Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30576
Recent Outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in Chickens and Ducks in Egypt: Pathological Study
Abstract:Clinically, chickens showed progressively developed clinical signs represented by sever cyanosis of the comb and wattles with hemorrhage at the shanks, depression, and ruffling feathers with loss of appetite and high daily mortalities. The ducks showed severe neurological signs as torticollus, seizures and inability to stand with mild signs of diarrhea and depression. Grossly, chickens showed hemorrhages and congestion in most of the organs particularly lung, liver, spleen, trachea and kidney. The examined ducks showed multiple petechial hemorrhages, multifocal hemorrhagic necrosis in the pancreas, pulmonary edema, congestion and hemorrhage in meninges and congestion in the skeletal muscles. Histopathology revealed severe congestion and hemorrhages in most of the organs particularly lung, liver and kidney. Microscopic erosive tracheitis, sever pulmonary congestion and perivascular oedema and lymphogranulocytic pneumonia were constant. The liver showed hepatocyts necrosis and lympho-granulocytic infiltration. The kidney showed renal tubular necrosis and diffuse congestion. Multifocal, neuronal necrosis, hemorrhages, multifocal glial nodules, lympho- histiocytic perivascular cuffing, and occasional neuronophagia were observed in the cerebrum. Other organs showed moderate changes.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1061487Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2124
 H. M. Acland, L. A. Silverman Bachin, and R. J. Eckroade, "Lesions in broiler and layer chickens in an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection," Vet. Patho1., vol. 21, pp. 564-569, 1984 .
 D. J. Alexander, "Avian influenza, Recent Developments," Vet. Bul., vol. 52, 341-359, 1982.
 A. Arafa, D. L. Suarez, M. K. Hassan, and M. M. Aly, "Phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 Egyptian strains isolated from 2006 to 2008 indicates heterogeneity with multiple distinct sublineages," Avian Dis., vol. 54, pp. 345-349, 2010.
 J. D. Bancroft, A. Stevens, and D. R. Turner, "Theory and practice of histopathological Techniques," 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, New York, London, and Madrid, 1996.
 M. M. Bahgat, M. A. Kutkat, M. H. Nasraa, A. Mostafa, R. Webby, I. M. Bahgat, and M. A. A. Ali, "Characterization of an avian influenza virus H5N1 Egyptian isolate," J. Virol. Methods, vol. 159, pp. 244-250, 2009.
 C. C. Brown, H. J. Olander, and D. A. Senne, "A pathogenesis study of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N2 in chickens, using immunohistochemistry," J. Comp. Pathol., vol. 107, pp. 341-348, 1992.
 I. Capua, and F. Mutinelli, "Mortality in Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) and domestic geese (Anser anser var. domestica) associated with natural infection with a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H7N1 subtype," Avian Pathol. Vol. 30, pp. 179-183, 2001.
 G. Cattoli, A. Drago, S. Maniero, A. Toffan, E. Bertoli, S. Fassina, C. Terregino, C. Robbi, G Vicenzoni, and I. Cappua, "Comparison of three rapid detection systems for type A Influenza virus on tracheal swabs of experimentally and naturally infected birds," Avian Pathol., vol. 33, pp. 432-437, 2004.
 H. Chen, G. Deng, Z. Li, G. Tian, Y. Li, P. Jiao, L. Zhang, Z. Liu, R.G. Webster, and K. Yu, "The evolution of H5N1 influenza viruses in ducks in southern China," Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 101, pp. 10452- 10457, 2004.
 E. M. El-gendy, "Detection and genetic characterization of avian influenza virus in some Egyptian governorate," M.V.Sc. Thesis, Fac. Vet. Med., Alex. Univ., 2010.
 T. M. Ellis, B. Bousfield, L. Bisset, K. Dyrting, G. S. M. Luk, S. T. Tsim, K. Sturm-Ramirez, R. G. Webster, Y. Guan, and M. J. S Peiris, "Investigation of outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in waterfowl and wild birds in Hong Kong in late 2002," Avian Pathol. Vol. 33, pp. 492-505, 2004.
 T. Horimoto, and Y. kawaoka, "Pandemic threat posed by avian influenza A viruses," Clin. Microbial. Rev., vol. 14, pp. 129-149, 2001.
 International federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent societies Egypt "Avian influenza," MDREG002, 2006.
 P. Joan, P. Amisha, C. Bradley, C. Michael, O. C. Stephen, H. H. Davidson, and C. J. Elaine, "2007 year in review: avian influenza and pandemic planning," IJET/ SR, pp. 251-01, 2008.
 Y. L. Jones, and D. E. Swayne, "Comparative pathology of low and high pathogenicity H7N3 Chilean avian influenza viruses in chickens," Avian Diseases, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 119-28, 2004.
