Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 474

Search results for: Hemorrhage Disease of Grass Carp

474 A Method to Predict Hemorrhage Disease of Grass Carp Tends

Authors: Zhongxu Chen, Jun Yang, Heyue Mao, Xiaoyu Zheng

Abstract:

Hemorrhage Disease of Grass Carp (HDGC) is a kind of commonly occurring illnesses in summer, and the extremely high death rate result in colossal losses to aquaculture. As the complex connections among each factor which influences aquiculture diseases, there-s no quit reasonable mathematical model to solve the problem at present.A BP neural network which with excellent nonlinear mapping coherence was adopted to establish mathematical model; Environmental factor, which can easily detected, such as breeding density, water temperature, pH and light intensity was set as the main analyzing object. 25 groups of experimental data were used for training and test, and the accuracy of using the model to predict the trend of HDGC was above 80%. It is demonstrated that BP neural network for predicating diseases in HDGC has a particularly objectivity and practicality, thus it can be spread to other aquiculture disease.

Keywords: Aquaculture, Hemorrhage Disease of Grass Carp, BP Neural Network

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1657
473 Evaluation of the Microbiological, Chemical and Sensory Quality of Carp Processed by the Sous Vide Method

Authors: Özlem Pelin Can

Abstract:

This study evaluated the microbiological quality and the sensory characteristics of carp fillets processed by the sousvide method when stored at 2 and 10 °C. Four different combinations of sauced–storage were studied then stored at 2 or 10 °C was evaluate periodically sensory, microbiological and chemical quality. Batches stored at 2 °C had lower growth rates of mesophiles and psychrotrophs. Moreover, these counts decreased by increasing the heating temperature and time. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes were not found in any of the samples. The heat treatment of 90 °C for 15 min and sauced was the most effective to ensure the safety and extend the shelf-life of sousvide carp preserving its sensory characteristics. This study establishes the microbiological quality of sous vide carp and emphasizes the relevance of the raw materials, heat treatment and storage temperature to ensure the safety of the product.

Keywords: Sous- vide methods, carp, sauce, microbiological, chemical and sensory quality

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2273
472 Assessment of Soil Contamination on the Content of Macro and Microelements and the Quality of Grass Pea Seeds (Lathyrus sativus L.)

Authors: Violina R. Angelova

Abstract:

Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the content of macro and microelements in the vegetative and reproductive organs of grass pea and the quality of grass pea seeds, as well as to identify the possibility of grass pea growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals. The experiment was conducted on an agricultural field subjected to contamination from the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances of 0.5 km and 8 km, respectively, from the source of pollution. On reaching commercial ripeness the grass pea plants were gathered. The composition of the macro and microelements in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds), and the dry matter content, sugars, proteins, fats and ash contained in the grass pea seeds were determined. Translocation factors (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BCF) were also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out through inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). The grass pea plant can successfully be grown on soils contaminated by heavy metals. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the grass pea seeds. The seeds of the grass pea contain significant amounts of nutrients (K, P, Cu, Fe Mn, Zn) and protein (23.18-29.54%). The distribution of heavy metals in the organs of the grass pea has a selective character, which reduces in the following order: leaves > roots > stems > seeds. BCF and TF values were greater than one suggesting efficient accumulation in the above ground parts of grass pea plant. Grass pea is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the accumulator plants. The results provide valuable information about the chemical and nutritional composition of the seeds of the grass pea grown on contaminated soils in Bulgaria. The high content of macro and microelements and the low concentrations of toxic elements in the grass pea grown in contaminated soil make it possible to use the seeds of the grass pea as animal feed.

Keywords: Grass pea, heavy metals, micro and macroelements, polluted soils, quality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 382
471 Mesotrione and Tembotrione Applied Alone or in Tank-Mix with Atrazine on Weed Control in Elephant Grass

Authors: Alexandre M. Brighenti

Abstract:

The experiment was carried out in Valença, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, to evaluate the selectivity and weed control of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibiting herbicides applied alone or in combination with atrazine in elephant grass crop. The treatments were as follows: mesotrione (0.072 and 0.144 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), tembotrione (0.075 and 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Assist®), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1 + 0.5% v/v mineral oil - Aureo®), atrazine + mesotrione (1.25 + 0.072 kg ha-1), atrazine + tembotrione (1.25 + 0.100 kg ha-1) and two controls (hoed and unhoed check). Two application rates of mesotrione with the addition of mineral oil or the tank mixture of atrazine plus mesotrione, with or without the addition of mineral oil, did not provide injuries capable to reduce elephant grass forage yield. Tembotrione was phytotoxic to elephant grass when applied with mineral oil. Atrazine and tembotrione in a tank-mix, with or without mineral oil, were also phytotoxic to elephant grass. All treatments provided satisfactory weed control.

