Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 70

Search results for: Perceived difficulty

70 Study Habits and Level of Difficulty Encountered by Maltese Students Studying Biology Advanced Level Topics

Authors: Marthese Azzopardi, Liberato Camilleri

Abstract:

This research was performed to investigate the study habits and level of difficulty perceived by post-secondary students in Biology at Advanced-level topics after completing their first year of study. At the end of a two-year ‘sixth form’ course, Maltese students sit for the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Advanced-level biology exam as a requirement to pursue science-related studies at the University of Malta. The sample was composed of 23 students (16 taking Chemistry and seven taking some ‘Other’ subject at the Advanced Level). The cohort comprised seven males and 16 females. A questionnaire constructed by the authors, was answered anonymously during the last lecture at the end of the first year of study, in May 2016. The Chi square test revealed that gender plays no effect on the various study habits (c2 (6) = 5.873, p = 0.438). ‘Reading both notes and textbooks’ was the most common method adopted by males (71.4%), whereas ‘Writing notes on each topic’ was that mostly used by females (81.3%). The Mann-Whitney U test showed no significant difference in the study habits of students and the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course (p = 0.231). Statistical difference was found with the One-ANOVA test when comparing the mean assessment mark obtained at the end of the first year course when students are clustered by their Secondary Education Certificate (SEC) grade (p < 0.001). Those obtaining a SEC grade of 2 and 3 got the highest mean assessment of 68.33% and 66.9%, respectively [SEC grading is 1-7, where 1 is the highest]. The Friedman test was used to compare the mean difficulty rating scores provided for the difficulty of each topic. The mean difficulty rating score ranges from 1 to 4, where the larger the mean rating score, the higher the difficulty. When considering the whole group of students, nine topics out of 21 were perceived as significantly more difficult than the other topics. Protein synthesis, DNA Replication and Biomolecules were the most difficult, in that order. The Mann-Whitney U test revealed that the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules is significantly lower for students taking Chemistry compared to those not choosing the subject (p = 0.018). Protein Synthesis was claimed as the most difficult by Chemistry students and Biomolecules by those not studying Chemistry. DNA Replication was the second most difficult topic perceived by both groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to examine the effect of gender on the perceived level of difficulty in comprehending various topics. It was found that females have significantly more difficulty in comprehending Biomolecules than males (p=0.039). Protein synthesis was perceived as the most difficult topic by males (mean difficulty rating score = 3.14), while Biomolecules, DNA Replication and Protein synthesis were of equal difficulty for females (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Males and females perceived DNA Replication as equally difficult (mean difficulty rating score = 3.00). Discovering the students’ study habits and perceived level of difficulty of specific topics is vital for the lecturer to offer guidance that leads to higher academic achievement.

Keywords: Biology, Perceived difficulty, Post-secondary, Study habits.

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69 Applying Theory of Perceived Risk and Technology Acceptance Model in the Online Shopping Channel

Authors: Yong-Hui Li, Jing-Wen Huang

Abstract:

As the advancement of technology, online shopping channel develops rapidly in recent years. According to the report of Taiwan Network Information Center, there are almost eighty percents of internet population shopping in online channel. Synthesizing insights from the previous research, this study develops the conceptual model to integrate Theory of Perceived Risk (TPR) and Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to apply in online shopping. Using data collected from 637 respondents from online survey website, we use structural equation modeling to test measurement and structural models. The results suggest the need for consideration of perceived risk as an antecedent in the Technology Acceptance Model. The limitations and implications are discussed.

Keywords: perceived risk, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, behavioral intention, actual purchase behavior

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68 Development of Multimedia Learning Application for Mastery Learning Style: A Graduated Difficulty Strategy

Authors: Nur Azlina Mohamed Mokmin, Mona Masood

Abstract:

Guided by the theory of learning styles, this study is based on the development of a multimedia learning application for students with mastery learning style. The learning material was developed by applying a graduated difficulty learning strategy. Algebra was chosen as the learning topic for this application. The effectiveness of this application in helping students learn is measured by giving a pre- and post-test. The result shows that students who learn using the learning material that matches their preferred learning style perform better than the students with a non-personalized learning material.

Keywords: Algebraic Fractions, Graduated Difficulty, Mastery Learning Style, Multimedia.

