Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 96

Search results for: Arabic

96 Comparing Arabic and Latin Handwritten Digits Recognition Problems

Authors: Sherif Abdelazeem

Abstract:

A comparison between the performance of Latin and Arabic handwritten digits recognition problems is presented. The performance of ten different classifiers is tested on two similar Arabic and Latin handwritten digits databases. The analysis shows that Arabic handwritten digits recognition problem is easier than that of Latin digits. This is because the interclass difference in case of Latin digits is smaller than in Arabic digits and variances in writing Latin digits are larger. Consequently, weaker yet fast classifiers are expected to play more prominent role in Arabic handwritten digits recognition.

Keywords: Handwritten recognition, Arabic recognition, Digits recognition, Document recognition

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95 Arabic Light Stemmer for Better Search Accuracy

Authors: Sahar Khedr, Dina Sayed, Ayman Hanafy

Abstract:

Arabic is one of the most ancient and critical languages in the world. It has over than 250 million Arabic native speakers and more than twenty countries having Arabic as one of its official languages. In the past decade, we have witnessed a rapid evolution in smart devices, social network and technology sector which led to the need to provide tools and libraries that properly tackle the Arabic language in different domains. Stemming is one of the most crucial linguistic fundamentals. It is used in many applications especially in information extraction and text mining fields. The motivation behind this work is to enhance the Arabic light stemmer to serve the data mining industry and leverage it in an open source community. The presented implementation works on enhancing the Arabic light stemmer by utilizing and enhancing an algorithm that provides an extension for a new set of rules and patterns accompanied by adjusted procedure. This study has proven a significant enhancement for better search accuracy with an average 10% improvement in comparison with previous works.

Keywords: Arabic data mining, Arabic Information extraction, Arabic Light stemmer, Arabic stemmer.

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94 The Using of Rasch-Model in Validating the Arabic Version of Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS)

Authors: Saher Ali Al-Sabbah, See Ching Mey, Ong Saw Lan

Abstract:

This article addresses the procedures to validate the Arabic version of Multiple Intelligence Development Assessment Scale (MIDAS). The content validity was examined based on the experts- judgments on the MIDAS-s items in the Arabic version. The content of eleven items in the Arabic version of MIDAS was modified to match the Arabic context. Then a translation from original English version of MIDAS into Arabic language was performed. The reliability of the Arabic MIDAS was calculated based on test and retest method and found to be 0.85 for the overall MIDAS and for the different subscales ranging between 0.78 - 0.87. The examination of construct validity for the overall Arabic MIDAS and its subscales was established by using Winsteps program version 6 based on Rasch model in order to fit the items into the Arabic context. The findings indicated that, the eight subscales in Arabic version of MIDAS scale have a unidimensionality, and the total number of kept items in the overall scale is 108 items.

Keywords: Rasch-Model, validation, multiple intelligence, and MIDAS scale.

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93 Arabic Word Semantic Similarity

Authors: Faaza A, Almarsoomi, James D, O'Shea, Zuhair A, Bandar, Keeley A, Crockett

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the production of an Arabic word semantic similarity benchmark dataset. It is the first of its kind for Arabic which was particularly developed to assess the accuracy of word semantic similarity measurements. Semantic similarity is an essential component to numerous applications in fields such as natural language processing, artificial intelligence, linguistics, and psychology. Most of the reported work has been done for English. To the best of our knowledge, there is no word similarity measure developed specifically for Arabic. In this paper, an Arabic benchmark dataset of 70 word pairs is presented. New methods and best possible available techniques have been used in this study to produce the Arabic dataset. This includes selecting and creating materials, collecting human ratings from a representative sample of participants, and calculating the overall ratings. This dataset will make a substantial contribution to future work in the field of Arabic WSS and hopefully it will be considered as a reference basis from which to evaluate and compare different methodologies in the field.

Keywords: Arabic categories, benchmark dataset, semantic similarity, word pair, stimulus Arabic words

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92 Query Reformulation Guided by External Resource for Information Retrieval

Authors: Mohammed El Amine Abderrahim

Abstract:

Reformulating the user query is a technique that aims to improve the performance of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) in terms of precision and recall. This paper tries to evaluate the technique of query reformulation guided by an external resource for Arabic texts. To do this, various precision and recall measures were conducted and two corpora with different external resources like Arabic WordNet (AWN) and the Arabic Dictionary (thesaurus) of Meaning (ADM) were used. Examination of the obtained results will allow us to measure the real contribution of this reformulation technique in improving the IRS performance.

