Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31515
Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi

Authors: Jin Choi, Zahra Aminikhoei, Yi-Oh Kim, Sang-Min Lee

Abstract:

A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the optimum dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile fancy carp. Eight experimental diets were formulated to contain four protein levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 g kg-1) with two lipid levels (70 and 140 g kg-1). Triplicate groups of fish (initial weight, 12.1±0.2 g fish-1) were hand-fed the diets to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. Fish growth performance, feed utilization and feed intake were significantly (P<0.0001) affected by dietary protein level, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). Weight gain and feed efficiency ratio tended to increase as dietary protein level increased up to 400 and 500 g kg-1, respectively. Daily feed intake of fish decreased with increasing dietary protein level and that of fish fed diet contained 500 g kg-1 protein was significantly lower than other fish groups. The protein efficiency ratio of fish fed 400 and 500 g kg-1 protein was lower than that of fish fed 200 and 300 g kg-1 protein. Moisture, crude protein and crude lipid contents of muscle and liver were significantly affected by dietary protein, but not by dietary lipid level (P>0.05). The increase in dietary lipid level resulted in an increase in linoleic acid in liver and muscle paralleled with a decrease in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids content in muscle of fish. In considering these results, it was concluded that the diet containing 400 g kg-1 protein with 70 g kg-1 lipid level is optimal for growth and efficient feed utilization of juvenile fancy carp.

Keywords: Fancy carp, Dietary protein, Dietary lipid, Fatty acid.

Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1098086

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2078

References:


