Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5866

Search results for: optimal power flow

5866 Solution of Optimal Reactive Power Flow using Biogeography-Based Optimization

Authors: Aniruddha Bhattacharya, Pranab Kumar Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Optimal reactive power flow is an optimization problem with one or more objective of minimizing the active power losses for fixed generation schedule. The control variables are generator bus voltages, transformer tap settings and reactive power output of the compensating devices placed on different bus bars. Biogeography- Based Optimization (BBO) technique has been applied to solve different kinds of optimal reactive power flow problems subject to operational constraints like power balance constraint, line flow and bus voltages limits etc. BBO searches for the global optimum mainly through two steps: Migration and Mutation. In the present work, BBO has been applied to solve the optimal reactive power flow problems on IEEE 30-bus and standard IEEE 57-bus power systems for minimization of active power loss. The superiority of the proposed method has been demonstrated. Considering the quality of the solution obtained, the proposed method seems to be a promising one for solving these problems.

Keywords: Active Power Loss, Biogeography-Based Optimization, Migration, Mutation, Optimal Reactive Power Flow.

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5865 Enhanced Genetic Algorithm Approach for Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Including FACTS Devices

Authors: R.Narmatha Banu, D.Devaraj

Abstract:

This paper presents a genetic algorithm based approach for solving security constrained optimal power flow problem (SCOPF) including FACTS devices. The optimal location of FACTS devices are identified using an index called overload index and the optimal values are obtained using an enhanced genetic algorithm. The optimal allocation by the proposed method optimizes the investment, taking into account its effects on security in terms of the alleviation of line overloads. The proposed approach has been tested on IEEE-30 bus system to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the SCOPF problem.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Genetic Algorithm, FlexibleAC transmission system (FACTS) devices, Severity Index (SI), Security Enhancement, Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC).

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5864 Generator Capability Curve Constraint for PSO Based Optimal Power Flow

Authors: Mat Syai'in, Adi Soeprijanto, Takashi Hiyama

Abstract:

An optimal power flow (OPF) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed with more realistic generator security constraint using the capability curve instead of only Pmin/Pmax and Qmin/Qmax. Neural network (NN) was used in designing digital capability curve and the security check algorithm. The algorithm is very simple and flexible especially for representing non linear generation operation limit near steady state stability limit and under excitation operation area. In effort to avoid local optimal power flow solution, the particle swarm optimization was implemented with enough widespread initial population. The objective function used in the optimization process is electric production cost which is dominated by fuel cost. The proposed method was implemented at Java Bali 500 kV power systems contain of 7 generators and 20 buses. The simulation result shows that the combination of generator power output resulted from the proposed method was more economic compared with the result using conventional constraint but operated at more marginal operating point.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Generator Capability Curve, Particle Swarm Optimization, Neural Network

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5863 DEMO Based Optimal Power Purchase Planning Under Electricity Price Uncertainty

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharjee, A. K.Chakraborty

Abstract:

Due to the deregulation of the Electric Supply Industry and the resulting emergence of electricity market, the volumes of power purchases are on the rise all over the world. In a bid to meet the customer-s demand in a reliable and yet economic manner, utilities purchase power from the energy market over and above its own production. This paper aims at developing an optimal power purchase model with two objectives viz economy and environment ,taking various functional operating constraints such as branch flow limits, load bus voltage magnitudes limits, unit capacity constraints and security constraints into consideration.The price of purchased power being an uncertain variable is modeled using fuzzy logic. DEMO (Differential Evolution For Multi-objective Optimization) is used to obtain the pareto-optimal solution set of the multi-objective problem formulated. Fuzzy set theory has been employed to extract the best compromise non-dominated solution. The results obtained on IEEE 30 bus system are presented and compared with that of NSGAII.