Keywords: Arabic NLP, Arabic Information Retrieval, Arabic WordNet, Query Expansion.

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91 A New Recognition Scheme for Machine- Printed Arabic Texts based on Neural Networks

Authors: Z. Shaaban

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to tackle the problem of recognizing machine-printed Arabic texts. Because of the difficulty of recognizing cursive Arabic words, the text has to be normalized and segmented to be ready for the recognition stage. The new scheme for recognizing Arabic characters depends on multiple parallel neural networks classifier. The classifier has two phases. The first phase categories the input character into one of eight groups. The second phase classifies the character into one of the Arabic character classes in the group. The system achieved high recognition rate.

Keywords: Neural Networks, character recognition, feature extraction, multiple networks, Arabic text.

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90 Simultaneous Segmentation and Recognition of Arabic Characters in an Unconstrained On-Line Cursive Handwritten Document

Authors: Randa I. Elanwar, Mohsen A. Rashwan, Samia A. Mashali

Abstract:

The last two decades witnessed some advances in the development of an Arabic character recognition (CR) system. Arabic CR faces technical problems not encountered in any other language that make Arabic CR systems achieve relatively low accuracy and retards establishing them as market products. We propose the basic stages towards a system that attacks the problem of recognizing online Arabic cursive handwriting. Rule-based methods are used to perform simultaneous segmentation and recognition of word portions in an unconstrained cursively handwritten document using dynamic programming. The output of these stages is in the form of a ranked list of the possible decisions. A new technique for text line separation is also used.

Keywords: Arabic handwriting, character recognition, cursive handwriting, on-line recognition.

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89 Echo State Networks for Arabic Phoneme Recognition

Authors: Nadia Hmad, Tony Allen

Abstract:

This paper presents an ESN-based Arabic phoneme recognition system trained with supervised, forced and combined supervised/forced supervised learning algorithms. Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCCs) and Linear Predictive Code (LPC) techniques are used and compared as the input feature extraction technique. The system is evaluated using 6 speakers from the King Abdulaziz Arabic Phonetics Database (KAPD) for Saudi Arabia dialectic and 34 speakers from the Center for Spoken Language Understanding (CSLU2002) database of speakers with different dialectics from 12 Arabic countries. Results for the KAPD and CSLU2002 Arabic databases show phoneme recognition performances of 72.31% and 38.20% respectively.

Keywords: Arabic phonemes recognition, echo state networks (ESNs), neural networks (NNs), supervised learning.

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88 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

Abstract:

This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Arabic, literature, peace, development, Nigeria

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87 Saudi Twitter Corpus for Sentiment Analysis

Authors: Adel Assiri, Ahmed Emam, Hmood Al-Dossari

Abstract:

Sentiment analysis (SA) has received growing attention in Arabic language research. However, few studies have yet to directly apply SA to Arabic due to lack of a publicly available dataset for this language. This paper partially bridges this gap due to its focus on one of the Arabic dialects which is the Saudi dialect. This paper presents annotated data set of 4700 for Saudi dialect sentiment analysis with (K= 0.807). Our next work is to extend this corpus and creation a large-scale lexicon for Saudi dialect from the corpus.

Keywords: Arabic, Sentiment Analysis, Twitter, annotation.

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86 The Syllabic Scrutiny of Word Stress in Najdi Saudi Arabic

Authors: Mohammad AL Amro

Abstract:

This study will provide a brief description of the stress in Najdi Arabic dialect as well as Modern Standard Arabic. Beyond the analysis of stress patterns, this paper will also attempt to deal with two important phenomena that affect stress, namely epenthesis/insertion, vowel shortening, and consonant (the glottal stop) deletion.

Keywords: Epenthesis, Najd, stress, vowel shortening.

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85 A Novel Arabic Text Steganography Method Using Letter Points and Extensions

Authors: Adnan Abdul-Aziz Gutub, Manal Mohammad Fattani

Abstract:

This paper presents a new steganography approach suitable for Arabic texts. It can be classified under steganography feature coding methods. The approach hides secret information bits within the letters benefiting from their inherited points. To note the specific letters holding secret bits, the scheme considers the two features, the existence of the points in the letters and the redundant Arabic extension character. We use the pointed letters with extension to hold the secret bit 'one' and the un-pointed letters with extension to hold 'zero'. This steganography technique is found attractive to other languages having similar texts to Arabic such as Persian and Urdu.

