Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6263

Search results for: Parallel Production Systems

6023 Discovery of Quantified Hierarchical Production Rules from Large Set of Discovered Rules

Authors: Tamanna Siddiqui, M. Afshar Alam

Abstract:

Automated discovery of Rule is, due to its applicability, one of the most fundamental and important method in KDD. It has been an active research area in the recent past. Hierarchical representation allows us to easily manage the complexity of knowledge, to view the knowledge at different levels of details, and to focus our attention on the interesting aspects only. One of such efficient and easy to understand systems is Hierarchical Production rule (HPRs) system. A HPR, a standard production rule augmented with generality and specificity information, is of the following form: Decision If < condition> Generality Specificity . HPRs systems are capable of handling taxonomical structures inherent in the knowledge about the real world. This paper focuses on the issue of mining Quantified rules with crisp hierarchical structure using Genetic Programming (GP) approach to knowledge discovery. The post-processing scheme presented in this work uses Quantified production rules as initial individuals of GP and discovers hierarchical structure. In proposed approach rules are quantified by using Dempster Shafer theory. Suitable genetic operators are proposed for the suggested encoding. Based on the Subsumption Matrix(SM), an appropriate fitness function is suggested. Finally, Quantified Hierarchical Production Rules (HPRs) are generated from the discovered hierarchy, using Dempster Shafer theory. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Knowledge discovery in database, quantification, dempster shafer theory, genetic programming, hierarchy, subsumption matrix.

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6022 Solving 94-bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai

Abstract:

Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem(ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard’s rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig(BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard’s rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication.

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6021 Mucus Secretion Responses to Various Sublethal Copper (II) Concentrations in the Mussel Perna perna

Authors: Kamleshan Pillay

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of mucus production as a biomarker. This was done by exposing the mussel Perna perna to various sublethal concentrations of Cu. Mussels are effective as a bioindicator species as they accumulate Cu in their tissues. Differences in mucus production rates were evaluated at different Cu concentrations. The findings of this study indicate that increasing Cu concentrations had a significant effect on the mucus production rates over a 24 hour exposure. There were also significant differences between the mucus production rates at different Cu concentrations (p < 0.05). Thus, mucus is an essential detoxification mechanism.

Keywords: Copper, Mucus, Depuration, Perna perna.

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6020 FPGA Based Parallel Architecture for the Computation of Third-Order Cross Moments

Authors: Syed Manzoor Qasim, Shuja Abbasi, Saleh Alshebeili, Bandar Almashary, Ateeq Ahmad Khan

Abstract:

Higher-order Statistics (HOS), also known as cumulants, cross moments and their frequency domain counterparts, known as poly spectra have emerged as a powerful signal processing tool for the synthesis and analysis of signals and systems. Algorithms used for the computation of cross moments are computationally intensive and require high computational speed for real-time applications. For efficiency and high speed, it is often advantageous to realize computation intensive algorithms in hardware. A promising solution that combines high flexibility together with the speed of a traditional hardware is Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). In this paper, we present FPGA-based parallel architecture for the computation of third-order cross moments. The proposed design is coded in Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) Hardware Description Language (VHDL) and functionally verified by implementing it on Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S2000FG900-4 FPGA. Implementation results are presented and it shows that the proposed design can operate at a maximum frequency of 86.618 MHz.

Keywords: Cross moments, Cumulants, FPGA, Hardware Implementation.

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6019 An Ultra-Low Output Impedance Power Amplifier for Tx Array in 7-Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Ashraf Abuelhaija, Klaus Solbach

Abstract:

In Ultra high-field MRI scanners (3T and higher), parallel RF transmission techniques using multiple RF chains with multiple transmit elements are a promising approach to overcome the high-field MRI challenges in terms of inhomogeneity in the RF magnetic field and SAR. However, mutual coupling between the transmit array elements disturbs the desirable independent control of the RF waveforms for each element. This contribution demonstrates a 18 dB improvement of decoupling (isolation) performance due to the very low output impedance of our 1 kW power amplifier.

Keywords: EM coupling, Inter-element isolation, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Parallel Transmit.