Keywords: Deregulation, Differential Evolution, Multi objective Optimization, Pareto Optimal Set, Optimal Power Flow

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5862 Neural Network Optimal Power Flow(NN-OPF) based on IPSO with Developed Load Cluster Method

Authors: Mat Syai'in, Adi Soeprijanto

Abstract:

An Optimal Power Flow based on Improved Particle Swarm Optimization (OPF-IPSO) with Generator Capability Curve Constraint is used by NN-OPF as a reference to get pattern of generator scheduling. There are three stages in Designing NN-OPF. The first stage is design of OPF-IPSO with generator capability curve constraint. The second stage is clustering load to specific range and calculating its index. The third stage is training NN-OPF using constructive back propagation method. In training process total load and load index used as input, and pattern of generator scheduling used as output. Data used in this paper is power system of Java-Bali. Software used in this simulation is MATLAB.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Generator Capability Curve, Improved Particle Swarm Optimization, Neural Network

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5861 Optimal Based Damping Controllers of Unified Power Flow Controller Using Adaptive Tabu Search

Authors: Rungnapa Taithai, Anant Oonsivilai

Abstract:

This paper presents optimal based damping controllers of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) for improving the damping power system oscillations. The design problem of UPFC damping controller and system configurations is formulated as an optimization with time domain-based objective function by means of Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS) technique. The UPFC is installed in Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB) for the performance analysis of the power system and simulated using MATLAB-s simulink. The simulation results of these studies showed that designed controller has an tremendous capability in damping power system oscillations.

Keywords: Adaptive Tabu Search (ATS), damping controller, Single Machine Infinite Bus (SMIB), Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC).

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5860 Enhanced Particle Swarm Optimization Approach for Solving the Non-Convex Optimal Power Flow

Authors: M. R. AlRashidi, M. F. AlHajri, M. E. El-Hawary

Abstract:

An enhanced particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) is presented in this work to solve the non-convex OPF problem that has both discrete and continuous optimization variables. The objective functions considered are the conventional quadratic function and the augmented quadratic function. The latter model presents non-differentiable and non-convex regions that challenge most gradient-based optimization algorithms. The optimization variables to be optimized are the generator real power outputs and voltage magnitudes, discrete transformer tap settings, and discrete reactive power injections due to capacitor banks. The set of equality constraints taken into account are the power flow equations while the inequality ones are the limits of the real and reactive power of the generators, voltage magnitude at each bus, transformer tap settings, and capacitor banks reactive power injections. The proposed algorithm combines PSO with Newton-Raphson algorithm to minimize the fuel cost function. The IEEE 30-bus system with six generating units is used to test the proposed algorithm. Several cases were investigated to test and validate the consistency of detecting optimal or near optimal solution for each objective. Results are compared to solutions obtained using sequential quadratic programming and Genetic Algorithms.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, Optimal Power Flow, Economic Dispatch.

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5859 Influence of Distributed Generation on Congestion and LMP in Competitive Electricity Market

Authors: Durga Gautam, Mithulananthan Nadarajah

Abstract:

This paper presents the influence of distributed generation (DG) on congestion and locational marginal price (LMP) in an optimal power flow (OPF) based wholesale electricity market. The problem of optimal placement to manage congestion and reduce LMP is formulated for the objective of social welfare maximization. From competitive electricity market standpoint, DGs have great value when they reduce load in particular locations and at particular times when feeders are heavily loaded. The paper lies on the groundwork that solution to optimal mix of generation and transmission resources can be achieved by addressing congestion and corresponding LMP. Obtained as lagrangian multiplier associated with active power flow equation for each node, LMP gives the short run marginal cost (SRMC) of electricity. Specific grid locations are examined to study the influence of DG penetration on congestion and corresponding shadow prices. The influence of DG on congestion and locational marginal prices has been demonstrated in a modified IEEE 14 bus test system.

Keywords: Congestion management, distributed generation, electricity market, locational marginal price, optimal power flow, social welfare.

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5858 Multiobjective Optimal Power Flow Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: Alawode Kehinde O., Jubril Abimbola M. Komolafe Olusola A.