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67 Perceived Ease-of-Use and Intention to Use E-Government Services in Ghana: The Moderating Role of Perceived Usefulness

Authors: Isaac Kofi Mensah

Abstract:

Public sector organizations, ministries, departments and local government agencies are adopting e-government as a means to provide efficient and quality service delivery to citizens. The purpose of this research paper is to examine the extent to which perceived usefulness (PU) of e-government services moderates between perceived ease-of-use (PEOU) of e-government services and intention to use (IU) e-government services in Ghana. A structured research questionnaire instrument was developed and administered to 700 potential respondents in Ghana, of which 693 responded, representing 99% of the questionnaires distributed. The Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used as the theoretical framework for the study. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to capture and analyze the data. The results indicate that even though predictors such as PU and PEOU are main determiners of citizens’ intention to adopt and use e-government services in Ghana, it failed to show that PEOU and IU e-government services in Ghana is significantly moderated by the PU of e-government services. The implication of this finding on theory and practice is further discussed.

Keywords: E-government services, intention to use, moderating role, perceived ease-of-use, perceived usefulness, Ghana, technology acceptance model.

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66 A Comparative Analysis of the Perceived Bureaucracy in a Turkish State University

Authors: Ahmet C. Kutlu, Seçkin Polat

Abstract:

Organizational structure of the Turkish state universities is a form of bureaucracy, a high efficient system in rational and formal control. According to the dimensional approach bureaucracy can occur in an organization in a degree, as some bureaucracy characteristics can be stronger than others. In addition, the units of an organization due to their different specific characteristic properties can perceive the bureaucracy differently. In the study, Hall-s Organizational Inventory, which was developed for evaluating the degree of bureaucratization from the dimensional perspective, is used to find out if there is a difference in the perception of the bureaucracy between the academicians working in three different departments and two faculties in the same university.

Keywords: Degree of bureaucratization, Hall's Organizational Inventory, perceived bureaucracy.

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65 Leisure and Perceived Wellness of Nursing Students: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

Authors: Ming-Tsang Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between leisure participation and perceived wellness, with the students of a nursing college in southern Taiwan as the subjects. One thousand six hundred and ninety-six (1,696) surveys were sent, and 1,408 surveys were received for an 83.02% valid response rate. Using canonical correlation analysis to analyze the data, the results showed that the linear combination of the two sets of variable produces five significant canonical variates. Out of the five canonical variates, only the first has sufficient explanatory power. The canonical correlation coefficient of first canonical variate is 0.660. This indicated that leisure participation and perceived wellness are significantly correlated.

Keywords: Leisure, perceived wellness.

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64 Experimental teaching, Perceived usefulness, Ease of use, Learning Interest and Science Achievement of Taiwan 8th Graders in TIMSS 2007 Database

Authors: Pei Wen Liao, Tsung Hau Jen

Abstract:

the data of Taiwanese 8th grader in the 4th cycle of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) are analyzed to examine the influence of the science teachers- preference in experimental teaching on the relationships between the affective variables ( the perceived usefulness of science, ease of using science and science learning interest) and the academic achievement in science. After dealing with the missing data, 3711 students and 145 science teacher-s data were analyzed through a Hierarchical Linear Modeling technique. The major objective of this study was to determine the role of the experimental teaching moderates the relationship between perceived usefulness and achievement.

Keywords: TIMSS database, Science achievement, Experimental teaching, Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use

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63 Investigating the Individual Difference Antecedents of Perceived Enjoyment in the Acceptance of Blogging

Authors: Yi-Shun Wang, Hsin-Hui Lin, Yi-Wen Liao

Abstract:

With the proliferation of Weblogs (blogs) use in educational contexts, gaining a better understanding of why students are willing to utilize blog systems has become an important topic for practitioners and academics. While perceived enjoyment has been found to have a significant influence on behavioral intentions to use blogs or hedonic systems, few studies have investigated the antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. The main purpose of the present study is to explore the individual difference antecedents of perceived enjoyment and examine how they influence behavioral intention to blog through the mediation of perceived enjoyment. Based on the previous literature, the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), as well as computer self-efficacy and personal innovation in information technology (PIIT), are hypothesized as potential antecedents of perceived enjoyment in the acceptance of blogging. Data collected from 358 respondents in Taiwan are tested against the research model using the structural equation modeling approach. The results indicate that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and PIIT have a significant influence on perceived enjoyment, which in turn significantly influences the behavioral intention to blog. These findings lead to several important implications for future research.

