**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**709

# Search results for: teaching of mathematics

##### 709 Gender Differences of Elementary Prospective Teachers in Mathematical Beliefs and Mathematics Teaching Anxiety

**Authors:**
Ersen Yazıcı,
Erhan Ertekin

**Abstract:**

In this study, any possible differences between mathematics beliefs and anxiety of prospective elementary mathematics teachers have been investigated according to their gender. In this purpose, 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th grade students from a Government University in Turkey were selected as a sample. Mathematics Teaching Anxiety Scale (MATAS) and Beliefs About Mathematics Survey (BAMS) has been used as data collection tools. As a result of the study, it has been observed that prospective male teachers have more instrumentalist approach in learning mathematics than females according to their mathematical beliefs. On the other hand, females have more mathematics teaching anxiety than males especially, for subject knowledge in mathematics and selfconfidence.

**Keywords:**
Mathematical beliefs,
mathematics teaching anxiety,
gender,
prospective elementary mathematics teachers.

##### 708 Motivational Orientation of the Methodical System of Teaching Mathematics in Secondary Schools

**Authors:**
M. Rodionov,
Z. Dedovets

**Abstract:**

The article analyses the composition and structure of the motivationally oriented methodological system of teaching mathematics (purpose, content, methods, forms, and means of teaching), viewed through the prism of the student as the subject of the learning process. Particular attention is paid to the problem of methods of teaching mathematics, which are represented in the form of an ordered triad of attributes corresponding to the selected characteristics. A systematic analysis of possible options and their methodological interpretation enriched existing ideas about known methods and technologies of training, and significantly expanded their nomenclature by including previously unstudied combinations of characteristics. In addition, examples outlined in this article illustrate the possibilities of enhancing the motivational capacity of a particular method or technology in the real learning practice of teaching mathematics through more free goal-setting and varying the conditions of the problem situations. The authors recommend the implementation of different strategies according to their characteristics in teaching and learning mathematics in secondary schools.

**Keywords:**
Education,
methodological system,
teaching of mathematics,
teachers,
lesson,
students motivation,
secondary school.

##### 707 Different Teaching Methods for Program Design and Algorithmic Language

**Authors:**
Yue Zhao,
Jianping Li

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Differentiated teaching,
experimental teaching,
program design and algorithmic language,
teaching method.

##### 706 Enhancing Teaching of Engineering Mathematics

**Authors:**
Tajinder Pal Singh

**Abstract:**

Teaching of mathematics to engineering students is an open ended problem in education. The main goal of mathematics learning for engineering students is the ability of applying a wide range of mathematical techniques and skills in their engineering classes and later in their professional work. Most of the undergraduate engineering students and faculties feels that no efforts and attempts are made to demonstrate the applicability of various topics of mathematics that are taught thus making mathematics unavoidable for some engineering faculty and their students. The lack of understanding of concepts in engineering mathematics may hinder the understanding of other concepts or even subjects. However, for most undergraduate engineering students, mathematics is one of the most difficult courses in their field of study. Most of the engineering students never understood mathematics or they never liked it because it was too abstract for them and they could never relate to it. A right balance of application and concept based teaching can only fulfill the objectives of teaching mathematics to engineering students. It will surely improve and enhance their problem solving and creative thinking skills. In this paper, some practical (informal) ways of making mathematics-teaching application based for the engineering students is discussed. An attempt is made to understand the present state of teaching mathematics in engineering colleges. The weaknesses and strengths of the current teaching approach are elaborated. Some of the causes of unpopularity of mathematics subject are analyzed and a few pragmatic suggestions have been made. Faculty in mathematics courses should spend more time discussing the applications as well as the conceptual underpinnings rather than focus solely on strategies and techniques to solve problems. They should also introduce more ‘word’ problems as these problems are commonly encountered in engineering courses. Overspecialization in engineering education should not occur at the expense of (or by diluting) mathematics and basic sciences. The role of engineering education is to provide the fundamental (basic) knowledge and to teach the students simple methodology of self-learning and self-development. All these issues would be better addressed if mathematics and engineering faculty join hands together to plan and design the learning experiences for the students who take their classes. When faculties stop competing against each other and start competing against the situation, they will perform better. Without creating any administrative hassles these suggestions can be used by any young inexperienced faculty of mathematics to inspire engineering students to learn engineering mathematics effectively.

