Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Alfalfa

15 The Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Live Yeast Culture on Microbial Nitrogen Supply to Small Intestine in Male Kivircik Yearlings Fed with Different Forage-Concentrate Ratios

Authors: N. Cetinkaya, N. H. Ozdemir

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) live yeast culture on microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik male yearlings when fed with different ratio of forage and concentrate diets. Four Kivircik male yearlings with permanent rumen canula were used in the experiment. The treatments were allocated to a 4x4 Latin square design. Diet I consisted of 70% alfalfa hay and 30% concentrate, Diet II consisted of 30% alfalfa hay and 70% concentrate, Diet I and II were supplemented with a SC. Daily urine was collected and stored at -20°C until analysis. Calorimetric methods were used for the determination of urinary allantoin and creatinine levels. The estimated microbial N supply to small intestine for Diets I, I+SC, II and II+SC were 2.51, 2.64, 2.95 and 3.43 g N/d respectively. Supplementation of Diets I and II with SC significantly affected the allantoin levels in μmol/W0.75 (p<0.05). Mean creatinine values in μmol/W0.75 and allantoin:creatinine ratios were not significantly different among diets. In conclusion, supplementation with SC live yeast culture had a significant effect on urinary allantoin excretion and microbial protein supply to small intestine in Kivircik yearlings fed with high concentrate Diet II (P<0.05). Hence urinary allantoin excretion may be used as a tool for estimating microbial protein supply in Kivircık yearlings. However, further studies are necessary to understand the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae live yeast culture with different forage:concentrate ratio in Kıvırcık Yearlings.

Keywords: Allantoin, creatinine, Kivircik yearling, microbial nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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14 Essential Micronutrient Biofortification of Sprouts Grown on Mineral Fortified Fiber Mats

Authors: Jacquelyn Nyenhuis, Jaroslaw W. Drelich

Abstract:

Diets high in processed foods have been found to lack essential micro-nutrients for optimum human development and overall health. Some micro-nutrients such as copper (Cu) have been found to enhance the inflammatory response through its oxidative functions, thereby having a role in cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and related complications. This research study was designed to determine if food crops could be bio-fortified with micro-nutrients by growing sprouts on mineral fortified fiber mats. In the feasibility study described in this contribution, recycled cellulose fibers and clay, saturated with either micro-nutrient copper ions or copper nanoparticles, were converted to a novel mineral-cellulose fiber carrier of essential micro-nutrient and of antimicrobial properties. Seeds of Medicago sativa (alfalfa), purchased from a commercial, organic supplier were germinated on engineered cellulose fiber mats. After the appearance of the first leaves, the sprouts were dehydrated and analyzed for Cu content. Nutrient analysis showed ~2 increase in Cu of the sprouts grown on the fiber mats with copper particles, and ~4 increase on mats with ionic copper as compared to the control samples. This study illustrates the potential for the use of engineered mats as a viable way to increase the micro-nutrient composition of locally-grown food crops and the need for additional research to determine the uptake, nutritional implications and risks of micro-nutrient bio-fortification.

Keywords: Bio-fortification, copper nutrient uptake, sprout, mineral-fortified mat, micro-nutrient uptake.

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13 Biodiversity of Plants Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Bacteria in the Presence of Petroleum Hydrocarbons

Authors: Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Anel A. Omirbekova, Raikhan S. Sydykbekova, Ramza Zh. Berzhanova, Lyudmila V. Ignatova

Abstract:

Following plants-barley (Hordeum sativum), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), grass mixture (red fescue-75%, long-term ryegrass - 20% Kentucky bluegrass - 10%), oilseed rape (Brassica napus biennis), resistant to growth in the contaminated soil with oil content of 15.8 g / kg 25.9 g / kg soil were used. Analysis of the population showed that the oil pollution reduces the number of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants and enhances the amount of spore-forming bacteria and saprotrophic micromycetes. It was shown that regardless of the plant, dominance of Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera bacteria was typical for the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. The frequency of bacteria of these genera was more than 60%. Oil pollution changes the ratio of occurrence of various types of bacteria in the rhizosphere and rhizoplane of plants. Besides the Pseudomonas and Bacillus genera, in the presence of hydrocarbons in the root zone of plants dominant and most typical were the representatives of the Mycobacterium and Rhodococcus genera. Together the number was between 62% to 72%.