Keywords: Forage, Napier grass, pasture, Pennisetum purpureum, weeds.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 548
470 Economic effects and Energy Use Efficiency of Incorporating Alfalfa and Fertilizer into Grass- Based Pasture Systems

Authors: M. Khakbazan, S. L. Scott, H. C. Block, C. D. Robins, W. P. McCaughey

Abstract:

A ten-year grazing study was conducted at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Brandon Research Centre in Manitoba to study the effect of alfalfa inclusion and fertilizer (N, P, K, and S) addition on economics and efficiency of non-renewable energy use in meadow brome grass-based pasture systems for beef production. Fertilizing grass-only or alfalfa-grass pastures to full soil test recommendations improved pasture productivity, but did not improve profitability compared to unfertilized pastures. Fertilizing grass-only pastures resulted in the highest net loss of any pasture management strategy in this study. Adding alfalfa at the time of seeding, with no added fertilizer, was economically the best pasture improvement strategy in this study. Because of moisture limitations, adding commercial fertilizer to full soil test recommendations is probably not economically justifiable in most years, especially with the rising cost of fertilizer. Improving grass-only pastures by adding fertilizer and/or alfalfa required additional non-renewable energy inputs; however, the additional energy required for unfertilized alfalfa-grass pastures was minimal compared to the fertilized pastures. Of the four pasture management strategies, adding alfalfa to grass pastures without adding fertilizer had the highest efficiency of energy use. Based on energy use and economic performance, the unfertilized alfalfa-grass pasture was the most efficient and sustainable pasture system.

Keywords: Alfalfa, grass, fertilizer, pasture systems, economics, energy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1412
469 Evaluation of Antifungal Potential of Cenchrus pennisetiformis for the Management of Macrophomina phaseolina

Authors: Arshad Javaid, Syeda F. Naqvi

Abstract:

Macrophomina phaseolina is a devastating soil-borne fungal plant pathogen that causes charcoal rot disease in many economically important crops worldwide. So far, no registered fungicide is available against this plant pathogen. This study was planned to examine the antifungal activity of an allelopathic grass Cenchrus pennisetiformis (Hochst. & Steud.) Wipff. for the management of M. phaseolina isolated from cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] plants suffering from charcoal rot disease. Different parts of the plants viz. inflorescence, shoot and root were extracted in methanol. Laboratory bioassays were carried out using different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, …, 3.0 g mL-1) of methanolic extracts of the test allelopathic grass species to assess the antifungal activity against the pathogen. In general, extracts of all parts of the grass exhibited antifungal activity. All the concentrations of methanolic extracts of shoot and root significantly reduced fungal biomass by 20–73% and 40–80%, respectively. Methanolic shoot extract was fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Different concentrations of these fractions (3.125, 6.25, …, 200 mg mL-1) were analyzed for their antifungal activity. All the concentrations of n-hexane fraction significantly reduced fungal biomass by 15–96% over corresponding control treatments. Higher concentrations (12.5–200 mg mL-1) of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol also reduced the fungal biomass significantly by 29–100%, 46–100% and 24–100%, respectively.

