Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 471

Search results for: Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah

471 M-Learning Curriculum Design for Secondary School: A Needs Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Saedah Siraj

Abstract:

The learning society has currently transformed from 'wired society' to become 'mobile society' which is facilitated by wireless network. To suit to this new paradigm, m-learning was given birth and rapidly building its prospect to be included in the future curriculum. Research and studies on m-learning spruced up in numerous aspects but there is still scarcity in studies on curriculum design of m-learning. This study is a part of an ongoing bigger study probing into the m-learning curriculum for secondary schools. The paper reports on the first phase of the study which aims to probe into the needs of curriculum design for m-learning at the secondary school level and the researcher adopted the needs analysis method. Data accrued from responses on survey questionnaires based on Lickert-point scale were analyzed statistically. The findings from this preliminary study serve as a basis for m-learning curriculum development for secondary schools.

Keywords: curriculum design, e-learning, future curriculum, m-learning

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470 E-Books in Malaysian Primary Schools: The Terengganu Chapter

Authors: Azelin Mohamed Noor, Abd Mutalib Embong, Muhamad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah

Abstract:

After the Terengganu state government decided to give a boost in teaching and learning through the allocation of free ebooks to all Primary five and six students; it was time to examine the presence of e-books in the classrooms. A survey was conducted on 101 students to determine how they felt about using the e-book and their experiences. It was discovered that a majority of these students liked using the e-book. However, although they had little problems using the e-book and the e-book helped to lighten the schoolbags, these new-age textbooks were not fully utilized. It is implied that perhaps the school administrators, teachers and students may not be able to overcome the unfamiliar characteristics of the e-book and its limitations.

Keywords: E-books, students, classroom, limitations

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469 The Impact of Video Games in Children-s Learning of Mathematics

Authors: Muhammad Ridhuan Tony Lim Abdullah, Zulqarnain Abu Bakar, Razol Mahari Ali, Ibrahima Faye, Hilmi Hasan

Abstract:

This paper describes a research project on Year 3 primary school students in Malaysia in their use of computer-based video game to enhance learning of multiplication facts (tables) in the Mathematics subject. This study attempts to investigate whether video games could actually contribute to positive effect on children-s learning or otherwise. In conducting this study, the researchers assume a neutral stand in the investigation as an unbiased outcome of the study would render reliable response to the impact of video games in education which would contribute to the literature of technology-based education as well as impact to the pedagogical aspect of formal education. In order to conduct the study, a subject (Mathematics) with a specific topic area in the subject (multiplication facts) is chosen. The study adopts a causal-comparative research to investigate the impact of the inclusion of a computer-based video game designed to teach multiplication facts to primary level students. Sample size is 100 students divided into two i.e., A: conventional group and B conventional group aided by video games. The conventional group (A) would be taught multiplication facts (timetables) and skills conventionally. The other group (B) underwent the same lessons but with supplementary activity: a computer-based video game on multiplication which is called Timez-Attack. Analysis of marks accrued from pre-test will be compared to post- test using comparisons of means, t tests, and ANOVA tests to investigate the impact of computer games as an added learning activity. The findings revealed that video games as a supplementary activity to classroom learning brings significant and positive effect on students- retention and mastery of multiplication tables as compared to students who rely only upon formal classroom instructions.

Keywords: Technology for education, Gaming for education, Computer-based video games, Cognitive learning

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468 Social Relation between the Malays and Chinese Communities from a Civilizational Perspectives

Authors: Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin, Mohd Ridhuan Tee Abdullah

Abstract:

Towards the end of 19th century, the discovery of tin and the growing importance of rubber, had led Malaya to once again become the centre of attraction to western colonization, which later on caused the region to be influxed by cheap labour from China and India. One of the factors which attracted the alien communities was the characteristics of social relation offered by the Malays. If one analyzes the history of social relation of the Malays either among themselves or their relation with alien communities, it is apparent that the community places high regards to values such as tolerant, cooperative, respectful and helpful with each other. In fact, all these values are deeply rooted in the value of 'budi'. With the arrival of Islam, the value of 'budi' had been well assimilated with Islamic values thus giving birth to the value of 'budi-Islam'. Through 'budi- Islam', the Malay conducted their dealings with British as well the other communities during the time of peace or conflict. This value is well nurtured due to the geographical circumstances like the fertile, naturally rich land and bountiful marine life. Besides, a set of Malay customs known as 'adat' custom contributed in enhancing the values of budi.