Keywords: Identification, micromycetes, pollution, root system.

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12 Plants and Microorganisms for Phytoremediation of Soils Polluted with Organochlorine Pesticides

Authors: Maritsa Kurashvili, George Adamia, Tamar Ananiashvili, Lia Amiranasvili, Tamar Varazi, Marina Pruidze, Marlen Gordeziani, Gia Khatisashvili

Abstract:

The goal of presented work is the development phytoremediation method targeted to cleaning environment polluted with organochlorine pesticides, based on joint application of plants and microorganisms. For this aim the selection of plants and microorganisms with corresponding capabilities towards three organochlorine pesticides (Lindane, DDT and PCP) has been carried out.

The tolerance of plants to tested pesticides and induction degree of plant detoxification enzymes by these compounds have been used as main criteria for estimating the applicability of plants in proposed technology. Obtained results show that alfalfa, maize and soybean among tested six plant species have highest tolerance to pesticides.

As a result of screening, more than 30 strains from genera Pseudomonas have been selected. As a result of GC analysis of incubation area, 11 active cultures for investigated pesticides are carefully chosen.

Keywords: DDT, Lindane, organochlorine pesticides, PCP, phytoremediation.

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11 Biodiversity of Micromycetes Isolated from Soils of Different Agricultures in Kazakhstan and Their Plant Growth Promoting Potential

Authors: L. V. Ignatova, Y. V. Brazhnikova, T. D. Mukasheva, A. A. Omirbekova, R. Zh. Berzhanova, R. K. Sydykbekova, T. A. Karpenyuk, A. V. Goncharova

Abstract:

The comparative analysis of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms isolated from dark chernozem soils under different agricultures (alfalfa, melilot, sainfoin, soybean, rapeseed) at Almaty region of Kazakhstan was conducted. It was shown that the greatest number of micromycetes was typical to the soil planted with alfalfa and canola. Species diversity of micromycetes markedly decreases as it approaches the surface of the root, so that the species composition in the rhizosphere is much more uniform than in the virgin soil. Promising strains of microscopic fungi and yeast with plant growth-promoting activity to agricultures were selected. Among the selected fungi there are representatives of Penicillium bilaiae, Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus ustus. The highest rates of growth and development of seedlings of plants observed under the influence of yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Metschnikovia pulcherrima. Using molecular - genetic techniques confirmation of the identification results of selected micromycetes was conducted.

Keywords: Agricultures, biodiversity, micromycetes, plant growth-promoting microorganisms.

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10 Investigation of Phytoextraction Coefficient Different Combination of Heavy Metals in Barley and Alfalfa

Authors: F. Zaefarian, M. Rezvani, F. Rejali, M.R. Ardakani

Abstract:

Two seperate experiments by barley and alfalfa were conducted to a 2×8 factorial completely randomised design, with four replicates. Factors were inoculation (M) with Gomus mosseae or uninoculation (M0) and seven levels of contaminants (Co, Cd, Pb and combinations) plus an uncontaminated control treatment (C). Heavy metals in plant tissues and soil were quantified by Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES) (Variant- Liberty 150AX Turbo). Phytoextraction coefficient of contaminants calculated by concentration of heavy metals in the shoot (mgkg-1) / concentration of heavy metals in soil (mgkg-1). In the barley, the highest rate of phytoextraction coefficient of Pb, Cd and Co was in M0Pb, M0PbCoCd and MCo, respectively (P<0.05). In the alfalfa plants, the highest phytoextraction coefficient of Cd, Co and Pb obtained in the treatments M0CoCd, M0Co and M0PbCd, respectively.

