Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 135

Search results for: pixels.

135 A Novel Digital Watermarking Technique Basedon ISB (Intermediate Significant Bit)

Authors: Akram M. Zeki, Azizah A. Manaf

Abstract:

Least Significant Bit (LSB) technique is the earliest developed technique in watermarking and it is also the most simple, direct and common technique. It essentially involves embedding the watermark by replacing the least significant bit of the image data with a bit of the watermark data. The disadvantage of LSB is that it is not robust against attacks. In this study intermediate significant bit (ISB) has been used in order to improve the robustness of the watermarking system. The aim of this model is to replace the watermarked image pixels by new pixels that can protect the watermark data against attacks and at the same time keeping the new pixels very close to the original pixels in order to protect the quality of watermarked image. The technique is based on testing the value of the watermark pixel according to the range of each bit-plane.

Keywords: Watermarking, LSB, ISB, Robustness.

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134 Edge-end Pixel Extraction for Edge-based Image Segmentation

Authors: Mahinda P. Pathegama, Özdemir Göl

Abstract:

Extraction of edge-end-pixels is an important step for the edge linking process to achieve edge-based image segmentation. This paper presents an algorithm to extract edge-end pixels together with their directional sensitivities as an augmentation to the currently available mathematical models. The algorithm is implemented in the Java environment because of its inherent compatibility with web interfaces since its main use is envisaged to be for remote image analysis on a virtual instrumentation platform.

Keywords: edge-end pixels, image processing, imagesegmentation, pixel extraction

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133 Color Image Edge Detection using Pseudo-Complement and Matrix Operations

Authors: T. N. Janakiraman, P. V. S. S. R. Chandra Mouli

Abstract:

A color image edge detection algorithm is proposed in this paper using Pseudo-complement and matrix rotation operations. First, pseudo-complement method is applied on the image for each channel. Then, matrix operations are applied on the output image of the first stage. Dominant pixels are obtained by image differencing between the pseudo-complement image and the matrix operated image. Median filtering is carried out to smoothen the image thereby removing the isolated pixels. Finally, the dominant or core pixels occurring in at least two channels are selected. On plotting the selected edge pixels, the final edge map of the given color image is obtained. The algorithm is also tested in HSV and YCbCr color spaces. Experimental results on both synthetic and real world images show that the accuracy of the proposed method is comparable to other color edge detectors. All the proposed procedures can be applied to any image domain and runs in polynomial time.

Keywords: Color edge detection, dominant pixels, matrixrotation/shift operations, pseudo-complement.

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132 A new Adaptive Approach for Histogram based Mouth Segmentation

Authors: Axel Panning, Robert Niese, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Bernd Michaelis

Abstract:

The segmentation of mouth and lips is a fundamental problem in facial image analyisis. In this paper we propose a method for lip segmentation based on rg-color histogram. Statistical analysis shows, using the rg-color-space is optimal for this purpose of a pure color based segmentation. Initially a rough adaptive threshold selects a histogram region, that assures that all pixels in that region are skin pixels. Based on that pixels we build a gaussian model which represents the skin pixels distribution and is utilized to obtain a refined, optimal threshold. We are not incorporating shape or edge information. In experiments we show the performance of our lip pixel segmentation method compared to the ground truth of our dataset and a conventional watershed algorithm.

Keywords: Feature extraction, Segmentation, Image processing, Application

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131 Precise Measurement of Displacement using Pixels

Authors: Razif Mahadi, John Billingsley

Abstract:

Manufacturing processes demand tight dimensional tolerances. The paper concerns a transducer for precise measurement of displacement, based on a camera containing a linescan chip. When tests were conducted using a track of black and white stripes with a 2mm pitch, errors in measuring on individual cycle amounted to 1.75%, suggesting that a precision of 35 microns is achievable.

Keywords: Linescan, microcontroller, pixels.

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130 Image Mapping with Cumulative Distribution Function for Quick Convergence of Counter Propagation Neural Networks in Image Compression

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Counter Propagation Neural Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is that the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbor with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative Distribution Function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used the Counter Propagation Neural Network yield high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Correlation, Counter Propagation Neural Networks, Cummulative Distribution Function, Image compression.