Keywords: Antifungal activity, Cenchrus pennisetiformis, Macrophomina phaseolina, natural fungicides

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1578
468 Analysis of Cross-Sectional and Retrograde Data on the Prevalence of Marginal Gingivitis

Authors: Ilma Robo, Saimir Heta, Nedja Hysi, Vera Ostreni

Abstract:

Introduction: Marginal gingivitis is a disease with considerable frequency among patients who present routinely for periodontal control and treatment. In fact, this disease may not have alarming symptoms in patients and may go unnoticed by themselves when personal hygiene conditions are optimal. The aim of this study was to collect retrograde data on the prevalence of marginal gingiva in the respective group of patients, evaluated according to specific periodontal diagnostic tools. Materials and methods: The study was conducted in two patient groups. The first group was with 34 patients, during December 2019-January 2020, and the second group was with 64 patients during 2010-2018 (each year in the mentioned monthly period). Bacterial plaque index, hemorrhage index, amount of gingival fluid, presence of xerostomia and candidiasis were recorded in patients. Results: Analysis of the collected data showed that susceptibility to marginal gingivitis shows higher values according to retrograde data, compared to cross-sectional ones. Susceptibility to candidiasis and the occurrence of xerostomia, even in the combination of both pathologies, as risk factors for the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, show higher values ​​according to retrograde data. The female are presented with a reduced bacterial plaque index than the males, but more importantly, this index in the females is also associated with a reduced index of gingival hemorrhage, in contrast to the males. Conclusions: Cross-sectional data show that the prevalence of marginal gingivitis is more reduced, compared to retrograde data, based on the hemorrhage index and the bacterial plaque index together. Changes in production in the amount of gingival fluid show a higher prevalence of marginal gingivitis in cross-sectional data than in retrograde data; this is based on the sophistication of the way data are recorded, which evolves over time and also based on professional sensitivity to this phenomenon.

Keywords: Marginal gingivitis, cross-sectional, retrograde, prevalence.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 211
467 Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

Abstract:

A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Fish growth performance, feed utilization and feed intake were significantly (P<0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: Fancy carp, Dietary protein, Dietary lipid, Fatty acid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2078
466 Evaluation of Forage Yield and Competition Indices for Intercropped Barley and Legumes

Authors: Abdollah Javanmard, Fariborz Shekari, Hasan Dehghanian

Abstract:

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), vetch (Vicia villosa), and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) monocultures as well as mixtures of barley with each of the above legumes, in three seeding ratios (i.e., barley: legume 75:25, 50:50 and 25:75, based on seed numbers) were used to investigated forage yield and competition indices. The results showed that intercropping reduced the dry matter yield of the three component plants, compared with their respective monocrops. The greatest value of total dry matter yield was obtained from barley25- grasspea75 (5.44 t ha-1) mixture, followed by grass pea sole crop (4.99 t ha-1). The total actual yield loss (AYL) values were positive and greater than 0 in all mixtures, indicating an advantage from intercropping over sole crops. Intercropped barley had a higher relative crowding coefficient (K=1.64) than intercropped legumes (K=1.20), indicating that barley was more competitive than legumes in mixtures. Furthermore, grass pea was more competitive than vetch in mixtures with barley. The highest land equivalent ratio (LER), system productivity index (SPI) and monetary advantage index (MAI) were obtained when barley was mixed at a rate of 25% with 75% seed rate of grass pea. It is concluded that intercropping of barley with grass pea has a good potential to improve the performance of forage with high land-use efficiency.

Keywords: Forage, grass pea, intercropping, land equivalent ratio (LER), monetary advantage.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1538
465 Optimization of Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification of Cogon Grass Prior Ethanol Production

Authors: Jhalique Jane R. Fojas, Ernesto J. Del Rosario

Abstract:

The dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical, L.) was optimized prior ethanol fermentation using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method. The optimum pretreatment conditions, temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, and reaction time were evaluated by determining the maximum sugar yield at constant enzyme loading. Cogon grass, at 10% w/v substrate loading, has optimum pretreatment conditions of 126°C, 0.6% v/v H2SO4, and 20min reaction time. These pretreatment conditions were used to optimize enzymatic saccharification using different enzyme combinations. The maximum saccharification yield of 36.68mg/mL (71.29% reducing sugar) was obtained using 25FPU/g-cellulose cellulase complex combined with 1.1% w/w of cellobiase, ß-glucosidase, and 0.225% w/w of hemicellulase complex, after 96 hours of saccharification. Using the optimum pretreatment and saccharification conditions, SSF of treated substrates was done at 37°C for 120 hours using industrial yeast strain HBY3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ethanol yield for cogon grass at 4% w/w loading was 9.11g/L with 5.74mg/mL total residual sugar.

