Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: Gautam Sarkar

63 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: Ocular diseases, retinal fundus image, optic disc detection and segmentation, fully convolutional network, overlap measure.

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62 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: Arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea.

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61 Low Value Capacitance Measurement System with Adjustable Lead Capacitance Compensation

Authors: Gautam Sarkar, Anjan Rakshit, Amitava Chatterjee, Kesab Bhattacharya

Abstract:

The present paper describes the development of a low cost, highly accurate low capacitance measurement system that can be used over a range of 0 – 400 pF with a resolution of 1 pF. The range of capacitance may be easily altered by a simple resistance or capacitance variation of the measurement circuit. This capacitance measurement system uses quad two-input NAND Schmitt trigger circuit CD4093B with hysteresis for the measurement and this system is integrated with PIC 18F2550 microcontroller for data acquisition purpose. The microcontroller interacts with software developed in the PC end through USB architecture and an attractive graphical user interface (GUI) based system is developed in the PC end to provide the user with real time, online display of capacitance under measurement. The system uses a differential mode of capacitance measurement, with reference to a trimmer capacitance, that effectively compensates lead capacitances, a notorious error encountered in usual low capacitance measurements. The hysteresis provided in the Schmitt-trigger circuits enable reliable operation of the system by greatly minimizing the possibility of false triggering because of stray interferences, usually regarded as another source of significant error. The real life testing of the proposed system showed that our measurements could produce highly accurate capacitance measurements, when compared to cutting edge, high end digital capacitance meters.

Keywords: Capacitance measurement, NAND Schmitt trigger, microcontroller, GUI, lead compensation, hysteresis.

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60 User Behavior Based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP) for Secure Near Field Communication

Authors: Vinay Gautam, Vivek Gautam

Abstract:

With increase in the unauthorized users access, it is required to increase the security in the Near Field Communication (NFC). In the paper we propose a user behavior based enhanced protocol entitled ‘User Behavior based Enhanced Protocol (UBEP)’ to increase the security in NFC enabled devices. The UBEP works on the history of interaction of a user with system.The propose protocol considers four different factors (touch, time and distance & angle) of user behavior to know the authenticity or authorization of the users. These factors can be same for a user during interaction with the system. The UBEP uses two phase user verification system to authenticate a user. Firstly the acquisition phase is used to acquire and store the user interaction with NFC device and the same information is used in future to detect the authenticity of the user. The second phase (recognition) uses analysis of current and previous scenario of user interaction and digital signature verification system to finally authenticate user. The analysis of user based input makes a NFC transaction more advance and secure. This security is very tactical because it is completely depends on usage of the device.

Keywords: Security, Network Field communication, NFC Protocol.

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59 Biological Effects of a Carbohydrate-Binding Protein from an Annelid, Perinereis nuntia Against Human and Phytopathogenic Microorganisms

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

Lectins have a good scope in current clinical microbiology research. In the present study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of a D-galactose binding lectin (PnL) was purified from the annelid, Perinereis nuntia (polychaeta) by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 32 kDa as a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under both reducing and non-reducing conditions. The hemagglutinating activity of the PnL showed against trypsinized and glutaraldehyde-fixed human erythrocytes was specifically inhibited by D-Gal, GalNAc, Galβ1-4Glc and Galα1-6Glc. PnL was evaluated for in vitro antibacterial screening studies against 11 gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. From the screening results, it was revealed that PnL exhibited significant antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria. Bacillus megaterium showed the highest growth inhibition by the lectin (250 μg/disc). However, PnL did not inhibit the growth of gram-negative bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae and Pseudomonas sp. PnL was also examined for in vitro antifungal activity against six fungal phytopathogens. PnL (100 μg/mL) inhibited the mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata (24.4%). These results indicate that future findings of lectin applications obtained from annelids may be of importance to life sciences.

Keywords: Perinereis nuntia, Lectin, Inhibition zone, Mycelial growth.