**Keywords:**
Application based learning,
conceptual learning,
engineering mathematics,
word problem.

##### 705 Students’ Views on Mathematics Learning: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Senior Secondary Schools Students in Katsina State of Nigeria

**Authors:**
Fahad Suleiman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Attitude,
education,
mathematics,
students.

##### 704 Use of Technology to Improve Students’ Attitude in Learning Mathematics of Non-Mathematics Undergraduate Students

**Authors:**
Asia Majeed

**Abstract:**

This paper will investigate a form of learning mathematics by integrating technology in mathematics specifically for the university first-year calculus class to support students’ engagement in learning which influences students' conceptual and procedural understanding of the calculus content in a better way. The students with good grades in high school calculus generally struggle in first-year university calculus classes in learning mathematical analysis concepts. This problem has to be addressed. If this problem is not resolved, then most likely students with less ability to do mathematics might not able to complete their degrees. In this work, MATLAB is used to help students in learning and in improving calculus concepts.

**Keywords:**
Calculus,
first-year university students,
teaching strategies,
MATLAB.

##### 703 Integrating Computer Games with Mathematics Instruction in Elementary School- An Analysis of Motivation, Achievement, and Pupil-Teacher Interactions

**Authors:**
Kuo Hung Huang,
Chong-Ji Ke

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
computer games,
mathematics instruction,
pupil-teacher interaction,
technology-enhanced learning

##### 702 The Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Rational Numbers in Primary School Teachers

**Authors:**
R. M. Kashim

**Abstract:**

The study investigates the conceptual and procedural knowledge of rational number in primary school teachers, specifically, the primary school teachers level of conceptual knowledge about rational number and the primary school teachers level of procedural knowledge about rational numbers. The study was carried out in Bauchi metropolis in Bauchi state of Nigeria. A Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge Test was used as the instrument for data collection, 54 mathematics teachers in Bauchi primary schools were involved in the study. The collections were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The findings revealed that the primary school mathematics teachers in Bauchi metropolis posses a low level of conceptual knowledge of rational number and also possess a high level of Procedural knowledge of rational number. It is therefore recommended that to be effective, teachers teaching mathematics most posses a deep understanding of both conceptual and procedural knowledge. That way the most knowledgeable teachers in mathematics deliver highly effective rational number instructions. Teachers should not ignore the mathematical concept aspect of rational number teaching. This is because only the procedural aspect of Rational number is highlighted during instructions; this often leads to rote - learning of procedures without understanding the meanings. It is necessary for teachers to learn rational numbers teaching method that focus on both conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge teaching.

**Keywords:**
Conceptual knowledge,
primary school teachers,
procedural knowledge,
rational numbers.

##### 701 The Views of Elementary Mathematics Education Preservice Teachers on Proving

**Authors:**
Belma Turker,
Cigdem Alkas,
Ebru Aylar,
Ramazan Gurel,
Oylum Akkus Ispir

**Abstract:**

This study has been prepared with the purpose to get the views of senior class Elementary Education Mathematics preservice teachers on proving. Data have been obtained via surveys and interviews carried out with 104 preservice teachers. According to the findings, although preservice teachers have positive views about using proving in mathematics teaching, it is seen that their experiences related to proving is limited to courses and they think proving is a work done only for the exams. Furthermore, they have expressed in the interviews that proving is difficult for them, and because of this reason they prefer memorizing instead of learning.