Keywords: Acid pretreatment, bioethanol, biomass, cogon grass, fermentation, lignocellylose, SSF.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3555
464 Assessing the Impact of Contour Strips of Perennial Grass with Bio-fuel Potentials on Aquatic Environment

Authors: Roy R. Gu, Mahesh Sahu

Abstract:

The use of contour strips of perennial vegetation with bio-fuel potential can improve surface water quality by reducing NO3-N and sediment outflow from cropland to surface water-bodies. It also has economic benefits of producing ethanol. In this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to a watershed in Iowa, USA to examine the effectiveness of contour strips of switch grass in reducing the NO3-N outflows from crop fields to rivers or lakes. Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and to examine the effects of strip size on NO3-N reduction under various meteorological conditions, i.e. dry, average and wet years. Useful information was obtained for the evaluation of economic feasibility of growing switch grass for bio-fuel in contour strips. The results can assist in cost-benefit analysis and decisionmaking in best management practices for environmental protection.

Keywords: ethanol, modeling, water quality, NO3-N, watershed.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1270
463 Efficiency of Wood Vinegar Mixed with Some Plants Extract against the Housefly (Musca domestica L.)

Authors: U. Pangnakorn, S. Kanlaya

Abstract:

The efficiency of wood vinegar mixed with each individual of three plants extract such as: citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus), neem seed (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), and yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus Urb.) were tested against the second instar larvae of housefly (Musca domestica L.). Steam distillation was used for extraction of the citronella grass while neem and yam bean were simple extracted by fermentation with ethyl alcohol. Toxicity test was evaluated in laboratory based on two methods of larvicidal bioassay: topical application method (contact poison) and feeding method (stomach poison). Larval mortality was observed daily and larval survivability was recorded until the survived larvae developed to pupae and adults. The study resulted that treatment of wood vinegar mixed with citronella grass showed the highest larval mortality by topical application method (50.0%) and by feeding method (80.0%). However, treatment of mixed wood vinegar and neem seed showed the longest pupal duration to 25 day and 32 days for topical application method and feeding method respectively. Additional, larval duration on treated M. domestica larvae was extended to 13 days for topical application method and 11 days for feeding method. Thus, the feeding method gave higher efficiency compared with the topical application method.

Keywords: Housefly (Musca domestica L.), neem seed (Azadirachta indica), citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) yam bean seed (Pachyrhizus erosus), mortality.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3148
462 Conservation Techniques for Soil Erosion Control in Tobacco-Based Farming System at Steep Land Areas of Progo Hulu Subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Jaka Suyana, Komariah, Masateru Senge

Abstract:

This research was aimed at determining the impact of conservation techniques including bench terrace, stone terrace, mulching, grass strip and intercropping on soil erosion at tobacco-based farming system at Progo Hulu subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Research was conducted from September 2007 to September 2009, located at Progo Hulu subwatershed, Central Java, Indonesia. Research site divided into 27 land units, and experimental fields were grouped based on the soil type and slope, ie: 30%, 45% and 70%, with the following treatments: 1) ST0= stone terrace (control); 2) ST1= stone terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip on a 5 cm height dike at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha); 3) ST2= stone terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip on a 5 cm height dike at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 100% (14 ton/ ha); 4) ST3= stone terrace + tobacco and red bean intercropping + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha). 5) BT0= bench terrace (control); 6) BT1= bench terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha); 7) BT2= bench terrace + Setaria spacelata grass strip at terrace lips + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 100% (14 ton/ ha); 8) BT3= bench terrace + tobacco and red bean intercropping + tobacco stem mulch with dose of 50% (7 ton/ ha). The results showed that the actual erosion rates of research site were higher than that of tolerance erosion with mean value 89.08 ton/ha/year and 33.40 ton/ha/year, respectively. These resulted in 69% of total research site (5,119.15 ha) highly degraded. Conservation technique of ST2 was the most effective in suppressing soil erosion, by 42.87%, following with BT2 as much 30.63%. Others suppressed erosion only less than 21%.