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6018 Collaboration of Multi-Agent and Hyper-Heuristics Systems for Production Scheduling Problem

Authors: C. E. Nugraheni, L. Abednego

Abstract:

This paper introduces a framework based on the collaboration of multi agent and hyper-heuristics to find a solution of the real single machine production problem. There are many techniques used to solve this problem. Each of it has its own advantages and disadvantages. By the collaboration of multi agent system and hyper-heuristics, we can get more optimal solution. The hyper-heuristics approach operates on a search space of heuristics rather than directly on a search space of solutions. The proposed framework consists of some agents, i.e. problem agent, trainer agent, algorithm agent (GPHH, GAHH, and SAHH), optimizer agent, and solver agent. Some low level heuristics used in this paper are MRT, SPT, LPT, EDD, LDD, and MON

Keywords: Hyper-heuristics, multi-agent systems, scheduling problem.

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6017 A New Fuzzy DSS/ES for Stock Portfolio Selection using Technical and Fundamental Approaches in Parallel

Authors: H. Zarei, M. H. Fazel Zarandi, M. Karbasian

Abstract:

A Decision Support System/Expert System for stock portfolio selection presented where at first step, both technical and fundamental data used to estimate technical and fundamental return and risk (1st phase); Then, the estimated values are aggregated with the investor preferences (2nd phase) to produce convenient stock portfolio. In the 1st phase, there are two expert systems, each of which is responsible for technical or fundamental estimation. In the technical expert system, for each stock, twenty seven candidates are identified and with using rough sets-based clustering method (RC) the effective variables have been selected. Next, for each stock two fuzzy rulebases are developed with fuzzy C-Mean method and Takai-Sugeno- Kang (TSK) approach; one for return estimation and the other for risk. Thereafter, the parameters of the rule-bases are tuned with backpropagation method. In parallel, for fundamental expert systems, fuzzy rule-bases have been identified in the form of “IF-THEN" rules through brainstorming with the stock market experts and the input data have been derived from financial statements; as a result two fuzzy rule-bases have been generated for all the stocks, one for return and the other for risk. In the 2nd phase, user preferences represented by four criteria and are obtained by questionnaire. Using an expert system, four estimated values of return and risk have been aggregated with the respective values of user preference. At last, a fuzzy rule base having four rules, treats these values and produce a ranking score for each stock which will lead to a satisfactory portfolio for the user. The stocks of six manufacturing companies and the period of 2003-2006 selected for data gathering.

Keywords: Stock Portfolio Selection, Fuzzy Rule-Base ExpertSystems, Financial Decision Support Systems, Technical Analysis, Fundamental Analysis.

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6016 Microbial Production of Levan using Date Syrup and Investigation of Its Properties

Authors: Marzieh Moosavi-Nasab, Behnaz Layegh , Ladan Aminlari, Mohammad B. Hashemi

Abstract:

Levan, an exopolysaccharide, was produced by Microbacterium laevaniformans and its yield was characterized as a function of concentrations of date syrup, sucrose and the fermentation time. The optimum condition for levan production from sucrose was at concentration of 20% sucrose for 48 h and for date syrup was 25% for 48 h. The results show that an increase in fermentation time caused a decrease in the levan production at all concentrations of date syrup tested. Under these conditions after 48 h in sucrose medium, levan production reached 48.9 g/L and for date syrup reached 10.48 g/L . The effect of pH on the yield of the purified levan was examined and the optimum pH for levan production was determined to be 6.0. Levan was composed mainly of fructose residues when analyzed by TLC and FT-IR spectroscopy. Date syrup is a cheap substrate widely available in Iran and has potential for levan production. The thermal stability of levan was assessed by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) that revealed the onset of decomposition near to 49°C for the levan produced from sucrose and 51°C for the levan from date syrup. DSC results showed a single Tg at 98°C for levan produced from sucrose and 206 °C for levan from date syrup.