Abstract:

This paper solves the environmental/ economic dispatch power system problem using the Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II) and its hybrid with a Convergence Accelerator Operator (CAO), called the NSGA-II/CAO. These multiobjective evolutionary algorithms were applied to the standard IEEE 30-bus six-generator test system. Several optimization runs were carried out on different cases of problem complexity. Different quality measure which compare the performance of the two solution techniques were considered. The results demonstrated that the inclusion of the CAO in the original NSGA-II improves its convergence while preserving the diversity properties of the solution set.

Keywords: optimal power flow, multiobjective power dispatch, evolutionary algorithm

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5857 Power Flow and Modal Analysis of a Power System Including Unified Power Flow Controller

Authors: Djilani Kobibi Youcef Islam, Hadjeri Samir, Djehaf Mohamed Abdeldjalil

Abstract:

The Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) technology is a new advanced solution that increases the reliability and provides more flexibility, controllability, and stability of a power system. The Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC), as the most versatile FACTS device for regulating power flow, is able to control respectively transmission line real power, reactive power, and node voltage. The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the UPFC on the load flow, the power losses, and the voltage stability using NEPLAN software modules, Newton-Raphson load flow is used for the power flow analysis and the modal analysis is used for the study of the voltage stability. The simulation was carried out on the IEEE 14-bus test system.

Keywords: FACTS, load flow, modal analysis, UPFC, voltage stability.

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5856 Optimal Allocation of DG Units for Power Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement of Distribution Networks using PSO Algorithm

Authors: K. Varesi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based technique for the optimal allocation of Distributed Generation (DG) units in the power systems. In this paper our aim is to decide optimal number, type, size and location of DG units for voltage profile improvement and power loss reduction in distribution network. Two types of DGs are considered and the distribution load flow is used to calculate exact loss. Load flow algorithm is combined appropriately with PSO till access to acceptable results of this operation. The suggested method is programmed under MATLAB software. Test results indicate that PSO method can obtain better results than the simple heuristic search method on the 30-bus and 33- bus radial distribution systems. It can obtain maximum loss reduction for each of two types of optimally placed multi-DGs. Moreover, voltage profile improvement is achieved.

Keywords: Distributed Generation (DG), Optimal Allocation, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Power Loss Minimization, Voltage Profile Improvement.

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5855 Voltage Stability Enhancement Using Cat Swarm Optimization Algorithm

Authors: P. Suryakumari, P. Kantarao

Abstract:

Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in electrical power system is considered as a static, non-linear, multi-objective or a single objective optimization problem. This paper presents an algorithm for solving the voltage stability objective reactive power dispatch problem in a power system .The proposed approach employs cat swarm optimization algorithm for optimal settings of RPD control variables. Generator terminal voltages, reactive power generation of the capacitor banks and tap changing transformer setting are taken as the optimization variables. CSO algorithm is tested on standard IEEE 30 bus system and the results are compared with other methods to prove the effectiveness of the new algorithm. As a result, the proposed method is the best for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem.

Keywords: RPD problem, voltage stability enhancement, CSO algorithm.

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5854 Estimating the Flow Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor

Abstract:

Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is found. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: Flow generated sound, sound processing, speed, wave power.

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5853 Multi-Line Power Flow Control using Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC) in Power Transmission Systems

Authors: A.V.Naresh Babu, S.Sivanagaraju, Ch.Padmanabharaju, T.Ramana

Abstract:

The interline power flow controller (IPFC) is one of the latest generation flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) controller used to control power flows of multiple transmission lines. This paper presents a mathematical model of IPFC, termed as power injection model (PIM). This model is incorporated in Newton- Raphson (NR) power flow algorithm to study the power flow control in transmission lines in which IPFC is placed. A program in MATLAB has been written in order to extend conventional NR algorithm based on this model. Numerical results are carried out on a standard 2 machine 5 bus system. The results without and with IPFC are compared in terms of voltages, active and reactive power flows to demonstrate the performance of the IPFC model.

Keywords: flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), interline power flow controller (IPFC), power injection model (PIM), power flow control.