**Keywords:**
Belief on Proving,
Mathematics Education,
Proof.

##### 700 Developing Proof Demonstration Skills in Teaching Mathematics in the Secondary School

**Authors:**
M. Rodionov,
Z. Dedovets

**Abstract:**

The article describes the theoretical concept of teaching secondary school students proof demonstration skills in mathematics. It describes in detail different levels of mastery of the concept of proof-which correspond to Piaget’s idea of there being three distinct and progressively more complex stages in the development of human reflection. Lessons for each level contain a specific combination of the visual-figurative components and deductive reasoning. It is vital at the transition point between levels to carefully and rigorously recalibrate teaching to reflect the development of more complex reflective understanding. This can apply even within the same age range, since students will develop at different speeds and to different potential. The authors argue that this requires an aware and adaptive approach to lessons to reflect this complexity and variation. The authors also contend that effective teaching which enables students to properly understand the implementation of proof arguments must develop specific competences. These are: understanding of the importance of completeness and generality in making a valid argument; being task focused; having an internalised locus of control and being flexible in approach and evaluation. These criteria must be correlated with the systematic application of corresponding methodologies which are best likely to achieve success. The particular pedagogical decisions which are made to deliver this objective are illustrated by concrete examples from the existing secondary school mathematics courses. The proposed theoretical concept formed the basis of the development of methodological materials which have been tested in 47 secondary schools.

**Keywords:**
Education,
teaching of mathematics,
proof,
deductive reasoning,
secondary school.

##### 699 The Cooperative Learning Management in the Course of Principles of Mathematics for Graduate Level

**Authors:**
Komon Paisal

**Abstract:**

The aim of this research was to create collaborative learning activities in the course of Principles of Mathematics for graduate level by investigating the students’ ability in proving the mathematics principles as well as their attitudes towards the activities. The samples composed of 2 main group; lecturers and students. The lecturers consisted of 3 teachers who taught the course of Principles of Mathematics at Rajabhat Suan Sunandha Unicersity in the academic year 2012. The students consisted of 32 students joining the cooperative learning activities in the subject of Principles of Mathematics in the academic year 2012. The research tools included activity plan for cooperative learning, testing on mathematics with the reliability of 0.8067 and the attitude questionnaires reported by the students. The results showed that: 1) the efficiency of the developed cooperative learning activities was 69.76/ 68.57 which was lower than the set criteria at 70/70. 2) The students joining the cooperative learning activities were able to prove the principles of mathematics at the average of 70%. 3) The students joining the cooperative learning activities reported moderate attitude towards the activities.

**Keywords:**
Instructional Design,
Pedagogical,
Teaching/ Learning Strategies.

##### 698 Leveraging Reasoning through Discourse: A Case Study in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms

**Authors:**
Cory A. Bennett

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Discourse,
reasoning,
secondary mathematics,
teacher development.

##### 697 The Influence of Interest, Beliefs, and Identity with Mathematics on Achievement

**Authors:**
Asma Alzahrani,
Elizabeth Stojanovski

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mathematics achievement,
math efficacy,
mathematics interest,
identity.

##### 696 Classifications of Neuroscientific-Radiological Findings on “Practicing” in Mathematics Learning

**Authors:**
Felicitas Pielsticker,
Christoph Pielsticker,
Ingo Witzke

**Abstract:**

Many people know ‘Mathematics needs practice!’ statement or similar ones from their mathematics lessons. It seems important to practice when learning mathematics. At the same time, it also seems important to practice how to learn mathematics. This paper places neuroscientific-radiological findings on “practicing” while learning mathematics in a context of mathematics education. To accomplish this, we use a literature-based discussion of our case study on practice. We want to describe neuroscientific-radiological findings in the context of mathematics education and point out stimulating connections between both perspectives. From a connective perspective we expect incentives that lead discussions in future research in the field of mathematics education.

**Keywords:**
fMRI,
education,
mathematics learning,
practicing.

##### 695 Prospective Mathematics Teachers' Views about Using Flash Animations in Mathematics Lessons

**Authors:**
Esra Bukova-Güzel,
Berna Cantürk-Günhan

**Abstract:**

The purpose of the study is to determine secondary prospective mathematics teachers- views related to using flash animations in mathematics lessons and to reveal how the sample presentations towards different mathematical concepts altered their views. This is a case study involving three secondary prospective mathematics teachers from a state university in Turkey. The data gathered from two semi-structural interviews. Findings revealed that these animations help understand mathematics meaningfully, relate mathematics and real world, visualization, and comprehend the importance of mathematics. The analysis of the data indicated that the sample presentations enhanced participants- views about using flash animations in mathematics lessons.