Keywords: phytoextraction coefficient, heavy metals, barley, alfalfa

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9 Using Morphological and Microsatellite (SSR) Markers to Assess the Genetic Diversity in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)

Authors: T. Cholastova, D. Knotova

Abstract:

Utilization of diverse germplasm is needed to enhance the genetic diversity of cultivars. The objective of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationships of 98 alfalfa germplasm accessions using morphological traits and SSR markers. From the 98 tested populations, 81 were locals originating in Europe, 17 were introduced from USA, Australia, New Zealand and Canada. Three primers generated 67 polymorphic bands. The average polymorphic information content (PIC) was very high (> 0.90) over all three used primer combinations. Cluster analysis using Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Means (UPGMA) and Jaccard´s coefficient grouped the accessions into 2 major clusters with 4 sub-clusters with no correlation between genetic and morphological diversity. The SSR analysis clearly indicated that even with three polymorphic primers, reliable estimation of genetic diversity could be obtained.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Medicago sativa L., morphological traits, SSR markers

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8 The Effect of Glucogenic and Lipogenic Diets on Blood Metabolites of Baloochi Sheep

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Ali Mortezaee, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran

Abstract:

The aim of present study was to assess the effect of glucogenic (G) and lipogenic (L) diets on blood metabolites in Baloochi lambs. Three rumen cannulated Baloochi sheep were used as a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods (28 days). Experimental diets were a glucogenic, a lipogenic and a mixture of G and L diets (50:50). The animals were fed diets consisted of 50% chopped alfalfa hay and 50% concentrate. Diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Blood samples were taken from jugular vein before the feeding, 2, 4 and 6 hour post feeding at day 27. Results indicated that β- hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, insulin and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were not affected by treatments (P > 0.05). However, lipogenic diet increased significantly activity of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and concentration of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) in blood plasma (P < 0.05)

Keywords: glucogenic, lipogenic, blood metabolites

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7 Artificial Neural Network Models of the Ruminal pH in Holstein Steers

Authors: Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Majid Abdollazade

Abstract:

In this study four Holstein steers with rumen fistula fed 7 kg of dry matter (DM) of diets differing in concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios as 60:40, 70:30, 80:20, and 90:10 in a 4 × 4 latin square design. The pH of the ruminal fluid was measured before the morning feeding (0.0 h) to 8 h post feeding. In this study, a two-layered feed-forward neural network trained by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for modelling of ruminal pH. The input variables of the network were time, concentrate to alfalfa hay ratios (C/F), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). The output variable was the ruminal pH. The modeling results showed that there was excellent agreement between the experimental data and predicted values, with a high determination coefficient (R2 >0.96). Therefore, we suggest using these model-derived biological values to summarize continuously recorded pH data.

Keywords: Ruminal pH, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Non Fiber Carbohydrate, Neutral Detergent Fiber.

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6 Modeling Ecological Responses of Some Forage Legumes in Iran

Authors: M. Keshavarzi

Abstract:

Grasslands of Iran are encountered with a vast desertification and destruction. Some legumes are plants of forage importance with high palatability. Studied legumes in this project are Onobrychis, Medicago sativa (alfalfa) and Trifolium repens. Seeds were cultivated in research field of Kaboutarabad (33 km East of Isfahan, Iran) with an average 80 mm. annual rainfall. Plants were cultivated in a split plot design with 3 replicate and two water treatments (weekly irrigation, and under stress with same amount per 15 days interval). Water entrance to each plots were measured by Partial flow. This project lasted 20 weeks. Destructive samplings (1m2 each time) were done weekly. At each sampling plants were gathered and weighed separately for each vegetative parts. An Area Meter (Vista) was used to measure root surface and leaf area. Total shoot and root fresh and dry weight, leaf area index and soil coverage were evaluated too. Dry weight was achieved in 750c oven after 24 hours. Statgraphic and Harvard Graphic software were used to formulate and demonstrate the parameters curves due to time. Our results show that Trifolium repens has affected 60 % and Medicago sativa 18% by water stress. Onobrychis total fresh weight was reduced 45%. Dry weight or Biomass in alfalfa is not so affected by water shortage. This means that in alfalfa fields we can decrease the irrigation amount and have some how same amount of Biomass. Onobrychis show a drastic decrease in Biomass. The increases in total dry matter due to time in studied plants are formulated. For Trifolium repens if removal or cattle entrance to meadows do not occurred at perfect time, it will decrease the palatability and water content of the shoots. Water stress in a short period could develop the root system in Trifolium repens, but if it last more than this other ecological and soil factors will affect the growth of this plant. Low level of soil water is not so important for studied legume forges. But water shortage affect palatability and water content of aerial parts. Leaf area due to time in studied legumes is formulated. In fact leaf area is decreased by shortage in available water. Higher leaf area means higher forage and biomass production. Medicago and Onobrychis reach to the maximum leaf area sooner than Trifolium and are able to produce an optimum soil cover and inhibit the transpiration of soil water of meadows. Correlation of root surface to Total biomass in studied plants is formulated. Medicago under water stress show a 40% decrease in crown cover while at optimum condition this amount reach to 100%. In order to produce forage in areas without soil erosion Medicago is the best choice even with a shortage in water resources. It is tried to represent the growth simulation of three famous Forage Legumes. By growth simulation farmers and range managers could better decide to choose best plant adapted to water availability without designing different time and labor consuming field experiments.