Keywords: Steep land, subwatershed, conservation terrace, tolerance erosion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
461 Concentration of Micro Minerals in Fiber Fraction of Forages

Authors: Lili Warly, Evitayani, A. Fariani

Abstract:

This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se) of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF) in South Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Seven species of commonly forages namely Axonopus compressus, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpuphoides, Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in grass or legumes forages. In grass, concentration of Fe and Mn were above the critical level, while 33.3 %, 100 % and 16.7 % of evaluated grass were deficient in Zn, Cu and Se. Data on legume forages show that 75 % of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu).

Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiberfraction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1197
460 Selection of Plants as Possible Rhizoremediators for Restoration of Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

Abstract:

In studying the possibility of using plants as rhizoremediators, barley and grass mixture which showed resistance to various concentrations of oil were selected. The minimum inhibitory effect of oil on these plants by morphological parameters such as survival of plants, length and biomass of shoot and root compared with the control was showed. In determining physiological parameters, a slight decrease in the number of chlorophyll a and b in the leaves of plants was noted. The differences in the ratio of the total surface of the roots to the work surface with the growth of plants in soil with oil in the study of adsorption of the root surface were showed.

Keywords: Length of shoot and root, biomass, chlorophyll a and b, adsorption surface, barley, grass mixture.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1353
459 Evaluation of Disease Risk Variables in the Control of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Berrin Şentürk

Abstract:

In this study, due to the recurrence of bovine tuberculosis, in the same areas, the risk factors for the disease were determined and evaluated at the local level. This study was carried out in 32 farms where the disease was detected in the district and center of Samsun province in 2014. Predetermined risk factors, such as farm, environmental and economic risks, were investigated with the survey method. It was predetermined that risks in the three groups are similar to the risk variables of the disease on the global scale. These risk factors that increase the susceptibility of the infection must be understood by the herd owners. The risk-based contagious disease management system approach should be applied for bovine tuberculosis by farmers, animal health professionals and public and private sector decision makers.

Keywords: Bovine tuberculosis, disease management, control, outbreak, risk analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 783
458 Haematology and Serum Biochemical Profile of Laying Chickens Reared on Deep Litter System with or without Access to Grass or Legume Pasture under Humid Tropical Climate

Authors: E. Oke, A. O. Ladokun, J. O. Daramola, O. M. Onagbesan

Abstract:

There has been a growing interest on the effects of access to pasture on poultry health status. However, there is a paucity of data on the relative benefits of grass and legume pastures. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing systems {deep litter system (DL), deep litter with access to legumes (LP) or grass (GP) pastures} haematology and serum chemistry of ISA Brown layers. The study involved the use of two hundred and forty 12 weeks old pullets. The birds were reared until 60 weeks of age. Eighty birds were assigned to each treatment; each treatment had four replicates of 20 birds each. Blood samples (2.5 ml) were collected from the wing vein of two birds per replicate and serum chemistry and haematological parameters were determined. The results showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in all the parameters considered at 18 weeks of age. At 24 weeks old, the percentage of heterophyl (HET) in DL and LP were similar but higher than that of GP. The ratio of H:L was higher (P<0.05) in DL than those of LP and GP while LP and GP were comparable. At week 38 of age, the percentage of PCV in the birds in LP and GP were similar but the birds in DL had significantly lower level than that of GP. In the early production phase, serum total protein of the birds in LP was similar to that of GP but higher (P<0.05) than that of DL. At the peak production phase (week 38), the total protein in GP and DL were similar but significantly lower than that of LP. The albumin level in LP was greater (P<0.05) than GP but similar to that of DL. In the late production phase, the total protein in LP was significantly higher than that of DL but similar to that of GP. It was concluded that rearing chickens in either grass or legume pasture did not have deleterious effects on the health of laying chickens but improved some parameters including blood protein and HET/lymphocyte.

Keywords: Rearing systems, Stylosanthes, Cynodon serum chemistry, haematology, hen.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
457 Restoration of Biological Function of Degraded Soil via Chemical Method

Authors: M. Chomczyńska

Abstract:

The studies concerned an effect of six variants of ion exchange substrate (nutrient carriers with a different potential impact on pH of soil solution) on vegetation of orchard grass during two different periods (42 and 84 days). In the pot experiment plants were grown on sand (model of degraded soil) and six mixtures of sand and 2% (v/v) additions of particular variants of ion exchange substrate (with pH ranged from 5.5 to 8.0). The study results showed that the addition of the substrate at pH=6.5 caused the highest increase in plant yield after shorter vegetation period whereas the addition of the substrate at pH=5.5 increased dry stem and root biomass of orchard grass after longer vegetation period. Thus, the ion exchange substrate at pH=6.5 can be recommended for restoration of exhausted soils when shorter vegetation period is planned; the ion exchange substrate at pH=5.5 can be used for the same purpose when longer periods of vegetative growth are considered.