**Keywords:**
Instructional technology,
animations,
prospective mathematics teachers.

##### 694 The Use of Different Methodological Approaches to Teaching Mathematics at Secondary Level

**Authors:**
M. Rodionov,
N. Sharapova,
Z. Dedovets

**Abstract:**

The article describes methods of preparation of future teachers that includes the entire diversity of traditional and computer-oriented methodological approaches. The authors reveal how, in the specific educational environment, a teacher can choose the most effective combination of educational technologies based on the nature of the learning task. The key conditions that determine such a choice are that the methodological approach corresponds to the specificity of the problem being solved and that it is also responsive to the individual characteristics of the students. The article refers to the training of students in the proper use of mathematical electronic tools for educational purposes. The preparation of future mathematics teachers should be a step-by-step process, building on specific examples. At the first stage, students optimally solve problems aided by electronic means of teaching. At the second stage, the main emphasis is on modeling lessons. At the third stage, students develop and implement strategies in the study of one of the topics within a school mathematics curriculum. The article also recommended the implementation of this strategy in preparation of future teachers and stated the possible benefits.

**Keywords:**
Computer-oriented approach,
traditional approach,
future teachers,
mathematics,
lesson,
students,
education.

##### 693 Multivariate Assessment of Mathematics Test Scores of Students in Qatar

**Authors:**
Ali Rashash Alzahrani,
Elizabeth Stojanovski

**Abstract:**

Data on various aspects of education are collected at the institutional and government level regularly. In Australia, for example, students at various levels of schooling undertake examinations in numeracy and literacy as part of NAPLAN testing, enabling longitudinal assessment of such data as well as comparisons between schools and states within Australia. Another source of educational data collected internationally is via the PISA study which collects data from several countries when students are approximately 15 years of age and enables comparisons in the performance of science, mathematics and English between countries as well as ranking of countries based on performance in these standardised tests. As well as student and school outcomes based on the tests taken as part of the PISA study, there is a wealth of other data collected in the study including parental demographics data and data related to teaching strategies used by educators. Overall, an abundance of educational data is available which has the potential to be used to help improve educational attainment and teaching of content in order to improve learning outcomes. A multivariate assessment of such data enables multiple variables to be considered simultaneously and will be used in the present study to help develop profiles of students based on performance in mathematics using data obtained from the PISA study.

**Keywords:**
Cluster analysis,
education,
mathematics,
profiles.

##### 692 Effective Factors Increasing the Students’ Interest in Mathematics in the Opinion of Mathematic Teachers of Zahedan

**Authors:**
Safiyeh Khayati,
Ali Payan

**Abstract:**

The main objective of this study was to identify factors and conditions that motivated and encouraged students towards the math class and the factors that made this class an attractive and lovely one. To do this end, questionnaires consisting of 15 questions were distributed among 85 math teachers working in schools of Zahedan. Having collected and reviewed these questionnaires, it was shown that doing activity in math class (activity of students while teaching) and previous math teachers' behaviors have had much impact on encouraging the students towards mathematics. Separation of educational classroom of mathematics from the main classroom (which is decorated with crafts created by students themselves with regard to math book including article, wall newspaper, figures and formulas), peers, size and appearance of math book, first grade teachers in each educational level, among whom the Elementary first grade teachers had more importance and impact, were among the most influential and important factors in this regard. Then, school environment, family, conducting research related to mathematics, its application in daily life and other courses and studying the history of mathematics were categorized as important factors that would increase the students’ interest in mathematics.