Keywords: Adat System, budi and Islam, Chinese community, Malay community

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467 1Malaysia: National Education Challenge and Nation Building

Authors: Mohd Ridhuan Tee Abdullah, Ong Hai Liaw, Wan Norhasniah Wan Husin

Abstract:

The main issue discussed is on the role of education system in the process of nation building as a means in uniting different community ethnics which later on, hoped to shape the future ethnic relation of this country. It is generally known that political socialization experienced by each ethnic community has given birth to a vernacular education system, separated along the ethnic line. Every community shapes their own education system based on their respective mother tongue language, however all are based on the same curriculum. As a result the role of education as a uniting force is not significantly effective. Historically, it has been shown that government efforts to unite the country education system under the wing of national education system (national school) is not that successful since every community (Chinese) will defend the existence of their community education system because they want to spur their mother tongue language. The clash between national education system and vernacular education system is the root cause of stalemate in the ethnic relation in Malaysia and it always becomes a flash point when the issue is raised. The question now is what is the best solution to enhance the national education system in multiethnic Malaysia?

Keywords: Political socialization, education, national unity, national school, vernacular school and 1Malaysia

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466 Buzan Mind Mapping: An Efficient Technique for Note-Taking

Authors: T. K. Tee, M. N. A. Azman, S. Mohamed, Muhammad, M., M. M. Mohamad, J. Md Yunos, M. H. Yee, W. Othman

Abstract:

Buzan mind mapping is an efficient system of note-taking that makes revision a fun thing to do for students. Tony Buzan has been teaching children all over the world for the past thirty years and has proved that mind maps are the magic formula in the classroom for everyone. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of Buzan mind mapping as a note-taking technique for the secondary school students. This paper also examines the mind mapping technique, advantages and disadvantages of hand-drawn mind maps. Samples of students’ mind maps were presented and discussed.

Keywords: Buzan Mind Mapping, note-taking technique, hand-drawn mind maps.

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465 Representing Shared Join Points with State Charts: A High Level Design Approach

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Muhammad Khalid Abdullah, Khalid Rashid, Hafiz Farooq Ahmad

Abstract:

Aspect Oriented Programming promises many advantages at programming level by incorporating the cross cutting concerns into separate units, called aspects. Join Points are distinguishing features of Aspect Oriented Programming as they define the points where core requirements and crosscutting concerns are (inter)connected. Currently, there is a problem of multiple aspects- composition at the same join point, which introduces the issues like ordering and controlling of these superimposed aspects. Dynamic strategies are required to handle these issues as early as possible. State chart is an effective modeling tool to capture dynamic behavior at high level design. This paper provides methodology to formulate the strategies for multiple aspect composition at high level, which helps to better implement these strategies at coding level. It also highlights the need of designing shared join point at high level, by providing the solutions of these issues using state chart diagrams in UML 2.0. High level design representation of shared join points also helps to implement the designed strategy in systematic way.

Keywords: Aspect Oriented Software Development, Shared Join Points.

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464 Studies on Seasonal Variations of Physico- Chemical Parameters of Fish Farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Ashraf, Muhammad Imran, Mehtab Ahmad, Muhammad Jamshed Khan, Muhammad Mazhar Ayaz, Muzaffar Ali, Arshad Ali, Memoona Qayyum Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

The present study was designed to demonstrate the seasonal variations in physico-chemical parameters of fish farm at Govt. Nursery Unit, Muzaffargarh, Department of Fisheries Govt. of Punjab, Pakistan for a period of eight months from January to August 2008. Water samples were collected on fifteen days basis and have been analyzed for estimation of Air temperature, Water temperature, Light penetration, pH, Total dissolved oxygen, Clouds, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total carbonates, Total dissolved solids, Chlorides, Calcium and Hardness. Seasonal fluctuations were observed in all the physico-chemical parameters of fish farm. The overall physicochemical parameters of fish pond water remained within the tolerable range throughout the study period.

