary nozzles for meeting the onboard mission requirements. Through our case studies we concluded that the supersonic self-impinging secondary double jet at predesigned jet interaction angle and location can provide more flexible steering options facilitating with 8.81% higher thrust vectoring efficiency than the conventional supersonic single secondary jet without compromising the payload capability of any supersonic aerospace vehicle.

Keywords: Fluidic thrust vectoring, rocket steering, self-impinging secondary supersonic jet, TVC in aerospace vehicles.

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3045 An Interactive e-Learning Management System (e-LMS): A Solution to Tanzanian Secondary Schools' Education

Authors: A. Ellen Kalinga, R. B. Burchard Bagile, Lena Trojer

Abstract:

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has been integrated in education in many developing and developed countries alike, but the use of ICT in Tanzanian schools is dismal. Many Tanzanian secondary schools have no computers. The few schools with computers use them primarily for secretarial services and computer literacy training. The Tanzanian education system at other levels like secondary school level has to undergo substantial transformation, underscored by the growing application of new information and communication technology. This paper presents the e-readiness survey result from secondary schools in Tanzania. The paper also suggests how Tanzania can make use of the few present ICT resources to support and improve teaching and learning functions to improve performance and acquisition of knowledge by using e-Learning Management System (e-LMS).

Keywords: e-Learning, ICT, Object-Oriented, Participatorydesign.

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3044 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete.

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3043 Secondary Organic Contribution to Particles Formed on the Ice Melted Arctic Ocean

Authors: Petri Vaattovaara, Zoran D. Ristovski, Martin Graus, Marcus Müller, EijaAsmi, Luca Di Liberto, StaffanSjögren, Douglas Orsini, Caroline Leck, Ari Laaksonen

Abstract:

Due to climate warming and consequently due to ice and snow melting of the Arctic Ocean, the highly biologically active ocean surface area has been expanding quickly making possible longer marine biota growth seasons during polar summers. That increase the probability of the remote marine environment secondary contribution, especially secondary organic contribution, to the particle production and particle growth events and particle properties, consequently effecting on the open ocean, pack ice and ground based regions radiation budget and thus on the feedbacks between arctic biota, particles, clouds, and climate.

Keywords: Arctic Ocean, ice melting, nucleation, secondary organics, clouds, climate.

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3042 Family Structure between Muslim and Santal Communities in Rural Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin

Abstract:

Family structure that is culturally constructed in every society is the basic unit of social structure. Purpose of the study was to compare family structure, including marriage, residence, family size, type, role sharing, authority, and communication patterns between Muslim and Santal communities in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that family structure with the elements was significantly different between the two communities in rural Bangladesh. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were intensively interviewed with a semi-structured questionnaire method. The results of Pearson Chi-Squire Test reveal that there were significant differences in the family structure followed by the two communities in the study area. Further cross-cultural study should be done on why family structure varies between the communities in Bangladesh.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Cross-Cultural Comparison, Family Structure, Muslim, Santal.

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