Keywords: Arabic text, Cryptography, Feature coding, Information security, Text steganography, Text watermarking.

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84 Computer Aided Language Learning System for Arabic for Second Language Learners

Authors: Osama Abufanas

Abstract:

This paper aims to build an Arabic learning language tool using Flash CS4 professional software with action script 3.0 programming language, based on the Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL) material. An extra intention is to provide a primary tool and focus on learning Arabic as a second language to adults. It contains letters, words and sentences at the first stage. This includes interactive practices, which evaluates learners’ comprehension of the Arabic language. The system was examined and it was found that the language structure was correct and learners were satisfied regarding the system tools. The learners found the system tools efficient and simple to use. The paper's main conclusion illustrates that CALL can be applied without any hesitation to second language learners

Keywords: Arabic Language, Computer Aided Language Learning (CALL), Learner, Material.

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83 Automatic Building an Extensive Arabic FA Terms Dictionary

Authors: El-Sayed Atlam, Masao Fuketa, Kazuhiro Morita, Jun-ichi Aoe

Abstract:

Field Association (FA) terms are a limited set of discriminating terms that give us the knowledge to identify document fields which are effective in document classification, similar file retrieval and passage retrieval. But the problem lies in the lack of an effective method to extract automatically relevant Arabic FA Terms to build a comprehensive dictionary. Moreover, all previous studies are based on FA terms in English and Japanese, and the extension of FA terms to other language such Arabic could be definitely strengthen further researches. This paper presents a new method to extract, Arabic FA Terms from domain-specific corpora using part-of-speech (POS) pattern rules and corpora comparison. Experimental evaluation is carried out for 14 different fields using 251 MB of domain-specific corpora obtained from Arabic Wikipedia dumps and Alhyah news selected average of 2,825 FA Terms (single and compound) per field. From the experimental results, recall and precision are 84% and 79% respectively. Therefore, this method selects higher number of relevant Arabic FA Terms at high precision and recall.

Keywords: Arabic Field Association Terms, information extraction, document classification, information retrieval.

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82 Multi-Font Farsi/Arabic Isolated Character Recognition Using Chain Codes

Authors: H. Izakian, S. A. Monadjemi, B. Tork Ladani, K. Zamanifar

Abstract:

Nowadays, OCR systems have got several applications and are increasingly employed in daily life. Much research has been done regarding the identification of Latin, Japanese, and Chinese characters. However, very little investigation has been performed regarding Farsi/Arabic characters recognition. Probably the reason is difficulty and complexity of those characters identification compared to the others and limitation of IT activities in Farsi and Arabic speaking countries. In this paper, a technique has been employed to identify isolated Farsi/Arabic characters. A chain code based algorithm along with other significant peculiarities such as number and location of dots and auxiliary parts, and the number of holes existing in the isolated character has been used in this study to identify Farsi/Arabic characters. Experimental results show the relatively high accuracy of the method developed when it is tested on several standard Farsi fonts.

Keywords: Farsi characters, OCR, feature extraction, chain code.

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81 Retranslation of Orientalism: Reading Said in Arabic

Authors: Fadil Elmenfi

Abstract:

Edward Said in his book Culture and Imperialism devotes the introduction to the Arabic translation. He claims that the fading echo of Orientalism in the Arab world is unlike the positive reflections of its counterpart elsewhere in the world. The probable reason behind his inquiry would be that the methodology Abu Deeb applied in translating Said's book contributed to the book having the limited impact which Said is referring to. The paper adds new insights to the body of theory and the effectiveness of the performance of translation from culture to culture. It presents a survey that can provide the reader with an overview of Said's Orientalism and the two Arabic translations of the book. It investigates some of the problems of translating cultural texts, more specifically translating features of Said's style.

Keywords: Orientalism, Retranslation, Arabic Language, Muhammad Enani, Kamal Abu Deeb, Edward Said.

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80 An Empirical Analysis of Arabic WebPages Classification using Fuzzy Operators

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani, Noor Aldeen K. Al-Awad

Abstract:

In this study, a fuzzy similarity approach for Arabic web pages classification is presented. The approach uses a fuzzy term-category relation by manipulating membership degree for the training data and the degree value for a test web page. Six measures are used and compared in this study. These measures include: Einstein, Algebraic, Hamacher, MinMax, Special case fuzzy and Bounded Difference approaches. These measures are applied and compared using 50 different Arabic web pages. Einstein measure was gave best performance among the other measures. An analysis of these measures and concluding remarks are drawn in this study.