Keywords: Freshwater, Fish farm, Water quality, Seasonal variation, Chemical factor

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463 Reflection Performance of Truncated Pyramidal and Truncated Wedge Microwave Absorber Using Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB)

Authors: Liyana Zahid, Mohd Fareq Abd Malek, Ee Meng Cheng, Wei Wen Liu, Yeng Seng Lee, Muhammad Nadeem Iqbal, Fwen Hoon Wee, Farrah Salwani Abdullah

Abstract:

One of the parameters that affect the performance of microwave absorbers is the shape of the absorbers. This paper shows the performance (reflection loss) of truncated pyramidal and truncated wedge microwave absorbers in the range frequency between 8.2 to 12.4 GHz (X-Band) in simulation. The material used is sugarcane bagasse (SCB) which is one of the new materials that used to fabricate the microwave absorber. The complex permittivity was measured using Agilent dielectric probe technique. The designs were simulated using CST Microwave Studio Software. The reflection losses between these two shapes were compared.

Keywords: Microwave Absorber, Reflection Loss, Sugarcane Bagasse (SCB), X- Band.

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462 A New Approach to ECG Biometric Systems: A Comparitive Study between LPC and WPD Systems

Authors: Justin Leo Cheang Loong, Khazaimatol S Subari, Rosli Besar, Muhammad Kamil Abdullah

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel method for a biometric system based on the ECG signal is proposed, using spectral coefficients computed through linear predictive coding (LPC). ECG biometric systems have traditionally incorporated characteristics of fiducial points of the ECG signal as the feature set. These systems have been shown to contain loopholes and thus a non-fiducial system allows for tighter security. In the proposed system, incorporating non-fiducial features from the LPC spectrum produced a segment and subject recognition rate of 99.52% and 100% respectively. The recognition rates outperformed the biometric system that is based on the wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) algorithm in terms of recognition rates and computation time. This allows for LPC to be used in a practical ECG biometric system that requires fast, stringent and accurate recognition.

Keywords: biometric, ecg, linear predictive coding, wavelet packet decomposition

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461 Use of Pesticides and Their Role in Environmental Pollution

Authors: Muhammad Jamil Khan, Muhammad Sharif Zia, Muhammad Qasim

Abstract:

Insect pests are the major source of crop damage, yield and quality reduction in Pakistan and else where in the world. Cotton crop is the most hit crop in Pakistan followed by rice and the second most important foreign exchange earning crop. A wide variety of staple, horticultural and cash crops grown, reflect serious problems of many types of insect pests. To overcome the insect pest problem, pesticide use in Pakistan has increased substantially which has now been further intensified. Pesticides worth more than billions of rupees are imported every year. This paper reviews the over all pesticide use in Pakistan in relation to pesticide prices, support price of cotton and rice, pesticide use in different provinces of Pakistan on different crops and their impact on crop productivity. The environmental pollution caused by the use of pesticides, contamination of soil and water resources and the danger associated with the disposal of their empty containers is also discussed in detail.

Keywords: Pesticide use, crop productivity, environmentalpollution

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460 Analysis of the EEG Signal for a Practical Biometric System

Authors: Muhammad Kamil Abdullah, Khazaimatol S Subari, Justin Leo Cheang Loong, Nurul Nadia Ahmad

Abstract:

This paper discusses the effectiveness of the EEG signal for human identification using four or less of channels of two different types of EEG recordings. Studies have shown that the EEG signal has biometric potential because signal varies from person to person and impossible to replicate and steal. Data were collected from 10 male subjects while resting with eyes open and eyes closed in 5 separate sessions conducted over a course of two weeks. Features were extracted using the wavelet packet decomposition and analyzed to obtain the feature vectors. Subsequently, the neural networks algorithm was used to classify the feature vectors. Results show that, whether or not the subjects- eyes were open are insignificant for a 4– channel biometrics system with a classification rate of 81%. However, for a 2–channel system, the P4 channel should not be included if data is acquired with the subjects- eyes open. It was observed that for 2– channel system using only the C3 and C4 channels, a classification rate of 71% was achieved.