Keywords: Date syrup, Fermentation, Levan, Microbacteriumlaevaniformans

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6015 A Model of Network Security with Prevention Capability by Using Decoy Technique

Authors: Supachai Tangwongsan, Labhidhorn Pangphuthipong

Abstract:

This research work proposes a model of network security systems aiming to prevent production system in a data center from being attacked by intrusions. Conceptually, we introduce a decoy system as a part of the security system for luring intrusions, and apply network intrusion detection (NIDS), coupled with the decoy system to perform intrusion prevention. When NIDS detects an activity of intrusions, it will signal a redirection module to redirect all malicious traffics to attack the decoy system instead, and hence the production system is protected and safe. However, in a normal situation, traffic will be simply forwarded to the production system as usual. Furthermore, we assess the performance of the model with various bandwidths, packet sizes and inter-attack intervals (attacking frequencies).

Keywords: Intrusion detection, Decoy, Snort, Intrusion prevention.

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6014 Dynamically Monitoring Production Methods for Identifying Structural Changes relevant to Logistics

Authors: Marco Kennemann, Steffen C. Eickemeyer, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

Due to the growing dynamic and complexity within the market environment production enterprises in particular are faced with new logistic challenges. Moreover, it is here in this dynamic environment that the Logistic Operating Curve Theory also reaches its limits as a method for describing the correlations between the logistic objectives. In order to convert this theory into a method for dynamically monitoring productions this paper will introduce methods for reliably and quickly identifying structural changes relevant to logistics.

Keywords: Dynamics, Logistic Operating Curves, Production Logistics, Production Planning and Control

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6013 Vector Control of Multimotor Drive

Authors: Archana S. Nanoty, A. R. Chudasama

Abstract:

Three-phase induction machines are today a standard for industrial electrical drives. Cost, reliability, robustness and maintenance free operation are among the reasons these machines are replacing dc drive systems. The development of power electronics and signal processing systems has eliminated one of the greatest disadvantages of such ac systems, which is the issue of control. With modern techniques of field oriented vector control, the task of variable speed control of induction machines is no longer a disadvantage. The need to increase system performance, particularly when facing limits on the power ratings of power supplies and semiconductors, motivates the use of phase number other than three, In this paper a novel scheme of connecting two, three phase induction motors in parallel fed by two inverters; viz. VSI and CSI and their vector control is presented.

Keywords: Field oriented control, multiphase induction motor, power electronics converter.

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6012 Database Placement on Large-Scale Systems

Authors: Cherif Haddad, Faouzi Ben Charrada

Abstract:

Large-scale systems such as Grids offer infrastructures for both data distribution and parallel processing. The use of Grid infrastructures is a more recent issue that is already impacting the Distributed Database Management System industry. In DBMS, distributed query processing has emerged as a fundamental technique for ensuring high performance in distributed databases. Database placement is particularly important in large-scale systems because it reduces communication costs and improves resource usage. In this paper, we propose a dynamic database placement policy that depends on query patterns and Grid sites capabilities. We evaluate the performance of the proposed database placement policy using simulations. The obtained results show that dynamic database placement can significantly improve the performance of distributed query processing.

Keywords: Large-scale systems, Grid environment, Distributed Databases, Distributed query processing, Database placement

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6011 Enhanced Parallel-Connected Comb Filter Method for Multiple Pitch Estimation

Authors: Taro Matsuno, Yuta Otani, Ryo Tanaka, Kaori Ikezaki, Hitoshi Yamamoto, Masaru Fujieda, Yoshihisa Ishida

Abstract:

This paper presents an improvement method of the multiple pitch estimation algorithm using comb filters. Conventionally the pitch was estimated by using parallel -connected comb filters method (PCF). However, PCF has problems which often fail in the pitch estimation when there is the fundamental frequency of higher tone near harmonics of lower tone. Therefore the estimation is assigned to a wrong note when shared frequencies happen. This issue often occurs in estimating octave 3 or more. Proposed method, for solving the problem, estimates the pitch with every harmonic instead of every octave. As a result, our method reaches the accuracy of more than 80%.