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129 A New Image Encryption Approach using Combinational Permutation Techniques

Authors: A. Mitra, Y. V. Subba Rao, S. R. M. Prasanna

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach for image encryption using a combination of different permutation techniques. The main idea behind the present work is that an image can be viewed as an arrangement of bits, pixels and blocks. The intelligible information present in an image is due to the correlations among the bits, pixels and blocks in a given arrangement. This perceivable information can be reduced by decreasing the correlation among the bits, pixels and blocks using certain permutation techniques. This paper presents an approach for a random combination of the aforementioned permutations for image encryption. From the results, it is observed that the permutation of bits is effective in significantly reducing the correlation thereby decreasing the perceptual information, whereas the permutation of pixels and blocks are good at producing higher level security compared to bit permutation. A random combination method employing all the three techniques thus is observed to be useful for tactical security applications, where protection is needed only against a casual observer.

Keywords: Encryption, Permutation, Good key, Combinationalpermutation, Pseudo random index generator.

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128 Subpixel Detection of Circular Objects Using Geometric Property

Authors: Wen-Yen Wu, Wen-Bin Yu

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a method for detecting circular shapes with subpixel accuracy. First, the geometric properties of circles have been used to find the diameters as well as the circumference pixels. The center and radius are then estimated by the circumference pixels. Both synthetic and real images have been tested by the proposed method. The experimental results show that the new method is efficient.

Keywords: Subpixel, least squares estimation, circle detection, Hough transformation.

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127 Robust Statistics Based Algorithm to Remove Salt and Pepper Noise in Images

Authors: V.R.Vijaykumar, P.T.Vanathi, P.Kanagasabapathy, D.Ebenezer

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust statistics based filter to remove salt and pepper noise in digital images is presented. The function of the algorithm is to detect the corrupted pixels first since the impulse noise only affect certain pixels in the image and the remaining pixels are uncorrupted. The corrupted pixels are replaced by an estimated value using the proposed robust statistics based filter. The proposed method perform well in removing low to medium density impulse noise with detail preservation upto a noise density of 70% compared to standard median filter, weighted median filter, recursive weighted median filter, progressive switching median filter, signal dependent rank ordered mean filter, adaptive median filter and recently proposed decision based algorithm. The visual and quantitative results show the proposed algorithm outperforms in restoring the original image with superior preservation of edges and better suppression of impulse noise

Keywords: Image denoising, Nonlinear filter, Robust Statistics, and Salt and Pepper Noise.

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126 A Differential Calculus Based Image Steganography with Crossover

Authors: Srilekha Mukherjee, Subha Ash, Goutam Sanyal

Abstract:

Information security plays a major role in uplifting the standard of secured communications via global media. In this paper, we have suggested a technique of encryption followed by insertion before transmission. Here, we have implemented two different concepts to carry out the above-specified tasks. We have used a two-point crossover technique of the genetic algorithm to facilitate the encryption process. For each of the uniquely identified rows of pixels, different mathematical methodologies are applied for several conditions checking, in order to figure out all the parent pixels on which we perform the crossover operation. This is done by selecting two crossover points within the pixels thereby producing the newly encrypted child pixels, and hence the encrypted cover image. In the next lap, the first and second order derivative operators are evaluated to increase the security and robustness. The last lap further ensures reapplication of the crossover procedure to form the final stego-image. The complexity of this system as a whole is huge, thereby dissuading the third party interferences. Also, the embedding capacity is very high. Therefore, a larger amount of secret image information can be hidden. The imperceptible vision of the obtained stego-image clearly proves the proficiency of this approach.

Keywords: Steganography, Crossover, Differential Calculus, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Cross-correlation Coefficient.