Keywords: Biometric, EEG, Wavelet Packet Decomposition, NeuralNetworks

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459 The Malacca Empire: Sayings of Prophet Muhammad in Sulalat Al-Salatin

Authors: Abdur-Rahman M. A., R. M. Mohd. Ali, R. A. I. R. Yaacob.

Abstract:

In the fifteenth century, the Malacca Empire emerged as the centre of Islamic civilization in the Malay Archipelago. The history had been recorded in Sulalat Al-Salatin, an important literary source about the genealogy of all Kings in Malacca. The objective of this study was to analyze the understanding of sayings from Prophet Muhammad among Malays in Malacca during the fifteenth century through all of the hadith quoted in Sulalat Al-Salatin. This study used content analysis methodology to validate the sayings where all of them were critically analyzed and compared with the classical hadith sources from prominent Muslim scholars. As a result, only two out of the four quotations were considered as authentic sayings of Prophet Muhammad. This study also showed the importance of the palace as the centre of the Islamic education system and the role played by Muslim preachers from outside of Malacca to propagate Islam in Malacca.

Keywords: Hadith in Malay Annals, Malay Annals, SejarahMelayu, Sulalat Al-Salatin.

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458 Intelligent Path Tracking Hybrid Fuzzy Controller for a Unicycle-Type Differential Drive Robot

Authors: Abdullah M. Almeshal, Mohammad R. Alenezi, Muhammad Moaz

Abstract:

In this paper, we discuss the performance of applying hybrid spiral dynamic bacterial chemotaxis (HSDBC) optimisation algorithm on an intelligent controller for a differential drive robot. A unicycle class of differential drive robot is utilised to serve as a basis application to evaluate the performance of the HSDBC algorithm. A hybrid fuzzy logic controller is developed and implemented for the unicycle robot to follow a predefined trajectory. Trajectories of various frictional profiles and levels were simulated to evaluate the performance of the robot at different operating conditions. Controller gains and scaling factors were optimised using HSDBC and the performance is evaluated in comparison to previously adopted optimisation algorithms. The HSDBC has proven its feasibility in achieving a faster convergence toward the optimal gains and resulted in a superior performance.

Keywords: Differential drive robot, hybrid fuzzy controller, optimization, path tracking, unicycle robot.

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457 Comparison of MFCC and Cepstral Coefficients as a Feature Set for PCG Biometric Systems

Authors: Justin Leo Cheang Loong, Khazaimatol S Subari, Muhammad Kamil Abdullah, Nurul Nadia Ahmad, RosliBesar

Abstract:

Heart sound is an acoustic signal and many techniques used nowadays for human recognition tasks borrow speech recognition techniques. One popular choice for feature extraction of accoustic signals is the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) which maps the signal onto a non-linear Mel-Scale that mimics the human hearing. However the Mel-Scale is almost linear in the frequency region of heart sounds and thus should produce similar results with the standard cepstral coefficients (CC). In this paper, MFCC is investigated to see if it produces superior results for PCG based human identification system compared to CC. Results show that the MFCC system is still superior to CC despite linear filter-banks in the lower frequency range, giving up to 95% correct recognition rate for MFCC and 90% for CC. Further experiments show that the high recognition rate is due to the implementation of filter-banks and not from Mel-Scaling.

Keywords: Biometric, Phonocardiogram, Cepstral Coefficients, Mel Frequency

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456 Critical Success Factors for Successful Energy Management Implementation towards Sustainability in Malaysian Universities

Authors: A. Abdullah Saleh, A. H. Mohammed, M. N. Abdullah

Abstract:

Recently, universities are increasingly consuming energy to support various activities. A large population of staff and students in Malaysian universities has led to excessive energy consumption which directly gives an impact to the environment. The key question then ascended “How well is an energy management (EM) been practiced in universities without taking the Critical Success Factors (CSFs) into consideration to ensure the management of university achieves the goals in reducing energy consumption. Review on past literature is carried out to establish CSFs for EM best practices. Thus, this paper highlighted the CSFs which have to be focused on by management of university to successfully measure the EM implementation and its performance. At the end of this paper, a theoretical framework is developed for EM success factors towards sustainable university.