Keywords: Ecological parameters, Medicago, Onobrychis, Trifolium.

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5 Enzymatic Activity of Alfalfa in a Phenanthrene-contaminated Environment

Authors: Anna Yu. Muratova, Vera V. Kapitonova, Marina P. Chernyshova, Olga V. Turkovskaya

Abstract:

This research was undertaken to study enzymatic activity in the shoots, roots, and rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) grown in quartz sand that was uncontaminated and contaminated with phenanthrene at concentrations of 10 and 100 mg kg-1. The higher concentration of phehanthrene had a distinct phytotoxic effect on alfalfa, inhibiting seed germination energy, plant survival, and biomass accumulation. The plant stress response to the environmental pollution was an increase in peroxidase activity. Peroxidases were the predominant enzymes in the alfalfa shoots and roots. The peroxidase profile in the shoots differed from that in the roots and had different isoenzyme numbers. 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) peroxidase was predominant in the shoots, and 2,7-diaminofluorene (2,2-DAF) peroxidase was predominant in the roots. Under the influence of phenanthrene, the activity of 2,7-DAF peroxidase increased in the shoots, and the activity of ABTS peroxidase increased in the roots. Alfalfa root peroxidases were the prevalent enzyme systems in the rhizosphere sand. Examination of the activity of alfalfa root peroxidase toward phenanthrene revealed the possibility of involvement of the plant enzyme in rhizosphere degradation of the PAH.

Keywords: Medicago sativa, enzymatic activity, peroxidase, phenanthrene.

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4 Higher Plants Ability to Assimilate Explosives

Authors: G. Khatisashvili, M. Gordeziani, G. Adamia, E. Kvesitadze, T. Sadunishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

The ability of agricultural and decorative plants to absorb and detoxify TNT and RDX has been studied. All tested 8 plants, grown hydroponically, were able to absorb these explosives from water solutions: Alfalfa > Soybean > Chickpea> Chikling vetch >Ryegrass > Mung bean> China bean > Maize. Differently from TNT, RDX did not exhibit negative influence on seed germination and plant growth. Moreover, some plants, exposed to RDX containing solution were increased in their biomass by 20%. Study of the fate of absorbed [1-14ðí]-TNT revealed the label distribution in low and high-molecular mass compounds, both in roots and above ground parts of plants, prevailing in the later. Content of 14ðí in lowmolecular compounds in plant roots are much higher than in above ground parts. On the contrary, high-molecular compounds are more intensively labeled in aboveground parts of soybean. Most part (up to 70%) of metabolites of TNT, formed either by enzymatic reduction or oxidation, is found in high molecular insoluble conjugates. Activation of enzymes, responsible for reduction, oxidation and conjugation of TNT, such as nitroreductase, peroxidase, phenoloxidase and glutathione S-transferase has been demonstrated. Among these enzymes, only nitroreductase was shown to be induced in alfalfa, exposed to RDX. The increase in malate dehydrogenase activities in plants, exposed to both explosives, indicates intensification of Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle, that generates reduced equivalents of NAD(P)H, necessary for functioning of the nitroreductase. The hypothetic scheme of TNT metabolism in plants is proposed.

Keywords: Higher plants, TNT, RDX, transformation.