Keywords: Individual difference, Big Five personality traits, perceived enjoyment, blogging

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62 Revised Technology Acceptance Model Framework for M-Commerce Adoption

Authors: Manish Gupta

Abstract:

Following the E-Commerce era, M-Commerce is the next big phase in the technology involvement and advancement. This paper intends to explore how Indian consumers are influenced to adopt the M-commerce. In this paper, the revised Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been presented on the basis of the most dominant factors that affect the adoption of M-Commerce in Indian scenario. Furthermore, an analytical questionnaire approach was carried out to collect data from Indian consumers. These collected data were further used for the validation of the presented model. Findings indicate that customization, convenience, instant connectivity, compatibility, security, download speed in M-Commerce affect the adoption behavior. Furthermore, the findings suggest that perceived usefulness and attitude towards M-Commerce are positively influenced by number of M-Commerce drivers (i.e. download speed, compatibility, convenience, security, customization, connectivity, and input mechanism).

Keywords: M-Commerce, perceived usefulness, technology acceptance model, perceived ease of use.

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61 Tourists, on Marine Sport Tourism Attraction, Travel Experiences and Perceived Values

Authors: Hsiao-Ming Chang, Jui-Liang Hsu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the cognitive and travel experience the situation of the tourist attraction of the sport tourism in Penghu. This study used a questionnaires, the main island of Taiwan to Penghu in the way of marine sports tourists adopted the designated convenience sampling method, a total of 1447 valid questionnaires. After statistical analysis, this study found that: 1. Tourists to Penghu sports tourism attraction cognitive as “good air quality, suitable for water activities". 2. Tourists in Penghu's tourism experience, “Let me taste the delicious specialties and snacks". 3. The attraction of the sport tourism, travel experience and perceived value are correlated, and both the perceived value with a high degree of predictive ability. Based on the findings of this study not only for Penghu's tourism industry with the unit in charge of the proposed operating and suggestions for future research to other researchers.

Keywords: Sport tourism, travel experience, perceived value, sport attraction.

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60 The Impact of Recommendation Sources on Online Purchase Intentions: The Moderating Effects of Gender and Perceived Risk

Authors: Chiao-Chen Chang, Yang-Chieh Chin

Abstract:

This study examines the issue of recommendation sources from the perspectives of gender and consumers- perceived risk, and validates a model for the antecedents of consumer online purchases. The method of obtaining quantitative data was that of the instrument of a survey questionnaire. Data were collected via questionnaires from 396 undergraduate students aged 18-24, and a multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify causal relationships. Empirical findings established the link between recommendation sources (word-of-mouth, advertising, and recommendation systems) and the likelihood of making online purchases and demonstrated the role of gender and perceived risk as moderators in this context. The results showed that the effects of word-of-mouth on online purchase intentions were stronger than those of advertising and recommendation systems. In addition, female consumers have less experience with online purchases, so they may be more likely than males to refer to recommendations during the decision-making process. The findings of the study will help marketers to address the recommendation factor which influences consumers- intention to purchase and to improve firm performances to meet consumer needs.

Keywords: Recommendation sources, Online purchaseintentions, Gender differences, Perceived risk.

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59 Food Safety and Perceived Risk: A Case Study of Khao San Road, Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Siripen Yiamjanya, Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

Food safety is an important concern for holiday makers in foreign and unfamiliar tourist destinations. In fact, risk from food in these tourist destinations has an influence on tourist perception. This risk can potentially affect physical health and lead to an inability to pursue planned activities. The objective of this paper was to compare foreign tourists- demographics including gender, age and education level, with the level of perceived risk towards food safety. A total of 222 foreign tourists during their stay at Khao San Road in Bangkok were used as the sample. Independent- samples ttest, analysis of variance, and Least Significant Difference or LSD post hoc test were utilized. The findings revealed that there were few demographic differences in level of perceived risk among the foreign tourists. The post hoc test indicated a significant difference among the old and the young tourists, and between the higher and lower level of education. Ranks of tourists- perceived risk towards food safety unveiled some interesting results. Tourists- perceived risk of food safety in established restaurants can be ranked as i) cleanliness of dining utensils, ii) sanitation of food preparation area, and iii) cleanliness of food seasoning and ingredients. Whereas, the tourists- perceived risk of food safety in street food and drink can be ranked as i) cleanliness of stalls and pushcarts, ii) cleanliness of food sold, and iii) personal hygiene of street food hawkers or vendors.