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125 A New Method in Detection of Ceramic Tiles Color Defects Using Genetic C-Means Algorithm

Authors: Mahkameh S. Mostafavi

Abstract:

In this paper an algorithm is used to detect the color defects of ceramic tiles. First the image of a normal tile is clustered using GCMA; Genetic C-means Clustering Algorithm; those results in best cluster centers. C-means is a common clustering algorithm which optimizes an objective function, based on a measure between data points and the cluster centers in the data space. Here the objective function describes the mean square error. After finding the best centers, each pixel of the image is assigned to the cluster with closest cluster center. Then, the maximum errors of clusters are computed. For each cluster, max error is the maximum distance between its center and all the pixels which belong to it. After computing errors all the pixels of defected tile image are clustered based on the centers obtained from normal tile image in previous stage. Pixels which their distance from their cluster center is more than the maximum error of that cluster are considered as defected pixels.

Keywords: C-Means algorithm, color spaces, Genetic Algorithm, image clustering.

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124 Adaptive Non-linear Filtering Technique for Image Restoration

Authors: S. K. Satpathy, S. Panda, K. K. Nagwanshi, S. K. Nayak, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Removing noise from the any processed images is very important. Noise should be removed in such a way that important information of image should be preserved. A decisionbased nonlinear algorithm for elimination of band lines, drop lines, mark, band lost and impulses in images is presented in this paper. The algorithm performs two simultaneous operations, namely, detection of corrupted pixels and evaluation of new pixels for replacing the corrupted pixels. Removal of these artifacts is achieved without damaging edges and details. However, the restricted window size renders median operation less effective whenever noise is excessive in that case the proposed algorithm automatically switches to mean filtering. The performance of the algorithm is analyzed in terms of Mean Square Error [MSE], Peak-Signal-to-Noise Ratio [PSNR], Signal-to-Noise Ratio Improved [SNRI], Percentage Of Noise Attenuated [PONA], and Percentage Of Spoiled Pixels [POSP]. This is compared with standard algorithms already in use and improved performance of the proposed algorithm is presented. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is that a single algorithm can replace several independent algorithms which are required for removal of different artifacts.

Keywords: Filtering, Decision Based Algorithm, noise, imagerestoration.

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123 A Sub Pixel Resolution Method

Authors: S. Khademi, A. Darudi, Z. Abbasi

Abstract:

One of the main limitations for the resolution of optical instruments is the size of the sensor-s pixels. In this paper we introduce a new sub pixel resolution algorithm to enhance the resolution of images. This method is based on the analysis of multiimages which are fast recorded during the fine relative motion of image and pixel arrays of CCDs. It is shown that by applying this method for a sample noise free image one will enhance the resolution with 10-14 order of error.

Keywords: Sub Pixel Resolution, Moving Pixels, CCD, Image, Optical Instrument.

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122 Real-time Tracking in Image Sequences based-on Parameters Updating with Temporal and Spatial Neighborhoods Mixture Gaussian Model

Authors: Hu Haibo, Zhao Hong

Abstract:

Gaussian mixture background model is widely used in moving target detection of the image sequences. However, traditional Gaussian mixture background model usually considers the time continuity of the pixels, and establishes background through statistical distribution of pixels without taking into account the pixels- spatial similarity, which will cause noise, imperfection and other problems. This paper proposes a new Gaussian mixture modeling approach, which combines the color and gradient of the spatial information, and integrates the spatial information of the pixel sequences to establish Gaussian mixture background. The experimental results show that the movement background can be extracted accurately and efficiently, and the algorithm is more robust, and can work in real time in tracking applications.

Keywords: Gaussian mixture model, real-time tracking, sequence image, gradient.

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121 Adaptive Weighted Averaging Filter Using the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames

Authors: Mahmoud Saeidi, Ali Nazemipour

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel adaptive spatiotemporal filter that utilizes image sequences in order to remove noise. The consecutive frames include: current, previous and next noisy frames. The filter proposed in this paper is based upon the weighted averaging pixels intensity and noise variance in image sequences. It utilizes the Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames (ANCF) based on the noisy pixels intensity among the frames. The number of consecutive frames is adaptively calculated for each region in image and its value may change from one region to another region depending on the pixels intensity within the region. The weights are determined by a well-defined mathematical criterion, which is adaptive to the feature of spatiotemporal pixels of the consecutive frames. It is experimentally shown that the proposed filter can preserve image structures and edges under motion while suppressing noise, and thus can be effectively used in image sequences filtering. In addition, the AWA filter using ANCF is particularly well suited for filtering sequences that contain segments with abruptly changing scene content due to, for example, rapid zooming and changes in the view of the camera.