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5852 Steady State Power Flow Calculations with STATCOM under Load Increase Scenario and Line Contingencies

Authors: A. S. Telang, P. P. Bedekar

Abstract:

Flexible AC transmission system controllers play an important role in controlling the line power flow and in improving voltage profiles of the power system network. They can be used to increase the reliability and efficiency of transmission and distribution system. The modeling of these FACTS controllers in power flow calculations have become a challenging research problem. This paper presents a simple and systematic approach for a steady state power flow calculations of power system with STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator). It shows how systematically STATCOM can be implemented in conventional power flow calculations. The main contribution of this paper is to investigate this approach for two special conditions i.e. consideration of load increase pattern incorporating load change (active, reactive and both active and reactive) at all load buses simultaneously and the line contingencies under such load change. Such investigation proves to be relevant for determination of strategy for the optimal placement of STATCOM to enhance the voltage stability. The performance has been evaluated on many standard IEEE test systems. The results for standard IEEE-30 bus test system are presented here.

Keywords: Load flow analysis, Newton-Raphson (N-R) power flow, Flexible AC transmission system, FACTS, Static synchronous compensator, STATCOM, voltage profile.

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5851 Enhanced GA-Fuzzy OPF under both Normal and Contingent Operation States

Authors: Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

The genetic algorithm (GA) based solution techniques are found suitable for optimization because of their ability of simultaneous multidimensional search. Many GA-variants have been tried in the past to solve optimal power flow (OPF), one of the nonlinear problems of electric power system. The issues like convergence speed and accuracy of the optimal solution obtained after number of generations using GA techniques and handling system constraints in OPF are subjects of discussion. The results obtained for GA-Fuzzy OPF on various power systems have shown faster convergence and lesser generation costs as compared to other approaches. This paper presents an enhanced GA-Fuzzy OPF (EGAOPF) using penalty factors to handle line flow constraints and load bus voltage limits for both normal network and contingency case with congestion. In addition to crossover and mutation rate adaptation scheme that adapts crossover and mutation probabilities for each generation based on fitness values of previous generations, a block swap operator is also incorporated in proposed EGA-OPF. The line flow limits and load bus voltage magnitude limits are handled by incorporating line overflow and load voltage penalty factors respectively in each chromosome fitness function. The effects of different penalty factors settings are also analyzed under contingent state.

Keywords: Contingent operation state, Fuzzy rule base, Genetic Algorithms, Optimal Power Flow.

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5850 The Effects of Rain and Overland Flow Powers on Agricultural Soil Erodibility

Authors: A. Moussouni, L. Mouzai, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The purpose of this investigation is to relate the rain power and the overland flow power to soil erodibility to assess the effects of both parameters on soil erosion using variable rainfall intensity on remoulded agricultural soil. Six rainfall intensities were used to simulate the natural rainfall and are as follows: 12.4mm/h, 20.3mm/h, 28.6mm/h, 52mm/h, 73.5mm/h and 103mm/h. The results have shown that the relationship between overland flow power and rain power is best represented by a linear function (R2=0.99). As regards the relationships between soil erodibility factor and rain and overland flow powers, the evolution of both parameters with the erodibility factor follow a polynomial function with high coefficient of determination. From their coefficients of determination (R2=0.95) for rain power and (R2=0.96) for overland flow power, we can conclude that the flow has more power to detach particles than rain. This could be explained by the fact that the presence of particles, already detached by rain and transported by the flow, give the flow more weight and then contribute to the detachment of particles by collision.

Keywords: Laboratory experiments, soil erosion, flow power, erodibility, rainfall intensity.