[1] Sales, J., Janssens, G. P. J., 2003. Nutrient requirements of ornamental fish. Aquat. Living. Resour. 16, 533–540.
[2] Whittington, R. J., Chong, R., 2007. Global trade in ornamental fish from an Australian perspective: The case for revised import risk analysis and management strategies. Prev. Vet. Med. 81, 92–116.
[3] Balon, E. K., 1995. Origin and domestication of the wild carp, Cyprinus carpio: from Roman gourmets to the swimming flowers. Aquaculture 129, 3–48.
[4] Yuangsoi, B., Jintasataporn, O., Areechon, N., Tabthipwon, P., 2011. The pigmenting effect of different carotenoids on fancy carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquacult Nutr 17, e306–e316.
[5] Sun, X., Chang, Y., Ye, Y., Ma, Z., Liang, Y., Li, T., Jiang, N., Xing, W., Luo, L., 2012. The effect of dietary pigments on the coloration of Japanese ornamental carp (koi, Cyprinus carpio L.). Aquaculture 342-343, 62–68.
[6] Pannevis, M. C., Earle, K. E., 1994. Nutrition of ornamental fish: water soluble vitamin leaching and growth of Paracheirodon innesi. J. Nutr. 124 (Suppl), 2633S–2635S.
[7] Lim, L. C., Sho, A., Dhert, P., Sorgeloos, P., 2001. Production and application of on-grown Artemia in freshwater ornamental fish farm. Aquac. Econ. Manage. 5, 211–228.
[8] Lee, S. M., Kim, D. J., Cho, S. H., 2002. Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and body composition of juvenile ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) reared in sea water. Aquacult Nutr 8, 53–58.
[9] National Research Council. 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA.
[10] De Silva, S. S., Gunasekera, R. M., Shim, K. F., 1991. Interactions of varying dietary protein and lipid levels in young red tilapia: evidence of protein sparing. Aquaculture 95, 305–318.
[11] Lee, S. M., Jeon, I. G., Lee, J. Y., 2002. Effects of digestible protein and lipid levels in practical diets on growth, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli). Aquaculture 211, 227–239.
[12] Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane-Stanley, G. H., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509.
[13] Duncan, D. B., 1955. Multiple-range and multiple F tests. Biometrics 11, 1–42.
[14] Wee, K. L., Ngamsnae, P., 1987. Dietary protein requirement of fingerlings of the herbivorous carp tawes, Puntius gonionotus (Bleeker). Aquacult. Fish. Manage. 18, 121–129.
[15] Dabrowski, K., 1977. Protein requirements of grass carp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.). Aquaculture 12, 63–73.
[16] Singh, B. N., Bhanot, K. K., 1988. Protein requirement of the fry of Catla catla (Ham.). In: Joseph, M. M. (ed.), pp. 77–78. Proceedings, the First Indian Fisheries Forum. Asian Fisheries Society, Indian Branch, Mangalore.
[17] De Silva, S. S., Gunasekera, R. M., Atapattu, D., 1989. The dietary protein requirements of young tilapia and an evaluation of the least cost dietary protein levels. Aquaculture 80, 271-284.
[18] Kim, S. S., Lee, K. J., 2009. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes ). Aquaculture 287, 219–222.
[19] Jin, Y., Tian, L. X., Zeng, S. L., Xie, S. W., Yang, H. J., Liang, G. Y., Liu, Y. J., 2013. Dietary lipid requirement on non-specific immune responses in juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 34, 1202–1208.
[20] Marimuthu , K., Sukumaran, N., 2001. Effect of dietary lipid levels on growth and survival of fingerlings of the indian major carp Cirrhinus mrigala. Fish. Technol. 38, 48–50.
[21] Ozorio, R. O. A., Valente, L. M. P., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Oliva-teles, A., 2006. Growth performance and body composition of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles fed diets with different protein and lipid levels. Aquacult Res 37, 255–263.
[22] Ng, W. K., Abdullah, N., De Silva, S. S., 2008. The dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides (Bleeker), and the lack of protein-sparing action by dietary lipid. Aquaculture 284, 201–206.
[23] Lim, C., Yildirim-Aksoy, M., Li, M. H., Welker, T. L., Klesius, P. H., 2009. Influence of dietary levels of lipid and vitamin E on growth and resistance of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus iniae challenge. Aquaculture 298, 76–82.
[24] Gao, W., Liu, Y. J., Tian, L. X., Mai, K. S., Liang, G. Y., Yang, H. J., Huai , M. Y., Luo, W. J., 2011. Protein-sparing capability of dietary lipid in herbivorous and omnivorous freshwater finfish: a comparative case study on grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus). Aquacult Nutr 17, 2–12.
[25] Refstie, S., Storebakken, T., Baeverfjord, G., Roem, A. J., 2001. Long-term protein and lipid growth of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with partial replacement of fishmeal by soy proteins products at medium or high lipid level. Aquaculture 193, 91–106.
[26] Catacutan, M. R., Coloso, R. M., 1995. Effect of dietary protein to energy ratios on growth, survival, and body composition of juvenile Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture 131, 125 – 133.
[27] Watanabe, W.O., Ellis, S.C., Chaves, J., 2001. Effects of dietary lipid and energy to protein ratio on growth and feed utilization of juvenile mutton snapper Lutjanus analis fed isonitrogenous diets at two temperatures. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 32, 30–40.
[28] Keembiyehetty, C. N., Wilson, R. P., 1998. Effects of water temperature on growth and nutrient utilization of sunshine bass (Morone chrysops × Morone saxatilis) fed diets containing different energy/protein ratios. Aquaculture 166, 151–162.
[29] Jobling, M., Wandsvik, A., 1983. An investigation of factors controlling food intake in Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus L. J. Fish Biol. 23, 397–404.
[30] Page, J. W., Andrews, J. W., 1973. Interactions of dietary levels of protein and energy on channel catfish (lctalurus punctatus). J. Nutr. 103, 1339–1346.
[31] Du, Z. Y., Liu, Y. J., Tian, L. X., Wang, J. T., Wang, Y., Liang, G. Y., 2005. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth, feed utilization and body composition by juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Aquacult Nutr 11, 139–146.
[32] Gatlin III, D. M., Stickney, R. R., 1982. Fall-winter growth of young channel catfish in response to quantity and source of dietary lipid. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 111, 90–93.
[33] Peres, H., Oliva-Teles, A., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by European sea bass juvenile (Dicentrarchus labrex). Aquaculture 179, 325–334.
[34] Yang, S. D., Liou, C. H., Liu, F. G., 2002. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance, carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture 213, 363–372.
[35] Arzel, J., Metailler, R., Kerleguer, C., Delliou, H. L., Guillaume, J., 1995. The protein requirement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry. Aquaculture 130, 67–78.
[36] Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T., 1977. Requirement of carp for essential fatty acids. –Nippon Suisan Gakk..43, 541–551.
[37] Lee, S. M., Cho, S. H., Kim, K. D., 2000. Effects of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and body composition of juvenile flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. J. World. Aquacult. Soc. 31, 306–315.
[38] Cahu, C. L., Zambonino Infante, J. L., Corraze, G., Coves, D., 2000. Dietary lipid level affects fatty acid composition and hydrolase activities of intestinal brush border membrane in seabass. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 23, 165–172.