Keywords: Appropriate Number of Consecutive Frames, Adaptive Weighted Averaging, Motion Estimation, Noise Variance, Motion Compensation

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120 Influence of Ambiguity Cluster on Quality Improvement in Image Compression

Authors: Safaa Al-Ali, Ahmad Shahin, Fadi Chakik

Abstract:

Image coding based on clustering provides immediate access to targeted features of interest in a high quality decoded image. This approach is useful for intelligent devices, as well as for multimedia content-based description standards. The result of image clustering cannot be precise in some positions especially on pixels with edge information which produce ambiguity among the clusters. Even with a good enhancement operator based on PDE, the quality of the decoded image will highly depend on the clustering process. In this paper, we introduce an ambiguity cluster in image coding to represent pixels with vagueness properties. The presence of such cluster allows preserving some details inherent to edges as well for uncertain pixels. It will also be very useful during the decoding phase in which an anisotropic diffusion operator, such as Perona-Malik, enhances the quality of the restored image. This work also offers a comparative study to demonstrate the effectiveness of a fuzzy clustering technique in detecting the ambiguity cluster without losing lot of the essential image information. Several experiments have been carried out to demonstrate the usefulness of ambiguity concept in image compression. The coding results and the performance of the proposed algorithms are discussed in terms of the peak signal-tonoise ratio and the quantity of ambiguous pixels.

Keywords: Ambiguity Cluster, Anisotropic Diffusion, Fuzzy Clustering, Image Compression.

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119 Image Compression with Back-Propagation Neural Network using Cumulative Distribution Function

Authors: S. Anna Durai, E. Anna Saro

Abstract:

Image Compression using Artificial Neural Networks is a topic where research is being carried out in various directions towards achieving a generalized and economical network. Feedforward Networks using Back propagation Algorithm adopting the method of steepest descent for error minimization is popular and widely adopted and is directly applied to image compression. Various research works are directed towards achieving quick convergence of the network without loss of quality of the restored image. In general the images used for compression are of different types like dark image, high intensity image etc. When these images are compressed using Back-propagation Network, it takes longer time to converge. The reason for this is, the given image may contain a number of distinct gray levels with narrow difference with their neighborhood pixels. If the gray levels of the pixels in an image and their neighbors are mapped in such a way that the difference in the gray levels of the neighbors with the pixel is minimum, then compression ratio as well as the convergence of the network can be improved. To achieve this, a Cumulative distribution function is estimated for the image and it is used to map the image pixels. When the mapped image pixels are used, the Back-propagation Neural Network yields high compression ratio as well as it converges quickly.

Keywords: Back-propagation Neural Network, Cumulative Distribution Function, Correlation, Convergence.

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118 Comparing Hilditch, Rosenfeld, Zhang-Suen,and Nagendraprasad -Wang-Gupta Thinning

Authors: Anastasia Rita Widiarti

Abstract:

This paper compares Hilditch, Rosenfeld, Zhang- Suen, dan Nagendraprasad Wang Gupta (NWG) thinning algorithms for Javanese character image recognition. Thinning is an effective process when the focus in not on the size of the pattern, but rather on the relative position of the strokes in the pattern. The research analyzes the thinning of 60 Javanese characters. Time-wise, Zhang-Suen algorithm gives the best results with the average process time being 0.00455188 seconds. But if we look at the percentage of pixels that meet one-pixel thickness, Rosenfelt algorithm gives the best results, with a 99.98% success rate. From the number of pixels that are erased, NWG algorithm gives the best results with the average number of pixels erased being 84.12%. It can be concluded that the Hilditch algorithm performs least successfully compared to the other three algorithms.