Keywords: Critical success factors, energy management, sustainability, Malaysian universities.

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455 QoS Routing in Wired Sensor Networks with Partial Updates

Authors: Arijit Ghos, Tony Gigargis

Abstract:

QoS routing is an important component of Traffic Engineering in networks that provide QoS guarantees. QoS routing is dependent on the link state information which is typically flooded across the network. This affects both the quality of the routing and the utilization of the network resources. In this paper, we examine establishing QoS routes with partial state updates in wired sensor networks.

Keywords:

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454 Knowledge Audit Model for Requirement Elicitation Process

Authors: Laleh Taheri, Noraini C. Pa., Rusli Abdullah, Salfarina Abdullah

Abstract:

Knowledge plays an important role to the success of any organization. Software development organizations are highly knowledge-intensive organizations especially in their requirement elicitation process (REP). There are several problems regarding communicating and using the knowledge in REP such as misunderstanding, being out of scope, conflicting information and changes of requirements. All of these problems occurred in transmitting the requirements knowledge during REP. Several researches have been done in REP in order to solve the problem towards requirements. Knowledge Audit (KA) approaches were proposed in order to solve managing knowledge in human resources, financial and manufacturing. There is lack of study applying the KA in requirements elicitation process. Therefore, this paper proposes a KA model for REP in supporting to acquire good requirements.

Keywords: Knowledge Audit, Requirement Elicitation Process, KA Model, Knowledge in Requirement Elicitation.

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453 Optimization of Growth Conditions for Acidic Protease Production from Rhizopus oligosporus through Solid State Fermentation of Sunflower Meal

Authors: Abdul Rauf, Muhammad Irfan, Muhammad Nadeem, Ishtiaq Ahmed, Hafiz Muhammad Nasir Iqbal

Abstract:

Rhizopus oligosporus was used in the present study for the production of protease enzyme under SSF. Sunflower meal was used as by-product of oil industry incorporated with organic salts was employed for the production of protease enzyme. The main purpose of the present was to study different parameters of protease productivity, its yields and to optimize basal fermentation conditions. The optimal conditions found for protease production using sunflower meal as a substrate in the present study were inoculum size (1%), substrate (Sunflower meal), substrate concentration (20 g), pH (3), cultivation period (72 h), incubation temperature (35oC), substrate to diluent-s ratio (1:2) and tween 81 (1 mL). The maximum production of protease in the presence of cheaper substrate at low concentration and stability at acidic pH, these characteristics make the strain and its enzymes useful in different industry.

Keywords: Acidic protease, Rhizopus oligosporus, Mediaoptimization, Solid state Fermentation

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452 Local Spectrum Feature Extraction for Face Recognition

Authors: Muhammad Imran Ahmad, Ruzelita Ngadiran, Mohd Nazrin Md Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat Isa, Mohd Zaizu Ilyas, Raja Abdullah Raja Ahmad, Said Amirul Anwar Ab Hamid, Muzammil Jusoh

Abstract:

This paper presents two techniques, local feature extraction using image spectrum and low frequency spectrum modelling using GMM to capture the underlying statistical information to improve the performance of face recognition system. Local spectrum features are extracted using overlap sub block window that are mapped on the face image. For each of this block, spatial domain is transformed to frequency domain using DFT. A low frequency coefficient is preserved by discarding high frequency coefficients by applying rectangular mask on the spectrum of the facial image. Low frequency information is non- Gaussian in the feature space and by using combination of several Gaussian functions that has different statistical properties, the best feature representation can be modelled using probability density function. The recognition process is performed using maximum likelihood value computed using pre-calculated GMM components. The method is tested using FERET datasets and is able to achieved 92% recognition rates.

Keywords: Local features modelling, face recognition system, Gaussian mixture models.

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451 A Review of Methods for 2D/3D Registration

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

2D/3D registration is a special case of medical image registration which is of particular interest to surgeons. Applications of 2D/3D registration are [1] radiotherapy planning and treatment verification, spinal surgery, hip replacement, neurointerventions and aortic stenting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review of the main methods for image registration for the 2D/3D case. At the end of the paper an algorithm is proposed for 2D/3D registration based on the Chebyssev polynomials iteration loop.