Keywords: Food Safety, Foreign Tourists, Perceived Risk, Khao San Road.

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58 Study on Evaluating the Utilization of Social Media Tools (SMT) in Collaborative Learning Case Study: Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University

Authors: Vasanthi Muniasamy, Intisar Magboul Ejalani, M. Anandhavalli, K. Gauthaman

Abstract:

Social Media (SM) is websites increasingly popular and built to allow people to express themselves and to interact socially with others. Most SMT are dominated by youth particularly College students. The proliferation of popular social media tools, which can accessed from any communication devices has become pervasive in the lives of today’s student life. Connecting traditional education to social media tools are a relatively new era and any collaborative tool could be used for learning activities. This study focuses (i) how the social media tools are useful for the learning activities of the students of faculty of medicine in King Khalid University (ii) whether the social media affects the collaborative learning with interaction among students, among course instructor, their engagement, perceived ease of use and perceived ease of usefulness (TAM) (iii) overall, the students satisfy with this collaborative learning through Social media.

Keywords: Social Media, Web 2.0, Perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, Collaborative Learning.

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57 Curriculum and Sex-specific Differences in Academic Stress Arising from Perceived Expectations

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas

Abstract:

With the aim of knowing whether curriculum and sex differences exist in academic stress arising from perceived expectations, high school students were asked to respond to the Academic Expectations Stress Inventory (AESI). AESI is a nine-item inventory with two domains, namely: expectations of teachers/parents and expectations of self. Out of the 504 officially enrolled high school students in a state college, 469 responded to the inventory. Responses were analyzed using independent samples ttest. Significant differences were found between the mean scores of the respondents coming from the Science and the Vocational curriculum. The respondents from the Science curriculum consistently registered higher mean scores. Likewise, significant differences were found between the male and the female respondents. The female respondents consistently registered higher mean scores.

Keywords: academic stress, curriculum and sex differences, high school students, perceived expectations

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56 The Role of Brand Loyalty in Generating Positive Word of Mouth among Malaysian Hypermarket Customers

Authors: S. R. Nikhashemi, L. Haj Paim, Ali Khatibi

Abstract:

Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test a hypothesized model explaining Malaysian hypermarket customers’ perceptions of brand trust (BT), customer perceived value (CPV) and perceived service quality (PSQ) on building their brand loyalty (CBL) and generating positive word-of-mouth communication (WOM). Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from 374 Malaysian hypermarket customers from Mydin, Tesco, Aeon Big and Giant in Kuala Lumpur, a metropolitan city of Malaysia. The data strongly supported the model exhibiting that BT, CPV and PSQ are prerequisite factors in building customer brand loyalty, while PSQ has the strongest effect on prediction of customer brand loyalty compared to other factors. Besides, the present study suggests the effect of the aforementioned factors via customer brand loyalty strongly contributes to generate positive word of mouth communication.

Keywords: Brand trust, perceived value, perceived service quality, brand loyalty, positive word of mouth communication.

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55 Perceived Benefits of Technology Enhanced Learning by Learners in Uganda: Three Band Benefits

Authors: Kafuko M. Maria, Namisango Fatuma, Byomire Gorretti

Abstract:

Mobile learning (m-learning) is steadily growing and has undoubtedly derived benefits to learners and tutors in different learning environments. This paper investigates the variation in benefits derived from enhanced classroom learning through use of m-learning platforms in the context of a developing country owing to the fact that it is still in its initial stages. The study focused on how basic technology-enhanced pedagogic innovation like cell phone-based learning is enhancing classroom learning from the learners’ perspective. The paper explicitly indicates the opportunities presented by enhanced learning to a conventional learning environment like a physical classroom. The findings were obtained through a survey of two universities in Uganda in which data was quantitatively collected, analyzed and presented in a three banded diagram depicting the variation in the obtainable benefits. Learners indicated that a smartphone is the most commonly used device. Learners also indicate that straight lectures, student to student plus student to lecturer communication, accessing learning material and assignments are core activities. In a TEL environment support by smartphones, learners indicated that they conveniently achieve the prior activities plus discussions and group work. Learners seemed not attracted to the possibility of using TEL environment to take lectures, as well as make class presentations. The less attractiveness of these two factors may be due to the teacher centered approach commonly applied in the country’s education system.