Keywords: Hilditch algorithm, Nagendraprasad-Wang-Guptaalgorithm, Rosenfeld algorithm, Thinning, Zhang-suen algorithm

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117 A New Fast Skin Color Detection Technique

Authors: Tarek M. Mahmoud

Abstract:

Skin color can provide a useful and robust cue for human-related image analysis, such as face detection, pornographic image filtering, hand detection and tracking, people retrieval in databases and Internet, etc. The major problem of such kinds of skin color detection algorithms is that it is time consuming and hence cannot be applied to a real time system. To overcome this problem, we introduce a new fast technique for skin detection which can be applied in a real time system. In this technique, instead of testing each image pixel to label it as skin or non-skin (as in classic techniques), we skip a set of pixels. The reason of the skipping process is the high probability that neighbors of the skin color pixels are also skin pixels, especially in adult images and vise versa. The proposed method can rapidly detect skin and non-skin color pixels, which in turn dramatically reduce the CPU time required for the protection process. Since many fast detection techniques are based on image resizing, we apply our proposed pixel skipping technique with image resizing to obtain better results. The performance evaluation of the proposed skipping and hybrid techniques in terms of the measured CPU time is presented. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods achieve better result than the relevant classic method.

Keywords: Adult images filtering, image resizing, skin color detection, YcbCr color space.

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116 Self Watermarking based on Visual Cryptography

Authors: Mahmoud A. Hassan, Mohammed A. Khalili

Abstract:

We are proposing a simple watermarking method based on visual cryptography. The method is based on selection of specific pixels from the original image instead of random selection of pixels as per Hwang [1] paper. Verification information is generated which will be used to verify the ownership of the image without the need to embed the watermark pattern into the original digital data. Experimental results show the proposed method can recover the watermark pattern from the marked data even if some changes are made to the original digital data.

Keywords: Watermarking, visual cryptography, visualthreshold.

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115 Gray Level Image Encryption

Authors: Roza Afarin, Saeed Mozaffari

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is image encryption using Genetic Algorithm (GA). The proposed encryption method consists of two phases. In modification phase, pixels locations are altered to reduce correlation among adjacent pixels. Then, pixels values are changed in the diffusion phase to encrypt the input image. Both phases are performed by GA with binary chromosomes. For modification phase, these binary patterns are generated by Local Binary Pattern (LBP) operator while for diffusion phase binary chromosomes are obtained by Bit Plane Slicing (BPS). Initial population in GA includes rows and columns of the input image. Instead of subjective selection of parents from this initial population, a random generator with predefined key is utilized. It is necessary to decrypt the coded image and reconstruct the initial input image. Fitness function is defined as average of transition from 0 to 1 in LBP image and histogram uniformity in modification and diffusion phases, respectively. Randomness of the encrypted image is measured by entropy, correlation coefficients and histogram analysis. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast enough and can be used effectively for image encryption.

Keywords: Correlation coefficients, Genetic algorithm, Image encryption, Image entropy.

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114 Random Subspace Neural Classifier for Meteor Recognition in the Night Sky

Authors: Carlos Vera, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul, Graciela Velasco, Miguel Aparicio

Abstract:

This article describes the Random Subspace Neural Classifier (RSC) for the recognition of meteors in the night sky. We used images of meteors entering the atmosphere at night between 8:00 p.m.-5: 00 a.m. The objective of this project is to classify meteor and star images (with stars as the image background). The monitoring of the sky and the classification of meteors are made for future applications by scientists. The image database was collected from different websites. We worked with RGB-type images with dimensions of 220x220 pixels stored in the BitMap Protocol (BMP) format. Subsequent window scanning and processing were carried out for each image. The scan window where the characteristics were extracted had the size of 20x20 pixels with a scanning step size of 10 pixels. Brightness, contrast and contour orientation histograms were used as inputs for the RSC. The RSC worked with two classes and classified into: 1) with meteors and 2) without meteors. Different tests were carried out by varying the number of training cycles and the number of images for training and recognition. The percentage error for the neural classifier was calculated. The results show a good RSC classifier response with 89% correct recognition. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: Contour orientation histogram, meteors, night sky, RSC neural classifier, stars.