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5849 Computation of Global Voltage Stability Margin in a Practical Power Network Incorporating FACTS in the OPF Frame Work

Authors: P. Nagendra, S. Halder nee Dey, S. Paul, T. Datta

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology to assess the voltage stability status combined with optimal power flow technique using an instantaneous two-bus equivalent model of power system incorporating static var compensator (SVC) and thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) controllers. There by, a generalized global voltage stability indicator being developed has been applied to a robust practical Indian Eastern Grid 203-bus system. Simulation results have proved that the proposed methodology is promising to assess voltage stability of any power system at any operating point in global scenario. Voltage stability augmentation with the application of SVC at the weakest bus and TCSC at critical line connected to the weakest bus is compared with the system having no compensation. In the proposed network equivalent model the generators have been modeled more accurately considering economic criteria.

Keywords: Equivalent two-bus model, global voltage security indicator, optimal power flow, SVC, TCSC.

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5848 Probabilistic Method of Wind Generation Placement for Congestion Management

Authors: S. Z. Moussavi, A. Badri, F. Rastegar Kashkooli

Abstract:

Wind farms (WFs) with high level of penetration are being established in power systems worldwide more rapidly than other renewable resources. The Independent System Operator (ISO), as a policy maker, should propose appropriate places for WF installation in order to maximize the benefits for the investors. There is also a possibility of congestion relief using the new installation of WFs which should be taken into account by the ISO when proposing the locations for WF installation. In this context, efficient wind farm (WF) placement method is proposed in order to reduce burdens on congested lines. Since the wind speed is a random variable and load forecasts also contain uncertainties, probabilistic approaches are used for this type of study. AC probabilistic optimal power flow (P-OPF) is formulated and solved using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS). In order to reduce computation time, point estimate methods (PEM) are introduced as efficient alternative for time-demanding MCS. Subsequently, WF optimal placement is determined using generation shift distribution factors (GSDF) considering a new parameter entitled, wind availability factor (WAF). In order to obtain more realistic results, N-1 contingency analysis is employed to find the optimal size of WF, by means of line outage distribution factors (LODF). The IEEE 30-bus test system is used to show and compare the accuracy of proposed methodology.

Keywords: Probabilistic optimal power flow, Wind power, Pointestimate methods, Congestion management

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5847 Optimal Distributed Generator Sizing and Placement by Analytical Method and PSO Algorithm Considering Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch

Authors: Kyaw Myo Lin, Pyone Lai Swe, Khine Zin Oo

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach combining analytical method for the distributed generator (DG) sizing and meta-heuristic search for the optimal location of DG has been presented. The optimal size of DG on each bus is estimated by the loss sensitivity factor method while the optimal sites are determined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based optimal reactive power dispatch for minimizing active power loss. To confirm the proposed approach, it has been tested on IEEE-30 bus test system. The adjustments of operating constraints and voltage profile improvements have also been observed. The obtained results show that the allocation of DGs results in a significant loss reduction with good voltage profiles and the combined approach is competent in keeping the system voltages within the acceptable limits.

Keywords: Analytical approach, distributed generations, optimal size, optimal location, optimal reactive power dispatch, particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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5846 Power Flow Tracing Based Reactive Power Ancillary Service (AS) in Restructured Power Market

Authors: M. Susithra, R. Gnanadass

Abstract:

Ancillary services are support services which are essential for humanizing and enhancing the reliability and security of the electric power system. Reactive power ancillary service is one of the important ancillary services in a restructured electricity market which determines the cost of supplying ancillary services and finding of how this cost would change with respect to operating decisions. This paper presents a new formation that can be used to minimize the Independent System Operator (ISO)’s total payment for reactive power ancillary service. The modified power flow tracing algorithm estimates the availability of reserve reactive power for ancillary service. In order to find optimum reactive power dispatch, Biogeography based optimization method (BPO) is proposed. Market Reactive Clearing Price (MRCP) is then estimated and it encourages generator companies (GENCOs) to participate in an ancillary service. Finally, optimal weighting factor and real time utilization factor of reactive power give the minimum ISO’s total payment. The effectiveness of proposed design is verified using IEEE 30 bus system.

Keywords: Biogeography based optimization method, Power flow tracing method, Reactive generation capability curve and Reactive power ancillary service.