Keywords: Technology enhanced learning, mobile learning classroom learning, perceived benefits.

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54 Self-Perceived Employability of Students of International Relations of University of Warmia and Mazury in Poland

Authors: Marzena Świgoń

Abstract:

Nowadays, graduates should be prepared for serious challenges in the internal and external labor market. The notion that a degree is a “passport to employment” has been relegated to the past. In the last few years a phenomenon in the form of the increasing unemployment of highly educated young people in EU countries, including Poland has been observed. Empirical studies were conducted among Polish students in the scope of the so-called self-perceived employability review. In this study, a special scale was used which consisted of 19 statements regarding five components: student’s perception of university; field of study; self-belief; state of the external labor market; and, personal knowledge management. The respondent group consisted of final-year master’s students of International Relations at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. The findings of the empirical studies were compiled using statistical methods: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. In general, in light of the conducted studies, the self-perceived employability of the Polish students was not high. Limitations of the studies were discussed, as well as the implications for future research in the scope of the students’ employability.

Keywords: Self-perceived employability, students of international relations, university education.

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53 The Effect of Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Identification

Authors: A. Çelik, M. Findik

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to determine the effects of perceived organizational support on organizational identification. In accordance with this purpose was applied on 131 family physicians in Konya. The data obtained by means of the survey method were analyzed. According to the results of correlation analysis, while positive relationship between perceived organizational support, organizational identification and supervisor support was revealed. Also, with the scope of the research, relationships between these variables and certain demographic variables were detected. According to difference analysis results of the research, significant differences between organizational identification and gender variable were determined. However, significant differences were not determined between demographic variables and perceived organizational support.

Keywords: Family Physicians, Organizational Identification, Perceived Organizational Support, Supervisor Support

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52 Stress, Perceived Social Support, Coping Capability and Depression: A Study of Local and Foreign Students in the Malaysian Context

Authors: Shamirah-Farah Faleel, Cai-Lian Tam, Teck-Heang Lee, Wai-Mun Har, Yie-Chu Foo

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of perceived social support and stress on the coping capability and level of depression of foreign and local students in Malaysia. Using convenience sampling, 200 students from three universities in Selangor, Malaysia participated in the study. The results of this study revealed that there was a significant relationship between perceived social support and coping capability. It is also found that there is a negative relationship between coping capability and depression. Further, stress and depression are positively related whereas stress and coping capability are negatively related. Lastly, there is no significant difference for the stress level and coping capability amongst local and foreign students.

Keywords: Coping capability, depression, perceived social support, stress.

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51 A Study of the Role of Perceived Risk and User Characteristics in Internet Purchase Intention

Authors: Ali Hajiha, Farhad Ghaffari, Nooshin Gholamali Tehrani

Abstract:

This study aims at investigating the empirical relationships between risk preference, internet preference, and internet knowledge which are known as user characteristics, in addition to perceived risk of the customers on the internet purchase intention. In order to test the relationships between the variables of model 174, a questionnaire was collected from the students with previous online experience. For the purpose of data analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation model (SEM) was used. Test results show that the perceived risk affects the internet purchase intention, and increase or decrease of perceived risk influences the purchase intention when the customer does the internet shopping. Other factors such as internet preference, knowledge of the internet, and risk preference affect the internet purchase intention.

Keywords: Perceived risk, Internet preference, Internetknowledge, Risk preference, Internet purchase intention

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50 Evaluation of Fitts’ Law Index of Difficulty Formulation for Screen Size Variations

Authors: Hidehiko Okada, Takayuki Akiba

Abstract:

It is well-known as Fitts’ law that the time for a user to point a target on a GUI screen can be modeled as a linear function of “index of difficulty (ID).” In this paper, the authors investigate whether the traditional ID formulation is appropriate independently of device screen sizes. Result of our experiment reveals that the ID formulation may not consistently capture actual difficulty: users’ pointing performances are not consistent among pointing target variations of which index of difficulty are consistent. The term A/W may not be appropriate because the term causes the observed inconsistency. Based on this finding, the authors then evaluate the applicability of possible models other than Fitts’ one. Multiple regression models are found to be able to appropriately represent the effects of target design variations. The authors next make an attempt to improve the definition of ID in Fitts’ model. Our idea is to raise the size or the distance values depending on the screen size. The modified model is found to fit well to the users’ pointing data, which supports the idea. 