Keywords: ion exchanger, ion exchange substrate, soilrestoration

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1112
456 Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. Living in Different Dam Lake, Turkey

Authors: O. B. Citil, V. Sariyel, M. Akoz

Abstract:

In this study, total fatty acid composition of muscle lipids of Cyprinus carpio L. living in Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake were determined using GC. During this study, for the summer season of July was taken from each region of the land and they were stored in deep-freeze set to -20 degrees until the analysis date. At the end of the analyses, 30 different fatty acids were found in the composition of Cyprinus carpio L. which lives in different lakes. Cyprinus carpio Suğla Dam Lake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), were higher than other lakes. Cyprinus carpio L. was the highest in the major SFA palmitic acid. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of carp, the most abundant fish species in all lakes, were found to be higher than those of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in all lakes. Palmitic acid was the major SFA in all lakes. Oleic acid was identified as the major MUFA. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the most abundant in all lakes. ω3 fatty acid composition was higher than the percentage of the percentage ω6 fatty acids in all lake. ω3/ω6 rates of Cyprinus carpio L. Suğla Dam Lake, Altinapa Dam Lake, Eğirdir Lake and Burdur Lake, 2.12, 1.19, 2.15, 2.87, and 2.82, respectively. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was the major PUFA in Eğirdir and Burdur lakes, whereas linoleic acid (LA) was the major PUFA in Altinapa and Suğla Dam Lakes. It was shown that the fatty acid composition in the muscle of carp was significantly influenced by different lakes.

Keywords: Chromatography, Cyprinus carpio L., fatty acid composition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1139
455 Mathematical Modeling for Dengue Transmission with the Effect of Season

Authors: R. Kongnuy., P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Mathematical models can be used to describe the transmission of disease. Dengue disease is the most significant mosquito-borne viral disease of human. It now a leading cause of childhood deaths and hospitalizations in many countries. Variations in environmental conditions, especially seasonal climatic parameters, effect to the transmission of dengue viruses the dengue viruses and their principal mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. A transmission model for dengue disease is discussed in this paper. We assume that the human and vector populations are constant. We showed that the local stability is completely determined by the threshold parameter, 0 B . If 0 B is less than one, the disease free equilibrium state is stable. If 0 B is more than one, a unique endemic equilibrium state exists and is stable. The numerical results are shown for the different values of the transmission probability from vector to human populations.

Keywords: Dengue disease, mathematical model, season, threshold parameters.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1952
454 Inflammatory Markers in the Blood and Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Nevila Alliu, Tea Meta

Abstract:

Background: Plasma levels of inflammatory markers are the expression of the infectious wastes of existing periodontitis, as well as of existing inflammation everywhere in the body. Materials and Methods: The study consists of the clinical part of the measurement of inflammatory markers of 23 patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis and the recording of parental periodontal parameters of patient periodontal status: hemorrhage index and probe values, before and 7-10 days after non-surgical periodontal treatment. Results: The level of fibrinogen drops according to the categorization of disease progression, active and passive, with the biggest % (18%-30%) at the fluctuation 10-20 mg/d. Fluctuations in fibrinogen level according to the age of patients in the range 0-10 mg/dL under 40 years and over 40 years was 13%-26%, in the range 10-20 mg/dL was 26%-22%, in the 20-40 mg/dL was 9%-4%. Conclusions: Non-surgical periodontal treatment significantly reduces the level of non-inflammatory markers in the blood. Oral health significantly reduces the potential source for periodontal bacteria, with the potential of promoting thromboembolism, through interaction between thrombocytes.