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3 Influence of Hydrocarbons on Plant Cell Ultrastructure and Main Metabolic Enzymes

Authors: T. Sadunishvili, E. Kvesitadze, M. Betsiashvili, N. Kuprava, G. Zaalishvili, G. Kvesitadze

Abstract:

Influence of octane and benzene on plant cell ultrastructure and enzymes of basic metabolism, such as nitrogen assimilation and energy generation have been studied. Different plants: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa); crops- maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); shrubs – privet (Ligustrum sempervirens) and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliate); trees - poplar (Populus deltoides) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.) were exposed to hydrocarbons of different concentrations (1, 10 and 100 mM). Destructive changes in bean and maize leaves cells ultrastructure under the influence of benzene vapour were revealed at the level of photosynthetic and energy generation subcellular organells. Different deviations at the level of subcellular organelles structure and distribution were observed in alfalfa and ryegrass root cells under the influence of benzene and octane, absorbed through roots. The level of destructive changes is concentration dependent. Benzene at low 1 and 10 mM concentration caused the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity in maize roots and leaves and in poplar and mulberry shoots, though to higher extent in case of lower, 1mM concentration. The induction was more intensive in plant roots. The highest tested 100mM concentration of benzene was inhibitory to the enzyme in all plants. Octane caused induction of GDH in all grassy plants at all tested concentrations; however the rate of induction decreased parallel to increase of the hydrocarbon concentration. Octane at concentration 1 mM caused induction of GDH in privet, trifoliate and white mulberry shoots. The highest, 100mM octane was characterized by inhibitory effect to GDH activity in all plants. Octane had inductive effect on malate dehydrogenase in almost all plants and tested concentrations, indicating the intensification of Trycarboxylic Acid Cycle. The data could be suggested for elaboration of criteria for plant selection for phytoremediation of oil hydrocarbons contaminated soils.

Keywords: Higher plants, hydrocarbons, cell ultrastructure, glutamate and malate dehydrogenases.

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2 Effect of Restaurant Fat on Milk Yield and Composition of Dairy Cows Limit-Fed Concentrate Diet with Free Access to Forage

Authors: Mofleh S. Awawdeh

Abstract:

Ten lactating multiparous Holstein cows were used in a cross-over design with two dietary treatments and 28-d periods (with 14 d as an adaptation) to study the effect of restaurant fat on milk production and composition. Each cow was offered 14.7 kg DM /d of the basal concentrate diet based on barley and corn (crude protein = 17.7%, neutral detergent fiber = 23.5%, and acid detergent fiber = 5.8% of dry matter) with free access to alfalfa. Dietary treatments were arranged as supplying each cow with 0 (CONTROL) or 150 g/day (RF) of restaurant fat. Supplemental RF did not significantly (P > 0.25) affect milk yield, composition, and composition yields, except for milk fat contents. Milk fat contents were depressed (P < 0.05) with supplemental RF. Our results indicate that RF could depress milk fat without affecting milk yield and that the depression in milk fat in response to RF precedes the depression in milk yield.

Keywords: Dairy Cows, Restaurant Fat, Lipids.

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1 Economic effects and Energy Use Efficiency of Incorporating Alfalfa and Fertilizer into Grass- Based Pasture Systems

Authors: M. Khakbazan, S. L. Scott, H. C. Block, C. D. Robins, W. P. McCaughey

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A ten-year grazing study was conducted at the Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Brandon Research Centre in Manitoba to study the effect of alfalfa inclusion and fertilizer (N, P, K, and S) addition on economics and efficiency of non-renewable energy use in meadow brome grass-based pasture systems for beef production. Fertilizing grass-only or alfalfa-grass pastures to full soil test recommendations improved pasture productivity, but did not improve profitability compared to unfertilized pastures. Fertilizing grass-only pastures resulted in the highest net loss of any pasture management strategy in this study. Adding alfalfa at the time of seeding, with no added fertilizer, was economically the best pasture improvement strategy in this study. Because of moisture limitations, adding commercial fertilizer to full soil test recommendations is probably not economically justifiable in most years, especially with the rising cost of fertilizer. Improving grass-only pastures by adding fertilizer and/or alfalfa required additional non-renewable energy inputs; however, the additional energy required for unfertilized alfalfa-grass pastures was minimal compared to the fertilized pastures. Of the four pasture management strategies, adding alfalfa to grass pastures without adding fertilizer had the highest efficiency of energy use. Based on energy use and economic performance, the unfertilized alfalfa-grass pasture was the most efficient and sustainable pasture system.

Keywords: Alfalfa, grass, fertilizer, pasture systems, economics, energy.

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