Keywords: Fitts’ law, pointing device, small screen, touch user interface, usability.

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49 The Relationship of Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Stress, Religious Coping with Psychological Distress among Afghan Students

Authors: Mustafa Jahanara

Abstract:

The aim of present research was to study of the relationship between emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping with psychological distress to in a sample of undergraduate students in Polytechnic University in Kabul. One hundred and fifty-tow students (102 male, 50 female) were included in this study. All participants completed the Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), and the Brief RCOPE. The results revealed that EI was negatively associated with perceived stress and psychological distress. Also emotional intelligence was positively correlated with positive religious coping. Perceived stress was positive related with psychological distress and negatively correlated with positive religious coping. Eventually positive religious coping was significantly and negatively correlated with psychological distress. However, emotional intelligence and positive religious coping could influence on mental health.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence, perceived stress, positive religious coping, psychological distress.

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48 Anti-Money Laundering Requirements – Perceived Effectiveness

Authors: C. C. Huang, M. S. Amirrudin, N. A. Ahamad Noruddin, R. Othman

Abstract:

Anti-money laundering is commonly recognized as a set of procedures, laws or regulations designed to reduce the practice of generating income through illegal actions. In Malaysia, the government and law enforcement agencies have stepped up their capacities and efforts to curb money laundering since 2001. One of these measures was the enactment of the Anti-Money Laundering Act (AMLA) in 2001. The implementation costs on anti-money laundering requirements (AMLR) can be burdensome to those who are involved in enforcing them. The objective of this paper is to explore the perceived effectiveness of AMLR from the enforcement agencies- perspective. This is a preliminary study whose findings will help to give direction for further AML research in Malaysia. In addition, the results of this study provide empirical evidences on the perceived effectiveness of AMLR prior to further investigations on barriers and improvements of the implementation of the anti-money laundering regime in Malaysia.

Keywords: Anti-money laundering, anti-money laundering requirements, perceived effectiveness, enforcement agencies.

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47 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support, Abusive Supervision, and Exchange Ideology on Employees- Task Performance

Authors: Seung Yeon Son, Heetae Park, Soojin Lee, Seckyoung Loretta Kim, Dongkyu Kim, Seokhwa Yun

Abstract:

Employee-s task performance has been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of task performance is one of the most important research issues. This study tests the influence of perceived organizational support, abusive supervision, and exchange ideology on employee-s task performance. We examined our hypotheses by collecting self-reported data from 413 Korean employees in different organizations. Our all hypotheses gained support from the results. Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords: Abusive supervision, exchange ideology, perceived organizational support, task performance.

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46 Functional Decomposition Based Effort Estimation Model for Software-Intensive Systems

Authors: Nermin Sökmen

Abstract:

An effort estimation model is needed for softwareintensive projects that consist of hardware, embedded software or some combination of the two, as well as high level software solutions. This paper first focuses on functional decomposition techniques to measure functional complexity of a computer system and investigates its impact on system development effort. Later, it examines effects of technical difficulty and design team capability factors in order to construct the best effort estimation model. With using traditional regression analysis technique, the study develops a system development effort estimation model which takes functional complexity, technical difficulty and design team capability factors as input parameters. Finally, the assumptions of the model are tested.

Keywords: Functional complexity, functional decomposition, development effort, technical difficulty, design team capability, regression analysis.

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45 The Effects of Perceived Organizational Support and Abusive Supervision on Employee’s Turnover Intention: The Mediating Roles of Psychological Contract and Emotional Exhaustion

Authors: Seung Yeon Son

Abstract:

Workers (especially, competent personnel) have been recognized as a core contributor to overall organizational effectiveness. Hence, verifying the determinants of turnover intention is one of the most important research issues. This study tested the influence of perceived organizational support and abusive supervision on employee’s turnover intention. In addition, mediating roles of psychological contract and emotional exhaustion were examined. Data from 255 Korean employees supported all hypotheses Implications for research and directions for future research are discussed.

 

Keywords: Abusive Supervision, Emotional Exhaustion, Perceived Organizational Support, Psychological Contract, Turnover Intention.

