@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/5676,
	  title     = {Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens and Ducks in Egypt: Pathological Study},
	  author    = {A.A Abou-Rawash and  H.S. Abd EL-Hamed. H A. Abd-Ellatieff and  S. M. Elsamanoudy},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {Clinically, chickens showed progressively developed
clinical signs represented by sever cyanosis of the comb and wattles
with hemorrhage at the shanks, depression, and ruffling feathers with
loss of appetite and high daily mortalities. The ducks showed severe
neurological signs as torticollus, seizures and inability to stand with
mild signs of diarrhea and depression. Grossly, chickens showed
hemorrhages and congestion in most of the organs particularly lung,
liver, spleen, trachea and kidney. The examined ducks showed
multiple petechial hemorrhages, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in
the pancreas, pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage in
meninges and congestion in the skeletal muscles. Histopathology
revealed severe congestion and hemorrhages in most of the organs
particularly lung, liver and kidney. Microscopic erosive tracheitis,
sever pulmonary congestion and perivascular oedema and lymphogranulocytic
pneumonia were constant. The liver showed hepatocyts
necrosis and lympho-granulocytic infiltration. The kidney showed
renal tubular necrosis and diffuse congestion. Multifocal, neuronal
necrosis, hemorrhages, multifocal glial nodules, lympho- histiocytic
perivascular cuffing, and occasional neuronophagia were observed in
the cerebrum. Other organs showed moderate changes.},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Bioengineering and Life Sciences},
	  volume    = {6},
	  number    = {5},
	  year      = {2012},
	  pages     = {256 - 264},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/5676},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/65},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 65, 2012},
	}