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5845 Optimal Economic Load Dispatch Using Genetic Algorithms

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Jagdev Singh, Yaduvir Singh, Sanjay Sood

Abstract:

In a practical power system, the power plants are not located at the same distance from the center of loads and their fuel costs are different. Also, under normal operating conditions, the generation capacity is more than the total load demand and losses. Thus, there are many options for scheduling generation. In an interconnected power system, the objective is to find the real and reactive power scheduling of each power plant in such a way as to minimize the operating cost. This means that the generator’s real and reactive powers are allowed to vary within certain limits so as to meet a particular load demand with minimum fuel cost. This is called optimal power flow problem. In this paper, Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) of real power generation is considered. Economic Load Dispatch (ELD) is the scheduling of generators to minimize total operating cost of generator units subjected to equality constraint of power balance within the minimum and maximum operating limits of the generating units. In this paper, genetic algorithms are considered. ELD solutions are found by solving the conventional load flow equations while at the same time minimizing the fuel costs.

Keywords: ELD, Equality constraints, Genetic algorithms, Strings.

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5844 Unbalanced Distribution Optimal Power Flow to Minimize Losses with Distributed Photovoltaic Plants

Authors: Malinwo Estone Ayikpa

Abstract:

Electric power systems are likely to operate with minimum losses and voltage meeting international standards. This is made possible generally by control actions provide by automatic voltage regulators, capacitors and transformers with on-load tap changer (OLTC). With the development of photovoltaic (PV) systems technology, their integration on distribution networks has increased over the last years to the extent of replacing the above mentioned techniques. The conventional analysis and simulation tools used for electrical networks are no longer able to take into account control actions necessary for studying distributed PV generation impact. This paper presents an unbalanced optimal power flow (OPF) model that minimizes losses with association of active power generation and reactive power control of single-phase and three-phase PV systems. Reactive power can be generated or absorbed using the available capacity and the adjustable power factor of the inverter. The unbalance OPF is formulated by current balance equations and solved by primal-dual interior point method. Several simulation cases have been carried out varying the size and location of PV systems and the results show a detailed view of the impact of PV distributed generation on distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, losses, photovoltaic generation, primal-dual interior point method, reactive power control.

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5843 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya

Abstract:

The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.

Keywords: Inter line power flow controller, Transmission Pricing, Unified power flow controller, cost allocation.

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5842 Application of STATCOM-SMES Compensator for Power System Dynamic Performance Improvement

Authors: Reza Sedaghati, Mojtaba Hakimzadeh, Mohammad Hasan Raouf, Mostafa Mirzadeh

Abstract:

Nowadays the growth of distributed generation within the bulk power system is feasible by using the optimal control of the transmission lines power flow. Static Synchronous Compensators (STATCOM) is effective for improving voltage stability but it can only exchange reactive power with the power grid. The integration of Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) with a STATCOM can extend the traditional STATCOM capabilities to four-quadrant bulk power system power flow control and providing exchange both the active and reactive power related to the STATCOM with the ac network. This paper shows how the SMES system can be connected to the ac system via the DC bus of a STATCOM and also analyzes how the integration of STATCOM and SMES allows the bus voltage regulation and power oscillation damping (POD) to be achieved simultaneously. The dynamic performance of the integrated STATCOM-SMES is evaluated through simulation by using PSCAD/EMTDC software and the compensation effectiveness of this integrated compensator is shown.

Keywords: STATCOM-SMES compensator, Power Oscillation Damping (POD), stabilizing, signal, voltage.

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5841 Active Power Flow Control Using A TCSC Based Backstepping Controller in Multimachine Power System

Authors: Naimi Abdelhamid, Othmane Abdelkhalek

Abstract:

With the current rise in the demand of electrical energy, present-day power systems which are large and complex, will continue to grow in both size and complexity. Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers provide new facilities, both in steady state power flow control and dynamic stability control. Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) is one of FACTS equipment, which is used for power flow control of active power in electric power system and for increase of capacities of transmission lines. In this paper, a Backstepping Power Flow Controller (BPFC) for TCSC in multimachine power system is developed and tested. The simulation results show that the TCSC proposed controller is capable of controlling the transmitted active power and improving the transient stability when compared with conventional PI Power Flow Controller (PIPFC).