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113 Image Clustering Framework for BAVM Segmentation in 3DRA Images: Performance Analysis

Authors: FH. Sarieddeen, R. El Berbari, S. Imad, J. Abdel Baki, M. Hamad, R. Blanc, A. Nakib, Y.Chenoune

Abstract:

Brain ArterioVenous Malformation (BAVM) is an abnormal tangle of brain blood vessels where arteries shunt directly into veins with no intervening capillary bed which causes high pressure and hemorrhage risk. The success of treatment by embolization in interventional neuroradiology is highly dependent on the accuracy of the vessels visualization. In this paper the performance of clustering techniques on vessel segmentation from 3- D rotational angiography (3DRA) images is investigated and a new technique of segmentation is proposed. This method consists in: preprocessing step of image enhancement, then K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering are used to separate vessel pixels from background and artery pixels from vein pixels when possible. A post processing step of removing false-alarm components is applied before constructing a three-dimensional volume of the vessels. The proposed method was tested on six datasets along with a medical assessment of an expert. Obtained results showed encouraging segmentations.

Keywords: Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM), 3-D rotational angiography (3DRA), K-Means (KM) clustering, Fuzzy CMeans (FCM) clustering, Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering, volume rendering.

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112 2D Rigid Registration of MR Scans using the 1d Binary Projections

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas

Abstract:

This paper presents the application of a signal intensity independent registration criterion for 2D rigid body registration of medical images using 1D binary projections. The criterion is defined as the weighted ratio of two projections. The ratio is computed on a pixel per pixel basis and weighting is performed by setting the ratios between one and zero pixels to a standard high value. The mean squared value of the weighted ratio is computed over the union of the one areas of the two projections and it is minimized using the Chebyshev polynomial approximation using n=5 points. The sum of x and y projections is used for translational adjustment and a 45deg projection for rotational adjustment. 20 T1- T2 registration experiments were performed and gave mean errors 1.19deg and 1.78 pixels. The method is suitable for contour/surface matching. Further research is necessary to determine the robustness of the method with regards to threshold, shape and missing data.

Keywords: Medical image, projections, registration, rigid.

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111 Fast Document Segmentation Using Contourand X-Y Cut Technique

Authors: Boontee Kruatrachue, Narongchai Moongfangklang, Kritawan Siriboon

Abstract:

This paper describes fast and efficient method for page segmentation of document containing nonrectangular block. The segmentation is based on edge following algorithm using small window of 16 by 32 pixels. This segmentation is very fast since only border pixels of paragraph are used without scanning the whole page. Still, the segmentation may contain error if the space between them is smaller than the window used in edge following. Consequently, this paper reduce this error by first identify the missed segmentation point using direction information in edge following then, using X-Y cut at the missed segmentation point to separate the connected columns. The advantage of the proposed method is the fast identification of missed segmentation point. This methodology is faster with fewer overheads than other algorithms that need to access much more pixel of a document.

Keywords: Contour Direction Technique, Missed SegmentationPoints, Page Segmentation, Recursive X-Y Cut Technique

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110 Automatic Authentication of Handwritten Documents via Low Density Pixel Measurements

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Pranab Kumar Banerjee, C. Ardil

Abstract:

We introduce an effective approach for automatic offline au- thentication of handwritten samples where the forgeries are skillfully done, i.e., the true and forgery sample appearances are almost alike. Subtle details of temporal information used in online verification are not available offline and are also hard to recover robustly. Thus the spatial dynamic information like the pen-tip pressure characteristics are considered, emphasizing on the extraction of low density pixels. The points result from the ballistic rhythm of a genuine signature which a forgery, however skillful that may be, always lacks. Ten effective features, including these low density points and den- sity ratio, are proposed to make the distinction between a true and a forgery sample. An adaptive decision criteria is also derived for better verification judgements.