Keywords: music transcription, pitch estimation, comb filter, fractional delay

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6010 Microalgal Lipid Production by Microalgae Chlorella sp. KKU-S2

Authors: Ratanaporn Leesing, Supaporn Kookkhunthod, Ngarmnit Nontaso

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to produce heterotrophic microalgal lipid in flask-batch fermentation. Chlorella sp. KKU-S2 supported maximum values of 0.374 g/L/d, 0.478 g lipid/g cells, and 0.112 g/L/d for volumetric lipid production rate, and specific yield of lipid, and specific rate of lipid production, respectively when culture was performed on BG-11 medium supplemented with 50g/L glucose. Among the carbon sources tested, maximum cell yield coefficient (YX/S, g/L), maximum specific yield of lipid (YP/X, g lipid/g cells) and volumetric lipid production rate (QP, g/L/d) were found of 0.728, 0.237, and 0.619, respectively, using sugarcane molasses as carbon source. The main components of fatty acid from extracted lipid were palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid which similar to vegetable oils and suitable for biodiesel production.

Keywords: Microalgal lipid, Chlorella sp. KKU-S2, kineticparameters, biodiesel.

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6009 Environmental Potentials within the Production of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Florian Gschösser, Walter Purrer

Abstract:

The paper shows examples for the (environmental) optimization of production processes for asphalt mixtures applied for typical road pavements in Austria and Switzerland. The conducted “from-cradle-to-gate” LCA firstly analyzes the production one cubic meter of asphalt and secondly all material production processes for exemplary highway pavements applied in Austria and Switzerland. It is shown that environmental impacts can be reduced by the application of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and by the optimization of specific production characteristics, e.g. the reduction of the initial moisture of the mineral aggregate and the reduction of the mixing temperature by the application of low-viscosity and foam bitumen. The results of the LCA study demonstrate reduction potentials per cubic meter asphalt of up to 57 % (Global Warming Potential–GWP) and 77 % (Ozone depletion–ODP). The analysis per square meter of asphalt pavement determined environmental potentials of up to 40 % (GWP) and 56 % (ODP).

Keywords: Asphalt mixtures, environmental potentials, life cycle assessment, material production.

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6008 Innovation to Protect the Smoke and Odor Pollutions in Benjarong Ceramic Production

Authors: Chonmapat Torasa, Witthaya Mekhum

Abstract:

The improvement of a filer case utilized to purify the let-out smoke and smell in the production of Benjarong Ceramic is studied through Participatory Action Research (PAR). This research is aimed to protect smell, dirty smoke, and air pollution which are effects of incomplete combustion in the production of Benjarong ceramic. This research was conducted at Jongjint Benjarong Ceramic Factory in Plai Bang, Bang Kruai, Nonthaburi Province,Thailand, also 12 employees were interviewed for data collection. All collected data were analyzed to develop and create solution to protect smoke and smell pollution from Benjarong ceramic production. The results revealed that the employees who have used the developed filer cases are moderately satisfied. In addition to the efficiency of developed smoke-and-smell filer cases, it was found that Overall, the respondents were satisfied moderately with efficiency of modified smoke and smell filter cases.

Keywords: Benjarong Ceramic, Community Economy, OTOP Production, Production.

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6007 How Virtualization, Decentralization and Network Building Change the Manufacturing Landscape: An Industry 4.0 Perspective

Authors: Malte Brettel, Niklas Friederichsen, Michael Keller, Marius Rosenberg

Abstract:

The German manufacturing industry has to withstand an increasing global competition on product quality and production costs. As labor costs are high, several industries have suffered severely under the relocation of production facilities towards aspiring countries, which have managed to close the productivity and quality gap substantially. Established manufacturing companies have recognized that customers are not willing to pay large price premiums for incremental quality improvements. As a consequence, many companies from the German manufacturing industry adjust their production focusing on customized products and fast time to market. Leveraging the advantages of novel production strategies such as Agile Manufacturing and Mass Customization, manufacturing companies transform into integrated networks, in which companies unite their core competencies. Hereby, virtualization of the process- and supply-chain ensures smooth inter-company operations providing real-time access to relevant product and production information for all participating entities. Boundaries of companies deteriorate, as autonomous systems exchange data, gained by embedded systems throughout the entire value chain. By including Cyber-Physical-Systems, advanced communication between machines is tantamount to their dialogue with humans. The increasing utilization of information and communication technology allows digital engineering of products and production processes alike. Modular simulation and modeling techniques allow decentralized units to flexibly alter products and thereby enable rapid product innovation. The present article describes the developments of Industry 4.0 within the literature and reviews the associated research streams. Hereby, we analyze eight scientific journals with regards to the following research fields: Individualized production, end-to-end engineering in a virtual process chain and production networks. We employ cluster analysis to assign sub-topics into the respective research field. To assess the practical implications, we conducted face-to-face interviews with managers from the industry as well as from the consulting business using a structured interview guideline. The results reveal reasons for the adaption and refusal of Industry 4.0 practices from a managerial point of view. Our findings contribute to the upcoming research stream of Industry 4.0 and support decision-makers to assess their need for transformation towards Industry 4.0 practices. 

Keywords: Industry 4.0., Mass Customization, Production networks, Virtual Process-Chain.

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6006 Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, M. Rahman Hakim, V. Sri Lestari

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (80 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (% and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily, and cholesterol content of the whole egg was determined. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen at a higher level with a lower cholesterol content. 

Keywords: Curcumin, feed and water intake, old laying hen, egg production.

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6005 A New Load Frequency Controller based on Parallel Fuzzy PI with Conventional PD (FPI-PD)

Authors: Aqeel S. Jaber, Abu Zaharin Ahmad, Ahmed N. Abdalla

Abstract:

The artificial intelligent controller in power system plays as most important rule for many applications such as system operation and its control specially Load Frequency Controller (LFC). The main objective of LFC is to keep the frequency and tie-line power close to their decidable bounds in case of disturbance. In this paper, parallel fuzzy PI adaptive with conventional PD technique for Load Frequency Control system was proposed. PSO optimization method used to optimize both of scale fuzzy PI and tuning of PD. Two equal interconnected power system areas were used as a test system. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller compared with different PID and classical fuzzy PI controllers in terms of speed response and damping frequency.

Keywords: Load frequency control, PSO, fuzzy control.

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6004 A Novel Methodology Proposed for Optimizing the Degree of Hybridization in Parallel HEVs using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi, A. Radan

Abstract:

In this paper, a new Genetic Algorithm (GA) based methodology is proposed to optimize the Degree of Hybridization (DOH) in a passenger parallel hybrid car. At first step, target parameters for the vehicle are decided and then using ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR) software, the variation pattern of these target parameters, across the different DOHs, is extracted. At the next step, a suitable cost function is defined and is optimized using GA. In this paper, also a new technique has been proposed for deciding the number of battery modules for each DOH, which leads to a great improvement in the vehicle performance. The proposed methodology is so simple, fast and at the same time, so efficient.

Keywords: Degree of Hybridization (DOH), Electric Motor, Emissions, Fuel Economy, Genetic Algorithm (GA), Hybrid ElectricVehicle (HEV), Vehicle Performance

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6003 Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage: A Recipe for Success

Authors: Mohsen Ebrahimi

Abstract:

In this paper, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) is introduced and its advantages over ordinary steam injection is demonstrated. A simple simulation model is built and three scenarios of natural production, ordinary steam injection, and SAGD are compared in terms of their cumulative oil production and cumulative oil steam ratio. The results show that SAGD can significantly enhance oil production in quite a short period of time. However, since the distance between injection and production wells is short, the oil to steam ratio decreases gradually through time.

Keywords: Thermal recovery, Steam injection, SAGD, Enhanced oil recovery

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6002 The Role of Business Survey Measures in Forecasting Croatian Industrial Production

Authors: M. Cizmesija, N. Erjavec, V. Bahovec

Abstract:

While the European Union (EU) harmonized methodology is a benchmark of worldwide used business survey (BS) methodology, the choice of variables that are components of the confidence indicators, as the leading indicators, is not strictly determined and unique. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to investigate and to quantify the relationship between all business survey variables in manufacturing industry and industrial production as a reference macroeconomic series in Croatia. The assumption is that there are variables in the business survey, that are not components of Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI) and which can accurately (and sometimes better then ICI) predict changes in Croatian industrial production. Empirical analyses are conducted using quarterly data of BS variables in manufacturing industry and Croatian industrial production over the period from the first quarter 2005 to the first quarter 2013. Research results confirmed the assumption: three BS variables which is not components of ICI (competitive position, demand and liquidity) are the best leading indicator then ICI, in forecasting changes in Croatian industrial production instantaneously, with one, two or three quarter ahead.