**Keywords:**
Interest,
motivation,
mathematical learning.

##### 691 The Effect of Cooperation Teaching Method on Learning of Students in Primary Schools

**Authors:**
Fereshteh Afkari,
Davood Bagheri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
method of teaching,
learning,
collaboration

##### 690 Pilot Study on the Impact of VLE on Mathematical Concepts Acquisition within Secondary Education in England

**Authors:**
Aaron A. R. Nwabude

**Abstract:**

The research investigates the “impact of VLE on mathematical concepts acquisition of the special education needs (SENs) students at KS4 secondary education sector" in England. The overall aim of the study is to establish possible areas of difficulties to approach for above or below knowledge standard requirements for KS4 students in the acquisition and validation of basic mathematical concepts. A teaching period, in which virtual learning environment (Fronter) was used to emphasise different mathematical perception and symbolic representation was carried out and task based survey conducted to 20 special education needs students [14 actually took part]. The result shows that students were able to process information and consider images, objects and numbers within the VLE at early stages of acquisition process. They were also able to carry out perceptual tasks but with limiting process of different quotient, thus they need teacher-s guidance to connect them to symbolic representations and sometimes coach them through. The pilot study further indicates that VLE curriculum approaches for students were minutely aligned with mathematics teaching which does not emphasise the integration of VLE into the existing curriculum and current teaching practice. There was also poor alignment of vision regarding the use of VLE in realisation of the objectives of teaching mathematics by the management. On the part of teacher training, not much was done to develop teacher-s skills in the technical and pedagogical aspects of VLE that is in-use at the school. The classroom observation confirmed teaching practice will find a reliance on VLE as an enhancer of mathematical skills, providing interaction and personalisation of learning to SEN students.

**Keywords:**
VLE,
Mathematical Concepts Acquisition,
PilotStudy,
SENs,
KS4,
Education,
Teacher

##### 689 Academic Motivation Maintenance for Students While Solving Mathematical Problems in the Middle School

**Authors:**
M. Rodionov,
Z. Dedovets

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Teaching strategy,
mathematics,
motivation,
student.

##### 688 Teaching Math to Preschool Children with Autism

**Authors:**
Hui Fang Huang Su,
Jia Borror

**Abstract:**

This study compared two different interventions for math instruction among preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The first intervention, a combination of discrete trial teaching and Strategies for Teaching Based on Autism Research (STAR), was the regular math curriculum utilized at the preschool. The second activity-based, naturalistic intervention was Project Mind, also known as Math is Not Difficult. The curricular interventions were randomly assigned to four preschool classrooms with ASD students and implemented over three months for Project MIND. Measurements gained during the same three months for the STAR intervention were used. A quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test design was selected to compare which intervention was the most effective in increasing mathematical knowledge and skills among preschoolers with ASD. Standardized pre and post-test instruments included the Bracken Basic Concept Scale-3 Receptive, the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson IV Tests of Achievement, and the TEMA 3: Test of Early Mathematics Ability – Third Edition. The STAR assessment is typically administered to all preschoolers at the study site three times per year, and those results were used in this study. We anticipated that the implementation of these two approaches would lead to improvement in the mathematical knowledge and skills of children with ASD. Still, it is essential to see whether a behavioral or naturalistic teaching approach leads to more significant results.

**Keywords:**
Autism,
mathematics,
preschool,
special education.

##### 687 Using SMS Mobile Technology to Assess the Mastery of Subject Content Knowledge of Science and Mathematics Teachers of Secondary Schools in Tanzania

**Authors:**
Joel S. Mtebe,
Aron Kondoro,
Mussa M. Kissaka,
Elia Kibga

**Abstract:**

Sub-Saharan Africa is described as the second fastest growing in mobile phone penetration in the world more than in the United States or the European Union. Mobile phones have been used to provide a lot of opportunities to improve people’s lives in the region such as in banking, marketing, entertainment, and paying for various bills such as water, TV, and electricity. However, the potential of mobile phones to enhance teaching and learning has not been explored. This study presents an experience of developing and delivering SMS based quiz questions used to assess mastery of subject content knowledge of science and mathematics secondary school teachers in Tanzania. The SMS quizzes were used as a follow up support mechanism to 500 teachers who participated in a project to upgrade subject content knowledge of teachers in science and mathematics subjects in Tanzania. Quizzes of 10-15 questions were sent to teachers each week for 8 weeks and the results were analyzed using SPSS. Results show that teachers who participated in chemistry and biology subjects have better performance compared to those who participated in mathematics and physics subjects. Teachers reported some challenges that led to poor performance, This research has several practical implications for those who are implementing or planning to use mobile phones in teaching and learning especially in rural secondary schools in sub-Saharan Africa.