Keywords: Handwritten document verification, Skilled forgeries, Low density pixels, Adaptive decision boundary.

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109 Investigating Polynomial Interpolation Functions for Zooming Low Resolution Digital Medical Images

Authors: Maninder Pal

Abstract:

Medical digital images usually have low resolution because of nature of their acquisition. Therefore, this paper focuses on zooming these images to obtain better level of information, required for the purpose of medical diagnosis. For this purpose, a strategy for selecting pixels in zooming operation is proposed. It is based on the principle of analog clock and utilizes a combination of point and neighborhood image processing. In this approach, the hour hand of clock covers the portion of image to be processed. For alignment, the center of clock points at middle pixel of the selected portion of image. The minute hand is longer in length, and is used to gain information about pixels of the surrounding area. This area is called neighborhood pixels region. This information is used to zoom the selected portion of the image. The proposed algorithm is implemented and its performance is evaluated for many medical images obtained from various sources such as X-ray, Computerized Tomography (CT) scan and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). However, for illustration and simplicity, the results obtained from a CT scanned image of head is presented. The performance of algorithm is evaluated in comparison to various traditional algorithms in terms of Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), maximum error, SSIM index, mutual information and processing time. From the results, the proposed algorithm is found to give better performance than traditional algorithms.

Keywords: Zooming, interpolation, medical images, resolution.

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108 Rigid Registration of Reduced Dimension Images using 1D Binary Projections

Authors: Panos D. Kotsas, Tony Dodd

Abstract:

The purpose of this work is to present a method for rigid registration of medical images using 1D binary projections when a part of one of the two images is missing. We use 1D binary projections and we adjust the projection limits according to the reduced image in order to perform accurate registration. We use the variance of the weighted ratio as a registration function which we have shown is able to register 2D and 3D images more accurately and robustly than mutual information methods. The function is computed explicitly for n=5 Chebyshev points in a [-9,+9] interval and it is approximated using Chebyshev polynomials for all other points. The images used are MR scans of the head. We find that the method is able to register the two images with average accuracy 0.3degrees for rotations and 0.2 pixels for translations for a y dimension of 156 with initial dimension 256. For y dimension 128/256 the accuracy decreases to 0.7 degrees for rotations and 0.6 pixels for translations.

Keywords: binary projections, image registration, reduceddimension images.

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107 A Novel Fuzzy Technique for Image Noise Reduction

Authors: Hamed Vahdat Nejad, Hameed Reza Pourreza, Hasan Ebrahimi

Abstract:

A new fuzzy filter is presented for noise reduction of images corrupted with additive noise. The filter consists of two stages. In the first stage, all the pixels of image are processed for determining noisy pixels. For this, a fuzzy rule based system associates a degree to each pixel. The degree of a pixel is a real number in the range [0,1], which denotes a probability that the pixel is not considered as a noisy pixel. In the second stage, another fuzzy rule based system is employed. It uses the output of the previous fuzzy system to perform fuzzy smoothing by weighting the contributions of neighboring pixel values. Experimental results are obtained to show the feasibility of the proposed filter. These results are also compared to other filters by numerical measure and visual inspection.

Keywords: Additive noise, Fuzzy logic, Image processing, Noise reduction.

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106 Variance Based Component Analysis for Texture Segmentation

Authors: Zeinab Ghasemi, S. Amirhassan Monadjemi, Abbas Vafaei

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new unsupervised PCA-based technique for steel plates texture segmentation towards defect detection. The proposed scheme called Variance Based Component Analysis or VBCA employs PCA for feature extraction, applies a feature reduction algorithm based on variance of eigenpictures and classifies the pixels as defective and normal. While the classic PCA uses a clusterer like Kmeans for pixel clustering, VBCA employs thresholding and some post processing operations to label pixels as defective and normal. The experimental results show that proposed algorithm called VBCA is 12.46% more accurate and 78.85% faster than the classic PCA.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis; Variance Based Component Analysis; Defect Detection; Texture Segmentation.

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