Keywords: Balance, Business Survey, Confidence Indicators, Industrial Production, Forecasting.

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6001 Robust Fuzzy Control of Nonlinear Fuzzy Impulsive Singular Perturbed Systems with Time-varying Delay

Authors: Caigen Zhou, Haibo Jiang

Abstract:

The problem of robust fuzzy control for a class of nonlinear fuzzy impulsive singular perturbed systems with time-varying delay is investigated by employing Lyapunov functions. The nonlinear delay system is built based on the well-known T–S fuzzy model. The so-called parallel distributed compensation idea is employed to design the state feedback controller. Sufficient conditions for global exponential stability of the closed-loop system are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be easily solved by LMI technique. Some simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: T–S fuzzy model, singular perturbed systems, time-varying delay, robust control.

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6000 Modeling Erosion Control in Oil Production Wells

Authors: Kenneth I.Eshiet, Yong Sheng

Abstract:

The sand production problem has led researchers into making various attempts to understand the phenomenon. The generally accepted concept is that the occurrence of sanding is due to the in-situ stress conditions and the induced changes in stress that results in the failure of the reservoir sandstone during hydrocarbon production from wellbores. By using a hypothetical cased (perforated) well, an approach to the problem is presented here by using Finite Element numerical modelling techniques. In addition to the examination of the erosion problem, the influence of certain key parameters is studied in order to ascertain their effect on the failure and subsequent erosion process. The major variables investigated include: drawdown, perforation depth, and the erosion criterion. Also included is the determination of the optimal mud pressure for given operational and reservoir conditions. The improved understanding between parameters enables the choice of optimal values to minimize sanding during oil production.

Keywords: Equivalent Plastic Strain, Erosion, Hydrocarbon Production.

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5999 Improvement of Parallel Compressor Model in Dealing Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution

Authors: Kewei Xu, Jens Friedrich, Kevin Dwinger, Wei Fan, Xijin Zhang

Abstract:

Parallel Compressor Model (PCM) is a simplified approach to predict compressor performance with inlet distortions. In PCM calculation, it is assumed that the sub-compressors’ outlet static pressure is uniform and therefore simplifies PCM calculation procedure. However, if the compressor’s outlet duct is not long and straight, such assumption frequently induces error ranging from 10% to 15%. This paper provides a revised calculation method of PCM that can correct the error. The revised method employs energy equation, momentum equation and continuity equation to acquire needed parameters and replace the equal static pressure assumption. Based on the revised method, PCM is applied on two compression system with different blades types. The predictions of their performance in non-uniform inlet conditions are yielded through the revised calculation method and are employed to evaluate the method’s efficiency. Validating the results by experimental data, it is found that although little deviation occurs, calculated result agrees well with experiment data whose error ranges from 0.1% to 3%. Therefore, this proves the revised calculation method of PCM possesses great advantages in predicting the performance of the distorted compressor with limited exhaust duct.

Keywords: Parallel Compressor Model (PCM), Revised Calculation Method, Inlet Distortion, Outlet Unequal Pressure Distribution.