Keywords: Chronic periodontitis, atherosclerosis, risk factor, inflammatory markers.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 235
453 Dynamical Transmission Model of Chikungunya in Thailand

Authors: P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

One of the important tropical diseases is Chikunkunya. This disease is transmitted between the human by the insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus. It occurs in Africa, Asia and the Indian subcontinent. In Thailand, the incidences due to this disease are increasing every year. In this study, the transmission of this disease is studied through dynamical model analysis.

Keywords: Chikunkunya, dynamical model, Endemic region, Routh-Hurwitz criteria.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1142
452 Depression and Anxiety Levels in Armenian Crohn's Disease Patients

Authors: Astghik Z. Pepoyan, Elya S. Pepoyan

Abstract:

The Zung self-depression scale and Beck Anxiety Inventory were used to study the depression and anxiety levels of Armenian Crohn's disease patients, as well as to reveal the relation between emotional status and placebo effect of these patients. Despite of registered high levels of depression and anxiety, the high placebo rate during investigations was described. The importance of use of psychotherapies for optimal outcomes during treatments of Crohn's disease is obvious.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, emotional disorders, placebo, psychotherapy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2169
451 The Impact of Web Based Education on Cancer Patients’ Clinical Outcomes

Authors: F. Arıkan, Z. Karakus

Abstract:

Cancer is a widespread disease in the world and is the third reason of deaths among the chronic diseases. Educating patients and caregivers has a vital role for empowering them in managing disease and treatment's symptoms. Informing of the patients about their disease and treatment process decreases patient's distress and decisional conflicts, improves wellbeing of them, increase success of the treatment and survival. In this era, technological education methods are used for patients that have different chronic disease. Many studies indicated that especially web based patient education such as chronic obstructive lung disease; heart failure is more effective than printed materials. Web based education provide easiness to patients while they are reaching health services. It also has more advantages because of it decreases health cost and requirement of staff. It is thought that web based education may be beneficial method for cancer patient's empowerment in coping with the disease's symptoms. The aim of the study is evaluate the effectiveness of web based education for cancer patients' clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Cancer Patients, E-Learning, Nursing, Web Based Education.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2137
450 Intelligent Heart Disease Prediction System Using CANFIS and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Latha Parthiban, R. Subramanian

Abstract:

Heart disease (HD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern society. Medical diagnosis is an important but complicated task that should be performed accurately and efficiently and its automation would be very useful. All doctors are unfortunately not equally skilled in every sub specialty and they are in many places a scarce resource. A system for automated medical diagnosis would enhance medical care and reduce costs. In this paper, a new approach based on coactive neuro-fuzzy inference system (CANFIS) was presented for prediction of heart disease. The proposed CANFIS model combined the neural network adaptive capabilities and the fuzzy logic qualitative approach which is then integrated with genetic algorithm to diagnose the presence of the disease. The performances of the CANFIS model were evaluated in terms of training performances and classification accuracies and the results showed that the proposed CANFIS model has great potential in predicting the heart disease.

Keywords: CANFIS, genetic algorithms, heart disease, membership function.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3568
449 Dengue Transmission Model between Infantand Pregnant Woman with Antibody

Authors: R. Kongnuy, P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

Dengue, a disease found in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It has become the most common arboviral disease of humans. This disease is caused by any of four serotypes of dengue virus (DEN1-DEN4). In many endemic countries, the average age of getting dengue infection is shifting upwards, dengue in pregnancy and infancy are likely to be encountered more frequently. The dynamics of the disease is studied by a compartmental model involving ordinary differential equations for the pregnant, infant human and the vector populations. The stability of each equilibrium point is given. The epidemic dynamic is discussed. Moreover, the numerical results are shown for difference values of dengue antibody.

Keywords: Dengue antibody, infant, pregnant human, mathematical model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1273
448 A Study of Liver Checkup in Patients with Hepatitis C in the Region of Batna

Authors: A. Zidani, M. Yahia K. Belhadi, S. Benbia

Abstract:

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease transmitted by blood and due to hepatitis C virus (HCV), which attacks the liver. The infection is characterized by liver inflammation (hepatitis) that is often asymptomatic but can progress to chronic hepatitis and later cirrhosis and liver cancer. Our problem tends to highlight on the one hand the prevalence of infectious disease in the population of the region of Batna and on other hand the biological characteristics of this disease by a screening and a specific diagnosis based on serological tests, liver checkup (measurement of haematological and biochemical parameters). The results showed: The serology of hepatitis C establishes the diagnosis of infection with hepatitis C. In this study and with the serological test, 24 cases of the disease of hepatitis C were found in 1000 suspected cases (7 cases with normal transaminases and 17 cases with elevated transaminases). The prevalence of this disease in this study population was 2.4%. The presence of hepatitis C disrupts liver function including the onset of cytolysis, cholestasis, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and coagulation disorders.