Keywords: FACTS, Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Backstepping, BPFC, PIPFC.

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5840 Multiple Power Flow Solutions Using Particle Swarm Optimization with Embedded Local Search Technique

Authors: P. Acharjee, S. K. Goswami

Abstract:

Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) with elite PSO parameters has been developed for power flow analysis under practical constrained situations. Multiple solutions of the power flow problem are useful in voltage stability assessment of power system. A method of determination of multiple power flow solutions is presented using a hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and local search technique. The unique and innovative learning factors of the PSO algorithm are formulated depending upon the node power mismatch values to be highly adaptive with the power flow problems. The local search is applied on the pbest solution obtained by the PSO algorithm in each iteration. The proposed algorithm performs reliably and provides multiple solutions when applied on standard and illconditioned systems. The test results show that the performances of the proposed algorithm under critical conditions are better than the conventional methods.

Keywords: critical conditions, ill-conditioned systems, localsearch technique, multiple power flow solutions, particle swarmoptimization.

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5839 Power Flow Control with UPFC in Power Transmission System

Authors: Samina Elyas Mubeen, R. K. Nema, Gayatri Agnihotri

Abstract:

In this paper the performance of unified power flow controller is investigated in controlling the flow of po wer over the transmission line. Voltage sources model is utilized to study the behaviour of the UPFC in regulating the active, reactive power and voltage profile. This model is incorporated in Newton Raphson algorithm for load flow studies. Simultaneous method is employed in which equations of UPFC and the power balance equations of network are combined in to one set of non-linear algebraic equations. It is solved according to the Newton raphson algorithm. Case studies are carried on standard 5 bus network. Simulation is done in Matlab. The result of network with and without using UPFC are compared in terms of active and reactive power flows in the line and active and reactive power flows at the bus to analyze the performance of UPFC.

Keywords: Newton-Raphson algorithm, Load flow, Unified power flow controller, Voltage source model.

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5838 Ant Colony Optimization for Optimal Distributed Generation in Distribution Systems

Authors: I. A. Farhat

Abstract:

The problem of optimal planning of multiple sources of distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks is treated in this paper using an improved Ant Colony Optimization algorithm (ACO). This objective of this problem is to determine the DG optimal size and location that in order to minimize the network real power losses. Considering the multiple sources of DG, both size and location are simultaneously optimized in a single run of the proposed ACO algorithm. The various practical constraints of the problem are taken into consideration by the problem formulation and the algorithm implementation. A radial power flow algorithm for distribution networks is adopted and applied to satisfy these constraints. To validate the proposed technique and demonstrate its effectiveness, the well-know 69-bus feeder standard test system is employed.cm.

Keywords: About Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), Distributed Generation (DG).

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5837 Simplified Models to Determine Nodal Voltagesin Problems of Optimal Allocation of Capacitor Banks in Power Distribution Networks

Authors: A. Pereira, S. Haffner, L. V. Gasperin

Abstract:

This paper presents two simplified models to determine nodal voltages in power distribution networks. These models allow estimating the impact of the installation of reactive power compensations equipments like fixed or switched capacitor banks. The procedure used to develop the models is similar to the procedure used to develop linear power flow models of transmission lines, which have been widely used in optimization problems of operation planning and system expansion. The steady state non-linear load flow equations are approximated by linear equations relating the voltage amplitude and currents. The approximations of the linear equations are based on the high relationship between line resistance and line reactance (ratio R/X), which is valid for power distribution networks. The performance and accuracy of the models are evaluated through comparisons with the exact results obtained from the solution of the load flow using two test networks: a hypothetical network with 23 nodes and a real network with 217 nodes.

Keywords: Distribution network models, distribution systems, optimization, power system planning.

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