Keywords: Medical image registration, review, 2D/3D

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450 Effect of Varying Diets on Growth, Development and Survival of Queen Bee (Apis mellifera L.) in Captivity

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Zaighum Abbas, Mubasshir Sohail, Muhammad Abubakar, Hafiz Khurram Shurjeel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Afzal, Sami Ullah

Abstract:

Keeping in view the increasing demand, queen of Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was reared artificially in this experiment at varying diets including royal jelly. Larval duration, pupal duration, weight, and size of pupae were evaluated at different diets including royal jelly. Queen larvae were raised by Doo Little grafting method. Four different diets were mixed with royal jelly and applied to larvae. Fructose, sugar, yeast, and honey were provided to rearing queen larvae along with same amount of royal jelly. Larval and pupal duration were longest (6.15 and 7.5 days, respectively) at yeast and shortest on honey (5.05 and 7.02 days, respectively). Heavier and bigger pupae were recorded on yeast (168.14 mg and 1.76 cm, respectively) followed by diets having sugar and honey. Due to production of heavier and bigger pupae, yeast was considered as best artificial diet for the growing queen larvae. So, in the second part of experiment, different amounts of yeast were provided to growing larvae along with fixed amount (0.5 g) of royal jelly. Survival rates of the larvae and queen bee were 70% and 40% in the 4-g food, 86.7% and 53.3% in the 6-g food, and 76.7% and 50% in the 8-g food. Weight of adult queen bee (1.459±0.191 g) and the number of ovarioles (41.7±21.3) were highest at 8 g of food. Results of this study are helpful for bee-keepers in producing fitter queen bees.

Keywords: Apis melifera L., dietary effect, survival and development, honey bee queen.

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449 Clinical Benefits of an Embedded Decision Support System in Anticoagulant Control

Authors: Tony Austin, Shanghua Sun, Nathan Lea, Steve Iliffe, Dipak Kalra, David Ingram, David Patterson

Abstract:

Computer-based decision support (CDSS) systems can deliver real patient care and increase chances of long-term survival in areas of chronic disease management prone to poor control. One such CDSS, for the management of warfarin, is described in this paper and the outcomes shown. Data is derived from the running system and show a performance consistently around 20% better than the applicable guidelines.

Keywords: "Decision Support", "Anticoagulant Control"

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448 A NXM Version of 5X5 Playfair Cipher for any Natural Language (Urdu as Special Case)

Authors: Muhammad Salam, Nasir Rashid, Shah Khalid, Muhammad Raees Khan

Abstract:

In this paper a modified version NXM of traditional 5X5 playfair cipher is introduced which enable the user to encrypt message of any Natural language by taking appropriate size of the matrix depending upon the size of the natural language. 5X5 matrix has the capability of storing only 26 characters of English language and unable to store characters of any language having more than 26 characters. To overcome this limitation NXM matrix is introduced which solve this limitation. In this paper a special case of Urdu language is discussed. Where # is used for completing odd pair and * is used for repeating letters.

Keywords: cryptography, decryption, encryption, playfair cipher, traditional cipher.

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447 Tidal Current Behaviors and Remarkable Bathymetric Change in the South-Western Part of Khor Abdullah, Kuwait

Authors: Ahmed M. Al-Hasem

Abstract:

A study of the tidal current behavior and bathymetric changes was undertaken in order to establish an information base for future coastal management. The average velocity for tidal current was 0.46 m/s and the maximum velocity was 1.08 m/s during ebb tide. During spring tides, maximum velocities range from 0.90 m/s to 1.08 m/s, whereas maximum velocities vary from 0.40 m/s to 0.60 m/s during neap tides. Despite greater current velocities during flood tide, the bathymetric features enhance the dominance of the ebb tide. This can be related to the abundance of fine sediments from the ebb current approaching the study area, and the relatively coarser sediment from the approaching flood current. Significant bathymetric changes for the period from 1985 to 1998 were found with dominance of erosion process. Approximately 96.5% of depth changes occurred within the depth change classes of -5 m to 5 m. The high erosion processes within the study area will subsequently result in high accretion processes, particularly in the north, the location of the proposed Boubyan Port and its navigation channel.