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58 In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of a 30 kDa D-Galactoside-Specific Lectin from the Demosponge, Halichondria okadai

Authors: Sarkar M. A. Kawsar, Sarkar M. A. Mamun, Md S. Rahman, Hidetaro Yasumitsu, Yasuhiro Ozeki

Abstract:

The present study has been taken to explore the screening of in vitro antimicrobial activities of D-galactose-binding sponge lectin (HOL-30). HOL-30 was purified from the marine demosponge Halichondria okadai by affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the lectin was determined to be 30 kDa with a single polypeptide by SDS-PAGE under non-reducing and reducing conditions. HOL-30 agglutinated trypsinized and glutaraldehydefixed rabbit and human erythrocytes with preference for type O erythrocytes. The lectin was subjected to evaluation for inhibition of microbial growth by the disc diffusion method against eleven human pathogenic gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The lectin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. However, it did not affect against gram-negative bacteria such as Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. The largest zone of inhibition was recorded of Bacillus megaterium (12 in diameter) and Bacillus subtilis (10 mm in diameter) at a concentration of the lectin (250 μg/disc). On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the lectin was investigated against six phytopathogenic fungi based on food poisoning technique. The lectin has shown maximum inhibition (22.83%) of mycelial growth of Botrydiplodia theobromae at a concentration of 100 μg/mL media. These findings indicate that the lectin may be of importance to clinical microbiology and have therapeutic applications.

Keywords: Antibacterial, Halichondria okadai, Inhibition zone, Lectin.

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57 Laboratory Evaluation of Asphalt Concrete Prepared with Over Burnt Brick Aggregate Treated by Zycosoil

Authors: D. Sarkar, M. Pal, A. K. Sarkar

Abstract:

Asphaltic concrete for pavement construction in India are produced by using crushed stone, gravels etc. as aggregate. In north-Eastern region of India, there is a scarcity of stone aggregate. Therefore the road engineers are always in search of an optional material as aggregate which can replace the regularly used material. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the utilization of substandard or marginal aggregates in flexible pavement construction. The investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of using lower quality aggregates such as over burnt brick aggregate on the preparation of asphalt concrete for flexible pavements. The scope of this work included a review of available literature and existing data, a laboratory evaluation organized to determine the effects of marginal aggregates and potential techniques to upgrade these substandard materials, and a laboratory evaluation of these upgraded marginal aggregate asphalt mixtures. Over burnt brick aggregates are water susceptible and can leads to moisture damage. Moisture damage is the progressive loss of functionality of the material owing to loss of the adhesion bond between the asphalt binder and the aggregate surface. Hence zycosoil as an anti striping additive were evaluated in this study. This study summarizes the results of the laboratory evaluation carried out to investigate the properties of asphalt concrete prepared with zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Marshall specimen were prepared with stone aggregate, zycosoil modified stone aggregate, over burnt brick aggregate and zycosoil modified over burnt brick aggregate. Results show that addition of zycosoil with stone aggregate increased stability by 6% and addition of zycosoil with over burnt brick aggregate increased stability by 30%.

Keywords: Asphalt Concrete, Over Burnt Brick Aggregate, Marshall Stability, Zycosoil.

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56 Analysis of Short Bearing in Turbulent Regime Considering Micropolar Lubrication

Authors: S. S. Gautam, S. Samanta

Abstract:

The aim of the paper work is to investigate and predict the static performance of journal bearing in turbulent flow condition considering micropolar lubrication. The Reynolds equation has been modified considering turbulent micropolar lubrication and is solved for steady state operations. The Constantinescu-s turbulence model is adopted using the coefficients. The analysis has been done for a parallel and inertia less flow. Load capacity and friction factor have been evaluated for various operating parameters.

Keywords: hydrodynamic bearing, micropolar lubrication, coupling number, characteristic length, perturbation analysis

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55 An Improved Design of Area Efficient Two Bit Comparator

Authors: Shashank Gautam, Pramod Sharma

Abstract:

In present era, development of digital circuits, signal processors and other integrated circuits, magnitude comparators are challenged by large area and more power consumption. Comparator is most basic circuit that performs comparison. This paper presents a technique to design a two bit comparator which consumes less area and power. DSCH and MICROWIND version 3 are used to design the schematic and design the layout of the schematic, observe the performance parameters at different nanometer technologies respectively.

Keywords: Chip design, consumed power, layout area, two bit comparator.