Keywords: Disease hepatitis C, serology, liver checkup

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1405
447 Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens and Ducks in Egypt: Pathological Study

Authors: A.A Abou-Rawash, H.S. Abd EL-Hamed. H A. Abd-Ellatieff, S. M. Elsamanoudy

Abstract:

Clinically, chickens showed progressively developed clinical signs represented by sever cyanosis of the comb and wattles with hemorrhage at the shanks, depression, and ruffling feathers with loss of appetite and high daily mortalities. The ducks showed severe neurological signs as torticollus, seizures and inability to stand with mild signs of diarrhea and depression. Grossly, chickens showed hemorrhages and congestion in most of the organs particularly lung, liver, spleen, trachea and kidney. The examined ducks showed multiple petechial hemorrhages, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage in meninges and congestion in the skeletal muscles. Histopathology revealed severe congestion and hemorrhages in most of the organs particularly lung, liver and kidney. Microscopic erosive tracheitis, sever pulmonary congestion and perivascular oedema and lymphogranulocytic pneumonia were constant. The liver showed hepatocyts necrosis and lympho-granulocytic infiltration. The kidney showed renal tubular necrosis and diffuse congestion. Multifocal, neuronal necrosis, hemorrhages, multifocal glial nodules, lympho- histiocytic perivascular cuffing, and occasional neuronophagia were observed in the cerebrum. Other organs showed moderate changes.

Keywords: Chicken, Ducks, H5N1 Avian Influenza, Pathology

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2273
446 Dengue Disease Mapping with Standardized Morbidity Ratio and Poisson-gamma Model: An Analysis of Dengue Disease in Perak, Malaysia

Authors: N. A. Samat, S. H. Mohd Imam Ma’arof

Abstract:

Dengue disease is an infectious vector-borne viral disease that is commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions, especially in urban and semi-urban areas, around the world and including Malaysia. There is no currently available vaccine or chemotherapy for the prevention or treatment of dengue disease. Therefore prevention and treatment of the disease depend on vector surveillance and control measures. Disease risk mapping has been recognized as an important tool in the prevention and control strategies for diseases. The choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important as a good model will subsequently produce a good disease risk map. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the relative risk for dengue disease based initially on the most common statistic used in disease mapping called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) and one of the earliest applications of Bayesian methodology called Poisson-gamma model. This paper begins by providing a review of the SMR method, which we then apply to dengue data of Perak, Malaysia. We then fit an extension of the SMR method, which is the Poisson-gamma model. Both results are displayed and compared using graph, tables and maps. Results of the analysis shows that the latter method gives a better relative risk estimates compared with using the SMR. The Poisson-gamma model has been demonstrated can overcome the problem of SMR when there is no observed dengue cases in certain regions. However, covariate adjustment in this model is difficult and there is no possibility for allowing spatial correlation between risks in adjacent areas. The drawbacks of this model have motivated many researchers to propose other alternative methods for estimating the risk.

Keywords: Dengue disease, Disease mapping, Standardized Morbidity Ratio, Poisson-gamma model, Relative risk.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2884
445 A Diagnostic Fuzzy Rule-Based System for Congenital Heart Disease

Authors: Ersin Kaya, Bulent Oran, Ahmet Arslan

Abstract:

In this study, fuzzy rule-based classifier is used for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease. Congenital heart diseases are defined as structural or functional heart disease. Medical data sets were obtained from Pediatric Cardiology Department at Selcuk University, from years 2000 to 2003. Firstly, fuzzy rules were generated by using medical data. Then the weights of fuzzy rules were calculated. Two different reasoning methods as “weighted vote method" and “singles winner method" were used in this study. The results of fuzzy classifiers were compared.

Keywords: Congenital heart disease, Fuzzy rule-basedclassifiers, Classification

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1543