**Keywords:**
Mobile learning,
e-learning,
educational
technologies,
SMS,
secondary education,
assessment.

##### 686 Experimental teaching, Perceived usefulness, Ease of use, Learning Interest and Science Achievement of Taiwan 8th Graders in TIMSS 2007 Database

**Authors:**
Pei Wen Liao,
Tsung Hau Jen

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
TIMSS database,
Science achievement,
Experimental
teaching,
Perceived Usefulness,
Perceived Ease of Use

##### 685 Sfard’s Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics

**Authors:**
Dong-Joong Kim,
Sangho Choi,
Woong Lim

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are therefore “critical,” as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.

**Keywords:**
Commognitive framework,
discourse analysis,
mathematical discourse,
mathematics education.

##### 684 The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Academic Achievement of Grade Nine Students in Mathematics: The Case of Mettu Secondary and Preparatory School

**Authors:**
Diriba Gemechu,
Lamessa Abebe

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Cooperative learning,
academic achievement,
experimental group,
comparison group.

##### 683 Promoting Mathematical Understanding Using ICT in Teaching and Learning

**Authors:**
Kamel Hashem,
Ibrahim Arman

**Abstract:**

Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in mathematical education is a very active field of research and innovation, where learning is understood to be meaningful and grasping multiple linked representation rather than rote memorization, a great amount of literature offering a wide range of theories, learning approaches, methodologies and interpretations, are generally stressing the potentialities for teaching and learning using ICT. Despite the utilization of new learning approaches with ICT, students experience difficulties in learning concepts relevant to understanding mathematics, much remains unclear about the relationship between the computer environment, the activities it might support, and the knowledge that might emerge from such activities. Many questions that might arise in this regard: to what extent does the use of ICT help students in the process of understanding and solving tasks or problems? Is it possible to identify what aspects or features of students' mathematical learning can be enhanced by the use of technology? This paper will highlight the interest of the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into the teaching and learning of mathematics (quadratic functions), it aims to investigate the effect of four instructional methods on students- mathematical understanding and problem solving. Quantitative and qualitative methods are used to report about 43 students in middle school. Results showed that mathematical thinking and problem solving evolves as students engage with ICT activities and learn cooperatively.

**Keywords:**
Dynamic Geometry Software,
Information and Communication Technologies,
Visualization,
Mathematical Education.

##### 682 Measuring Teachers- Beliefs about Mathematics: A Fuzzy Set Approach

**Authors:**
M.A. Lazim,
M.T.Abu Osman

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
belief,
membership function,
degree of similarity,
conjoint analysis

##### 681 Learning Undergraduate Mathematics in a Discovery-Enriched Approach

**Authors:**
Kam-moon Liu,
Kwok-chi Chim,
Kwok-wai Chung,
Daniel Wing-cheong Ho

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Discovery-enriched curriculum,
higher education,
mathematics education,
project learning.

##### 680 Development of Researcher Knowledge in Mathematics Education: Towards a Confluence Framework

**Authors:**
I. Kontorovich,
R. Zazkis

**Abstract:**

We present a framework of researcher knowledge development in conducting a study in mathematics education. The key components of the framework are: knowledge germane to conducting a particular study, processes of knowledge accumulation, and catalyzing filters that influence a researcher decision making. The components of the framework originated from a confluence between constructs and theories in Mathematics Education, Higher Education and Sociology. Drawing on a self-reflective interview with a leading researcher in mathematics education, Professor Michèle Artigue, we illustrate how the framework can be utilized in data analysis. Criteria for framework evaluation are discussed.

**Keywords:**
Community of practice,
knowledge development,
mathematics education research,
researcher knowledge.