Keywords: Text classification, HTML documents, Web pages, Machine learning, Fuzzy logic, Arabic Web pages.

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79 Optimizing Feature Selection for Recognizing Handwritten Arabic Characters

Authors: Mohammed Z. Khedher, Gheith A. Abandah, Ahmed M. Al-Khawaldeh

Abstract:

Recognition of characters greatly depends upon the features used. Several features of the handwritten Arabic characters are selected and discussed. An off-line recognition system based on the selected features was built. The system was trained and tested with realistic samples of handwritten Arabic characters. Evaluation of the importance and accuracy of the selected features is made. The recognition based on the selected features give average accuracies of 88% and 70% for the numbers and letters, respectively. Further improvements are achieved by using feature weights based on insights gained from the accuracies of individual features.

Keywords: Arabic handwritten characters, Feature extraction, Off-line recognition, Optical character recognition.

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78 A Comparative Study of Web-pages Classification Methods using Fuzzy Operators Applied to Arabic Web-pages

Authors: Ahmad T. Al-Taani, Noor Aldeen K. Al-Awad

Abstract:

In this study, a fuzzy similarity approach for Arabic web pages classification is presented. The approach uses a fuzzy term-category relation by manipulating membership degree for the training data and the degree value for a test web page. Six measures are used and compared in this study. These measures include: Einstein, Algebraic, Hamacher, MinMax, Special case fuzzy and Bounded Difference approaches. These measures are applied and compared using 50 different Arabic web-pages. Einstein measure was gave best performance among the other measures. An analysis of these measures and concluding remarks are drawn in this study.

Keywords: Text classification, HTML, web pages, machine learning, fuzzy logic, Arabic web pages.

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77 Printed Arabic Sub-Word Recognition Using Moments

Authors: Ibrahim A. El rube, Mohamed T. El Sonni, Soha S. Saleh

Abstract:

the cursive nature of the Arabic writing makes it difficult to accurately segment characters or even deal with the whole word efficiently. Therefore, in this paper, a printed Arabic sub-word recognition system is proposed. The suggested algorithm utilizes geometrical moments as descriptors for the separated sub-words. Three types of moments are investigated and applied to the printed sub-word images after dividing each image into multiple parts using windowing. Since moments are global descriptors, the windowing mechanism allows the moments to be applied to local regions of the sub-word. The local-global mixture of the proposed scheme increases the discrimination power of the moments while keeping the simplicity and ease of use of moments.

Keywords: Arabic sub-word recognition, windowing, aspectratio, moments.

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76 Exploring Utility and Intrinsic Value among UAE Arabic Teachers in Integrating M-Learning

Authors: Dina Tareq Ismail, Alexandria A. Proff

Abstract:

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a nation seeking to advance in all fields, particularly education. One area of focus for UAE 2021 agenda is to restructure UAE schools and universities by equipping them with highly developed technology. The agenda also advises educational institutions to prepare students with applicable and transferrable Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. Despite the emphasis on ICT and computer literacy skills, there exists limited empirical data on the use of M-Learning in the literature. This qualitative study explores the motivation of higher primary Arabic teachers in private schools toward implementing and integrating M-Learning apps in their classrooms. This research employs a phenomenological approach through the use of semistructured interviews with nine purposefully selected Arabic teachers. The data were analyzed using a content analysis via multiple stages of coding: open, axial, and thematic. Findings reveal three primary themes: (1) Arabic teachers with high levels of procedural knowledge in ICT are more motivated to implement M-Learning; (2) Arabic teachers' perceptions of self-efficacy influence their motivation toward implementation of M-Learning; (3) Arabic teachers implement M-Learning when they possess high utility and/or intrinsic value in these applications. These findings indicate a strong need for further training, equipping, and creating buy-in among Arabic teachers to enhance their ICT skills in implementing M-Learning. Further, given the limited availability of M-Learning apps designed for use in the Arabic language on the market, it is imperative that developers consider designing M-Learning tools that Arabic teachers, and Arabic-speaking students, can use and access more readily. This study contributes to closing the knowledge gap on teacher-motivation for implementing M-Learning in their classrooms in the UAE.

Keywords: ICT Skills, M-Learning, self-efficacy, teachermotivation.