Keywords: Bathymetric change, Boubyan Island, GIS, Khor Abdullah, tidal current behavior.

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446 Analysis of Fixed Beamforming Algorithms for Smart Antenna Systems

Authors: Muhammad Umair Shahid, Abdul Rehman, Mudassir Mukhtar, Muhammad Nauman

Abstract:

The smart antenna is the prominent technology that has become known in recent years to meet the growing demands of wireless communications. In an overcrowded atmosphere, its application is growing gradually. A methodical evaluation of the performance of Fixed Beamforming algorithms for smart antennas such as Multiple Sidelobe Canceller (MSC), Maximum Signal-to-interference ratio (MSIR) and minimum variance (MVDR) has been comprehensively presented in this paper. Simulation results show that beamforming is helpful in providing optimized response towards desired directions. MVDR beamformer provides the most optimal solution.

Keywords: Fixed weight beamforming, array pattern, signal to interference ratio, power efficiency, element spacing, array elements, optimum weight vector.

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445 Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

Authors: Zainah Abdullah, Aznur Hajar Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relationship are predictors of supplier performance as perceived by convenience store managers. However, ICT usage is not a predictor of supplier performance. The study focuses only on convenience stores and petrol station convenience stores and concentrates only on managers. The results provide insights to suppliers who serve convenience stores and possibly similar retail format on factors to consider in improving their service to retailers. The results also provide insights to government in its aspiration to improve business operations of convenience store to consider ways to enhance the adoption of ICT by retailers and suppliers.

Keywords: Information and communication technology (ICT), internal relationship, inventory management, logistics services, supplier performance, supplier-retailer relationship.

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444 Effect of Body Size and Condition Factor on Whole Body Composition of Hybrid (Catla catla ♂x Labeo rohita ♀) from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Abdus Salam, Muhammad Asghar Bashir, Abir Ishtiaq, Qurat-ul-Ane Gillani and Asma Salam

Abstract:

In the present study, 49 Hybrid (Catla catla ♂ x Labeo rohita ♀) were sampled from Al-Raheem Fish Hatchery, Village Ali Pure Shamali, Jhang Road, 18 Km from Muzaffar Garh using a cast net and Live fishes were transported to research laboratory. Mean percentage for water found 79.13 %, ash 6.58 %, fat 2.22 % and protein content 12.06 % in whole wet body weight. It was observed that body constituents were found increasing in the same proportion with an increase in body weight while significant proportional increase was observed with total length. However, condition factor remained insignificant (P>0.05) with body constituents.

Keywords: Hybrid fish, Body composition, Condition factor, Predictive equations

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443 Fabrication and Characterization of Al/Methyl Orange/n-Si Heterojunction Diode

Authors: Muhammad Tahir, Muhammad H. Sayyad, Dil N. Khan, Fazal Wahab

Abstract:

Herein, the organic semiconductor methyl orange (MO), is investigated for the first time for its electronic applications. For this purpose, Al/MO/n-Si heterojunction is fabricated through economical cheap and simple “drop casting” technique. The currentvoltage (I-V) measurements of the device are made at room temperature under dark conditions. The I-V characteristics of Al/MO/n-Si junction exhibits asymmetrical and rectifying behavior that confirms the formation of diode. The diode parameters such as rectification ratio (RR), turn on voltage (Vturn on), reverse saturation current (I0), ideality factor (n), barrier height ( b f ), series resistance (Rs) and shunt resistance (Rsh) are determined from I-V curves using Schottky equations. These values of these parameters are also extracted and verified by applying Cheung’s functions. The conduction mechanisms are explained from the forward bias I-V characteristics using the power law.

Keywords: Electrical properties, Organic/inorganic heterojunction diode, Methyl Orange, Cheungs Functions

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442 Rigid and Non-rigid Registration of Binary Objects using the Weighted Ratio Image

Authors: Panos Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent similarity criterion for rigid and non-rigid body registration of binary objects. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio image of two images. The ratio is computed on a voxel per voxel basis and weighting is performed by setting the raios between signal and background voxels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the signal areas of the two images and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation.

Keywords: rigid and non-rigid body registration, binary objects

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