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54 Adaptive Climate Responsive Vernacular Construction in High Altitude

Authors: Ar. Amitava Sarkar

Abstract:

In the traditional architecture, buildings were designed to achieve human comfort by using locally available building materials and construction technology which were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will try to bring out the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, about their way of living, and shaping their built environment, indoor and outdoor spaces, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the findings of a field settlement.

Keywords: Traditional architecture, High altitude, Climatic adaptation, Sustainable construction

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53 Study of Qualitative and Quantitative Metric for Pixel Factor Mapping and Extended Pixel Mapping Method

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach is presented to investigate the performance of Pixel Factor Mapping (PFM) and Extended PMM (Pixel Mapping Method) through the qualitative and quantitative approach. These methods are tested against a number of well-known image similarity metrics and statistical distribution techniques. The PFM has been performed in spatial domain as well as frequency domain and the Extended PMM has also been performed in spatial domain through large set of images available in the internet.

Keywords: Qualitative, quantitative, PFM, EXTENDED PMM.

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52 Designing of Full Adder Using Low Power Techniques

Authors: Shashank Gautam

Abstract:

This paper proposes techniques like MT CMOS, POWER GATING, DUAL STACK, GALEOR and LECTOR to reduce the leakage power. A Full Adder has been designed using these techniques and power dissipation is calculated and is compared with general CMOS logic of Full Adder. Simulation results show the validity of the proposed techniques is effective to save power dissipation and to increase the speed of operation of the circuits to a large extent.

Keywords: Low Power, MT CMOS, Galeor, Lector, Power Gating, Dual Stack, Full Adder.

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51 Flow Transformation: An Investigation on Theoretical Aspects and Numerical Computation

Authors: Abhisek Sarkar, Abhimanyu Gaur

Abstract:

In this report we have discussed the theoretical aspects of the flow transformation, occurring through a series of bifurcations. The parameters and their continuous diversion, the intermittent bursts in the transition zone, variation of velocity and pressure with time, effect of roughness in turbulent zone, and changes in friction factor and head loss coefficient as a function of Reynolds number for a transverse flow across a cylinder have been discussed. An analysis of the variation in the wake length with Reynolds number was done in FORTRAN.

Keywords: Attractor, Bifurcation, Energy cascade, Energy spectra, Intermittence, Vortex stretching.

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50 Evaluation of Ultrasonic C-Scan Images by Fractal Dimension

Authors: S. Samanta, D. Datta, S. S. Gautam

Abstract:

In this paper, quantitative evaluation of ultrasonic Cscan images through estimation of their Fractal Dimension (FD) is discussed. Necessary algorithm for evaluation of FD of any 2-D digitized image is implemented by developing a computer code. For the evaluation purpose several C-scan images of the Kevlar composite impacted by high speed bullet and glass fibre composite having flaw in the form of inclusion is used. This analysis automatically differentiates a C-scan image showing distinct damage zone, from an image that contains no such damage.

Keywords: C-scan, Impact, Fractal Dimension, Kevlar composite and Inclusion Flaw

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49 Analysis of Possible Causes of Fukushima Disaster

Authors: Abid Hossain Khan, Syam Hasan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Fukushima disaster is one of the most publicly exposed accidents in a nuclear facility which has changed the outlook of people towards nuclear power. Some have used it as an example to establish nuclear energy as an unsafe source, while others have tried to find the real reasons behind this accident. Many papers have tried to shed light on the possible causes, some of which are purely based on assumptions while others rely on rigorous data analysis. To our best knowledge, none of the works can say with absolute certainty that there is a single prominent reason that has paved the way to this unexpected incident. This paper attempts to compile all the apparent reasons behind Fukushima disaster and tries to analyze and identify the most likely one.

Keywords: Fuel meltdown, Fukushima disaster, manmade calamity, nuclear facility, tsunami.

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48 A 1.2-ns16×16-Bit Binary Multiplier Using High Speed Compressors

Authors: A. Dandapat, S. Ghosal, P. Sarkar, D. Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

For higher order multiplications, a huge number of adders or compressors are to be used to perform the partial product addition. We have reduced the number of adders by introducing special kind of adders that are capable to add five/six/seven bits per decade. These adders are called compressors. Binary counter property has been merged with the compressor property to develop high order compressors. Uses of these compressors permit the reduction of the vertical critical paths. A 16×16 bit multiplier has been developed using these compressors. These compressors make the multipliers faster as compared to the conventional design that have been used 4-2 compressors and 3-2 compressors.