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75 Component-based Segmentation of Words from Handwritten Arabic Text

Authors: Jawad H AlKhateeb, Jianmin Jiang, Jinchang Ren, Stan S Ipson

Abstract:

Efficient preprocessing is very essential for automatic recognition of handwritten documents. In this paper, techniques on segmenting words in handwritten Arabic text are presented. Firstly, connected components (ccs) are extracted, and distances among different components are analyzed. The statistical distribution of this distance is then obtained to determine an optimal threshold for words segmentation. Meanwhile, an improved projection based method is also employed for baseline detection. The proposed method has been successfully tested on IFN/ENIT database consisting of 26459 Arabic words handwritten by 411 different writers, and the results were promising and very encouraging in more accurate detection of the baseline and segmentation of words for further recognition.

Keywords: Arabic OCR, off-line recognition, Baseline estimation, Word segmentation.

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74 Survey on Arabic Sentiment Analysis in Twitter

Authors: Sarah O. Alhumoud, Mawaheb I. Altuwaijri, Tarfa M. Albuhairi, Wejdan M. Alohaideb

Abstract:

Large-scale data stream analysis has become one of the important business and research priorities lately. Social networks like Twitter and other micro-blogging platforms hold an enormous amount of data that is large in volume, velocity and variety. Extracting valuable information and trends out of these data would aid in a better understanding and decision-making. Multiple analysis techniques are deployed for English content. Moreover, one of the languages that produce a large amount of data over social networks and is least analyzed is the Arabic language. The proposed paper is a survey on the research efforts to analyze the Arabic content in Twitter focusing on the tools and methods used to extract the sentiments for the Arabic content on Twitter.

Keywords: Big Data, Social Networks, Sentiment Analysis.

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73 Towards an Analysis of Rhetoric of Digital Arabic Discourse

Authors: Gameel Abdelmageed

Abstract:

Arabs have a rhetorical heritage which has greatly contributed to the monitoring and analyzing of the rhetoric of the Holy Quran, Hadith, and Arabic texts on poetry and oratory. But Arab scholars - as far as the researcher knows – have not contributed to monitoring and analyzing the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse although it has prominence, particularly in social media and has strong effectiveness in the political and social life of Arab society. This discourse has made its impact by using very new rhetorical techniques in language, voice, image, painting and video clips which are known as “Multimedia” and belong to “Digital Rhetoric”. This study suggests that it is time to draw the attention of Arab scholars and invite them to monitor and analyze the rhetoric of digital Arabic discourse.

Keywords: Digital discourse, digital rhetoric, social media, Facebook.

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72 Multimethod Approach to Research in Interlanguage Pragmatics

Authors: Saad Al-Gahtani, Ghassan H Al Shatter

Abstract:

Argument over the use of particular method in interlanguage pragmatics has increased recently. Researchers argued the advantages and disadvantages of each method either natural or elicited. Findings of different studies indicated that the use of one method may not provide enough data to answer all its questions. The current study investigated the validity of using multimethod approach in interlanguage pragmatics to understand the development of requests in Arabic as a second language (Arabic L2). To this end, the study adopted two methods belong to two types of data sources: the institutional discourse (natural data), and the role play (elicited data). Participants were 117 learners of Arabic L2 at the university level, representing four levels (beginners, low-intermediate, highintermediate, and advanced). Results showed that using two or more methods in interlanguage pragmatics affect the size and nature of data.

Keywords: Arabic L2, Development of requests, Interlanguage Pragmatics, Multimethod approach.

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71 Tibyan Automated Arabic Correction Using Machine-Learning in Detecting Syntactical Mistakes

Authors: Ashwag O. Maghraby, Nida N. Khan, Hosnia A. Ahmed, Ghufran N. Brohi, Hind F. Assouli, Jawaher S. Melibari

Abstract:

The Arabic language is one of the most important languages. Learning it is so important for many people around the world because of its religious and economic importance and the real challenge lies in practicing it without grammatical or syntactical mistakes. This research focused on detecting and correcting the syntactic mistakes of Arabic syntax according to their position in the sentence and focused on two of the main syntactical rules in Arabic: Dual and Plural. It analyzes each sentence in the text, using Stanford CoreNLP morphological analyzer and machine-learning approach in order to detect the syntactical mistakes and then correct it. A prototype of the proposed system was implemented and evaluated. It uses support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to detect Arabic grammatical errors and correct them using the rule-based approach. The prototype system has a far accuracy 81%. In general, it shows a set of useful grammatical suggestions that the user may forget about while writing due to lack of familiarity with grammar or as a result of the speed of writing such as alerting the user when using a plural term to indicate one person.