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5998 Exchange Rate Volatility, Its Determinants and Effects on the Manufacturing Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Chimaobi V. Okolo, Onyinye S. Ugwuanyi, Kenneth A. Okpala

Abstract:

This study evaluated the effect of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria. The flow and stock market theories of exchange rate determination was adopted considering macroeconomic determinants such as balance of trade, trade openness, and net international investment. Furthermore, the influence of changes in parallel exchange rate, official exchange rate and real effective exchange rate was modeled on the manufacturing sector output. Vector autoregression techniques and vector error correction mechanism were adopted to explore the macroeconomic determinants of exchange rate fluctuation in Nigeria and to examine the influence of exchange rate volatility on the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. The exchange rate showed an unstable and volatile movement in Nigeria. Official exchange rate significantly impacted on the manufacturing sector of Nigeria and shock to previous manufacturing sector output caused 60.76% of the fluctuation in the manufacturing sector output in Nigeria. Trade balance, trade openness and net international investments did not significantly determine exchange rate in Nigeria. However, own shock accounted for about 95% of the variation of exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and long-run. Among other macroeconomic variables, net international investment accounted for about 2.85% variation of the real effective exchange rate fluctuation in the short-run and in the long-run. Monetary authorities should maintain stability of the exchange rates through proper management so as to encourage local production and government should formulate and implement policies that will develop other sectors of the economy as this will widen the country’s revenue base, reduce our over reliance on oil sector for our foreign exchange earnings and in turn reduce the shocks on our domestic economy.

Keywords: Exchange rate volatility, exchange rate determinants, manufacturing sector, official exchange rate, parallel exchange rate, real effective exchange rate.

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5997 Reliability Analysis of k-out-of-n : G System Using Triangular Intuitionistic Fuzzy Numbers

Authors: Tanuj Kumar, Rakesh Kumar Bajaj

Abstract:

In the present paper, we analyze the vague reliability of k-out-of-n : G system (particularly, series and parallel system) with independent and non-identically distributed components, where the reliability of the components are unknown. The reliability of each component has been estimated using statistical confidence interval approach. Then we converted these statistical confidence interval into triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Based on these triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers, the reliability of the k-out-of-n : G system has been calculated. Further, in order to implement the proposed methodology and to analyze the results of k-out-of-n : G system, a numerical example has been provided.

Keywords: Vague set, vague reliability, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy number, k-out-of-n : G system, series and parallel system.

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5996 The Safety of WiMAX Insolid Propellant Rocket Production

Authors: Jiradett K., Ornin S.

Abstract:

With the advance in wireless networking, IEEE 802.16 WiMAX technology has been widely deployed for several applications such as “last mile" broadband service, cellular backhaul, and high-speed enterprise connectivity. As a result, military employed WiMAX as a high-speed wireless connection for data-link because of its point to multi-point and non-line-of-sight (NLOS) capability for many years. However, the risk of using WiMAX is a critical factor in some sensitive area of military applications especially in ammunition manufacturing such as solid propellant rocket production. The US DoD policy states that the following certification requirements are met for WiMAX: electromagnetic effects on the environment (E3) and Hazards of Electromagnetic Radiation to Ordnance (HERO). This paper discuses the Recommended Power Densities and Safe Separation Distance (SSD) for HERO on WiMAX systems deployed on solid propellant rocket production. The result of this research found that WiMAX is safe to operate at close proximity distances to the rocket production based on AF Guidance Memorandum immediately changing AFMAN 91-201.

Keywords: WiMAX, ammunition, explosive, munition, solidpropellant, safety, rocket, missile

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5995 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh K. Sahu

Abstract:

In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen Number, Modified Brinkman Number, Slip Flow, Velocity Slip.

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5994 Estimation of Methane from Hydrocarbon Exploration and Production in India

Authors: A. K. Pathak, K. Ojha

Abstract:

Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas (GHG) after carbon dioxide. Amount of methane emission from energy sector is increasing day by day with various activities. In present work, various sources of methane emission from upstream, middle stream and downstream of oil & gas sectors are identified and categorised as per IPCC-2006 guidelines. Data were collected from various oil & gas sector like (i) exploration & production of oil & gas (ii) supply through pipelines (iii) refinery throughput & production (iv) storage & transportation (v) usage. Methane emission factors for various categories were determined applying Tier-II and Tier-I approach using the collected data. Total methane emission from Indian Oil & Gas sectors was thus estimated for the year 1990 to 2007.

Keywords: Carbon credit, Climate change, Methane emission, Oil & Gas production

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