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44 Great Powers’ Proxy Wars in Middle East and Difficulty in Transition from Cold War to Cold Peace

Authors: Arash Sharghi, Irina Dotu

Abstract:

The developments in the Middle East region have activated the involvement of a numerous diverse state and non-state actors in the regional affairs. The goals, positions, ideologies, different, and even contrast policy behaviors had procured the spreading and continuity of crisis. Non-state actors varying from Islamic organizations to takfiri-terrorist movements on one hand and regional and trans- regional actors, from another side, seek to reach their interests in the power struggle. Here, a research worthy question comes on the agenda: taking into consideration actors’ contradictory interests and constraints what are the regional peace and stability perspectives? Therein, different actors’ aims definition, their actions and behaviors, which affect instability, can be regarded as independent variables; whereas, on the contrary, Middle East peace and stability perspective analysis is a dependent variable. Though, this regional peace and war theory based research admits the significant influence of trans-regional actors, it asserts the roots of violence to derive from region itself. Consequently, hot war and conflict prevention and hot peace assurance in the Middle East region cannot be attained only by demands and approaches of trans-regional actors. Moreover, capacity of trans-regional actors is sufficient only for a cold war or cold peace to be reached in the region. Furthermore, within the framework of current conflict (struggle) between regional actors it seems to be difficult and even impossible to turn the cold war into a cold peace in the region.

Keywords: Cold peace, cold war, hot war, Middle East, non-state actors, regional and Great powers, war theory.

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43 Community Behaviour and Support towards Island Tourism Development

Authors: Mohd Hafiz Hanafiah, Mohamad Abdullah Hemdi

Abstract:

The tourism industry has been widely used to eradicate poverty, due to the ability to generate income, employment as well as improving the quality of life. The industry has faced rapid growth with support from local residents who were involved directly and indirectly in tourism activities. Their support and behaviour does not only facilitate in boosting tourists’ satisfaction levels, but at the same time it contributes to the word-of-mouth promotion among the visitors. In order to ensure the success of the industry, the involvement and participation of the local communities are pertinent. This paper endeavours on local community attitudes, benefit and their support toward future tourism development in Tioman Island. Through a series of descriptive and factor analyses, various useful understandings on the issues of interest revealed. The findings indicated that community with personal benefit will support future development. Meanwhile, the finding also revealed that the community with negative perception still supports future tourism development due to their over reliance on this sector as their main source of income and destination development means.

Keywords: Personal benefit, perceived impact, future attitudes.

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42 The Influence of Travel Experience within Perceived Public Transport Quality

Authors: Armando Cartenì, Ilaria Henke

Abstract:

The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by passengers. Among the “traditional” public transport quality attributes there are, for example: travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, and ticket price. By contrast, there are some “non-conventional” attributes that could significantly influence customer satisfaction jointly with the “traditional” ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how munch) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a “long trip” (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as “low” the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the “short trip” passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if confirmed through other case studies, will allow to conclude that the “travel experience impact" must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.

Keywords: Transportation planning, sustainable mobility, decision support system, discrete choice model, design problem.

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41 Online Collaboration Learning: A Way to Enhance Students' Achievement at Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Jaflah H. Al-Ammary

Abstract:

The increasing recognition of the need for education to be closely aligned with team playing, project based learning and problem solving approaches has increase the interest in collaborative learning among university and college instructors. Using online collaboration learning in learning can enhance the outcome and achievement of students as well as improve their communication, critical thinking and personnel skills. The current research aims at examining the effect of OCL on the student's achievement at Kingdom of Bahrain. Numbers of objectives were set to achieve the aim of the research include: investigating the current situation regarding the collaborative learning and OCL at the Kingdom of Bahrain by identifying the advantages and effectiveness of OCL as a learning tool over traditional learning, examining the factors that affect OCL as well as examining the impact of OCL on the student's achievement. To achieve these objectives, quantitative method was adopted. Two hundred and thirty one questionnaires were distributed to students in different local and private universities at Kingdom of Bahrain. The findings of the research show that most of the students prefer to use FTFCL in learning and that OCL is already adopted in some universities especially in University of Bahrain. Moreover, the most factors affecting the adopted OCL are perceived readiness, and guidance and support.

Keywords: Collaborative learning, perceived readiness, student achievement.

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