Keywords: Arabic Language acquisition and learning, natural language processing, morphological analyzer, part-of-speech.

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70 OHASD: The First On-Line Arabic Sentence Database Handwritten on Tablet PC

Authors: Randa I. M. Elanwar, Mohsen A. Rashwan, Samia A. Mashali

Abstract:

In this paper we present the first Arabic sentence dataset for on-line handwriting recognition written on tablet pc. The dataset is natural, simple and clear. Texts are sampled from daily newspapers. To collect naturally written handwriting, forms are dictated to writers. The current version of our dataset includes 154 paragraphs written by 48 writers. It contains more than 3800 words and more than 19,400 characters. Handwritten texts are mainly written by researchers from different research centers. In order to use this dataset in a recognition system word extraction is needed. In this paper a new word extraction technique based on the Arabic handwriting cursive nature is also presented. The technique is applied to this dataset and good results are obtained. The results can be considered as a bench mark for future research to be compared with.

Keywords: Arabic, Handwriting recognition, on-line dataset.

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69 On Developing an Automatic Speech Recognition System for Standard Arabic Language

Authors: R. Walha, F. Drira, H. El-Abed, A. M. Alimi

Abstract:

The Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) applied to Arabic language is a challenging task. This is mainly related to the language specificities which make the researchers facing multiple difficulties such as the insufficient linguistic resources and the very limited number of available transcribed Arabic speech corpora. In this paper, we are interested in the development of a HMM-based ASR system for Standard Arabic (SA) language. Our fundamental research goal is to select the most appropriate acoustic parameters describing each audio frame, acoustic models and speech recognition unit. To achieve this purpose, we analyze the effect of varying frame windowing (size and period), acoustic parameter number resulting from features extraction methods traditionally used in ASR, speech recognition unit, Gaussian number per HMM state and number of embedded re-estimations of the Baum-Welch Algorithm. To evaluate the proposed ASR system, a multi-speaker SA connected-digits corpus is collected, transcribed and used throughout all experiments. A further evaluation is conducted on a speaker-independent continue SA speech corpus. The phonemes recognition rate is 94.02% which is relatively high when comparing it with another ASR system evaluated on the same corpus.

Keywords: ASR, HMM, acoustical analysis, acoustic modeling, Standard Arabic language

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68 Effects of Multimedia-based Instructional Designs for Arabic Language Learning among Pupils of Different Achievement Levels

Authors: Aldalalah, M. Osamah, Soon Fook Fong & Ababneh, W. Ziad

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of modality principles in instructional software among first grade pupils- achievements in the learning of Arabic Language. Two modes of instructional software were systematically designed and developed, audio with images (AI), and text with images (TI). The quasi-experimental design was used in the study. The sample consisted of 123 male and female pupils from IRBED Education Directorate, Jordan. The pupils were randomly assigned to any one of the two modes. The independent variable comprised the two modes of the instructional software, the students- achievement levels in the Arabic Language class and gender. The dependent variable was the achievements of the pupils in the Arabic Language test. The theoretical framework of this study was based on Mayer-s Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Four hypotheses were postulated and tested. Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) showed that pupils using the (AI) mode performed significantly better than those using (TI) mode. This study concluded that the audio with images mode was an important aid to learning as compared to text with images mode.

Keywords: Cognitive theory of Multimedia Learning, ModalityPrinciple, Multimedia, Arabic Language learning

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67 Comparison of Parameterization Methods in Recognizing Spoken Arabic Digits

Authors: Ali Ganoun

Abstract:

This paper proposes evaluation of sound parameterization methods in recognizing some spoken Arabic words, namely digits from zero to nine. Each isolated spoken word is represented by a single template based on a specific recognition feature, and the recognition is based on the Euclidean distance from those templates. The performance analysis of recognition is based on four parameterization features: the Burg Spectrum Analysis, the Walsh Spectrum Analysis, the Thomson Multitaper Spectrum Analysis and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) features. The main aim of this paper was to compare, analyze, and discuss the outcomes of spoken Arabic digits recognition systems based on the selected recognition features. The results acqired confirm that the use of MFCC features is a very promising method in recognizing Spoken Arabic digits.

Keywords: Speech Recognition, Spectrum Analysis, Burg Spectrum, Walsh Spectrum Analysis, Thomson Multitaper Spectrum, MFCC.

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