 C. Kawakami, H. Shimizu, and S. Watanabe. et al. "Evaluation of immunochromatography method for rapid detection of influenza A and B viruses," Kansenshogaku Zasshi, vol. 75, pp.792-799, 2001.
 Y. Kobayashi, T. Horimoto, Y. Kawaoka, D. J. Alexander, and C. Itakura, "Pathological studies of chickens experimentally infected with two highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses," Avian Pathol. Vol. 25, pp. 285-304, 1996.
 M. S. Lee, P. C. Chang, J. H. Shien, M. C. Cheng, and H. K. Shieh, "Identification and subtyping of avian influenza viruses by reverse transcription-PCR," J. Virol. Meth., vol. 97, pp. 13-22, 2001..
 C. Magnard, M. Valette, M. Aymard, and B. Lina, "Comparison of two nested PCR, cell culture and antigen detection for the diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infections due to Influenza viruses," J. Med. Virol. Vol. 59, pp. 215-220, 1999.
 M. J. Mehrabanpour, H. Dadras, A. Khodakaram Tafti, A. Rahimian, and A. Toffan, "Pathological findings of highly pathogenic avian influenza VirusA/Duck /Vietnam/12/2005 (H5N1) in turkeys," Int. J. Poult. Sci., vol. 6, pp. 679-683, 2007.
 Y. Muramoto, H. Ozaki, A. Takada, H. Park-Chun, Y. Sunden, T. Umemura, Y. Kawaoka, H. Matsuda, and H. Kida, "Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza vius causes coagulopathy in chickens," Microbiol. andimmunol., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 73-81, 2006.
 H. Nakatani, K. Nakamura, Y. Yamamoto, M. Yamada, and Y. Yamamoto, "Epidemiology, pathology, and immunohistochemistry of layer hens naturally affected with H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in Japan," Avian Dis., vol. 49, pp. 436-441, 2005.
 Office International des ├ëpizooties (OIE) Standard Commission, "Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals," 5th ed., OIE Publication, Chapter 2, 1-14, 2004.
 D. R. Perez, S. H. Nazarian, G. McFadden, and M. S. Gilmore, "Miscellaneous threats: Highly pathogenic avian influenza, and novel bioengineered organisms," in Biodefense: Principles and Pathogens, M. S. Bronze, and R. A. Greenfield, ed., 2005, Horizon Bioscience, Norfolk, England.
 L. E. Perkins, and D. E. Swayne, "Pathobiology of A/chicken/hong Kong/220/97(h5n1) avian influenza virus in seven gallinaceous species," Vet. Pathol., Vol. 38, pp. 149-164, 2001.
 M.D. Saad, M.A. Gammal-Eldein, L.S. Ahmed, A.S.A. Goda, M.S. Khalil, M.A. Fouda, S.L. Yingst, M.A. Parker, and M.R. Montevillel, "First record of Avian Influenza (H5N1) in migratory birds in Egypt,". SCVMJ, vol. 8, no. 1 pp. 93-104, 2008.
 D. E. Swayne, "Understanding the complex pathobiology of high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses in birds," Avian Diseases, vol. 50, pp. 242-249, 2007.
 D. E. Swayne, and D. Suarez, "Highly pathogenic avian influenza," Office International des Epizooties press, Scientific and Technical Review, vol. 19, pp. 463-482. (2000):
 D. E. Swayne, M. J. Radin, T. M. Hoepf, and R. D. Slemons, "Acute renal failure as the cause of death in chickens following intravenous inoculation with avian influenza virus Al thicken/Alabama/7395/75 (H4N8)," Avian Dis., vol. 38, pp. 151- 157, 1994.
 Y. Tsuda,, Y. Sakoda, S. Sakabe,, T. Mochizuki,, Y. Namba, and H. Kida, "Development of an immunochromatographic kit for rapid diagnosis of H5 avian influenza virus infection," Microbiol. and Immunol., vol. 51, pp. 903-907, 2007.
 M. Vascellari, A. Granato, L. Trevisan, L. Basilicata, A. Toffan, A. Milani, and F. Mutinelli, "Pathologic Findings of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A/Duck/Vietnam/12/05 (H5N1) in Experimentally Infected Pekin Ducks, Based on Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization," Vet. Pathol., vol. 44, pp. 635-642, 2007.
 G. W. WOOD, G. Parsons, and D. J. Alexander, "Replication of influenza A viruses of high and low pathogenicity for chickens at different sites in chickens and ducks following intranasal Inoculation. Short communication," Avian Pathol., vol. 24, pp. 545-551, 1995.
 M. Yamazaki, K. Mitamura, and K. Kimura, et al, "Clinical evaluation of an immunochromatography test for rapid diagnosis of influenza," Kansenshogaku Zasshi, vol. 75, pp. 1047-1053, 2001.