Keywords: Binary multiplier, Compressors, Counter, Column adder, Low power.

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47 Parameter Estimation of Diode Circuit Using Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Amit Kumar Gautam, Sudipta Majumdar

Abstract:

This paper presents parameter estimation of a single-phase rectifier using extended Kalman filter (EKF). The state space model has been obtained using Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) and Kirchhoff’s voltage law (KVL). The capacitor voltage and diode current of the circuit have been estimated using EKF. Simulation results validate the better accuracy of the proposed method as compared to the least mean square method (LMS). Further, EKF has the advantage that it can be used for nonlinear systems.

Keywords: Extended Kalman filter, parameter estimation, single phase rectifier, state space modelling.

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46 Effect of Sedimentation on Torque Transmission in the Larger Radius Magnetorheological Clutch

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Chiranjit Sarkar

Abstract:

Sedimentation of magnetorheological (MR) fluid affects its working. MR fluid is a smart fluid that has unique qualities such as quick responsiveness and easy controllability. It is used in the MR damper, MR brake, and MR clutch. In this work effect of sedimentation on torque transmission in the shear mode operated MR clutch is investigated. A test rig is developed to test the impact of sedimentation on torque transmission in the MR clutch. Torque transmission capability of MR clutch has been measured under two conditions to confirm the result of sedimentation. The first experiment is done just after filling and the other after one week. It has been observed that transmission torque is decreased after sedimentation. Hence sedimentation affects the working of the MR clutch.

Keywords: Clutch, magnetorheological fluid, sedimentation, torque.

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45 Design Optimization of the Primary Containment Building of a Pressurized Water Reactor

Authors: M. Hossain, A. H. Khan, M. A. R. Sarkar

Abstract:

Primary containment structure is one of the five safety layers of a nuclear facility which is needed to be designed in such a manner that it can withstand the pressure and excessive radioactivity during accidental situations. It is also necessary to ensure minimization of cost with maximum possible safety in order to make the design economically feasible and attractive. This paper attempts to identify the optimum design conditions for primary containment structure considering both mechanical and radiation safety keeping the economic aspects in mind. This work takes advantage of commercial simulation software to identify the suitable conditions without the requirement of costly experiments. Generated data may be helpful for further studies.

Keywords: PWR, concrete containment, finite element approach, neutron attenuation, Von Mises Stress.

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44 Control Strategy of SRM Converters for Power Quality Improvement

Authors: Yogesh Pahariya, Rakesh Saxena, Biswaroop Sarkar

Abstract:

The selection of control strategy depends on the converters of the drive including power, speed, performance and the possible system costs. A number of attempts were therefore made in recent times to develop novel power electronic converter structures for SRM drives, based on the utilization. Many of the converters with variable speed drives have no input power factor correction circuits. This results in harmonic pollution of the utility supply, which should be avoided. The effect of power factor variation in terms of harmonic content is also analyzed in this study. The proposed topologies were simulated using MATLAB / Simulink software package and the results are obtained.

Keywords: Harmonic Pollution, Power Electronic Converter, Power Quality, Simulation.

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43 A Semi-Cylindrical Capacitive Sensor Used for Soil Moisture Measurement

Authors: Subir Das, Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Badal Chakraborty

Abstract:

Differing from the structure of traditional parallel plate capacitive sensor a semi cylindrical capacitive sensor has been introduced in this present work to measure the soil moisture conveniently. Here, the numerical analysis method to evaluate the capacitance from the semi-cylindrical capacitive sensor is analyzed and discussed. The changes of capacitance with the variation of soil moisture obtained linear in the nano farad range (nF) and which converted into voltage variation by using proper signal conditioning circuit. Experimental results depict the satisfactory performance of the sensor for measurement of soil moisture in the range of 0 to 70%. We investigated the linearity of 4% of FSO and sensitivity of 70 mV/unit percentage changes in soil moisture level (DB).

Keywords: Semi cylindrical Capacitive Sensor, Capacitance to Voltage converter Circuit, Soil Moisture.

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42 Performance Analysis of Cellular Wireless Network by Queuing Priority Handoff calls

Authors: Raj Kumar Samanta, Partha Bhattacharjee Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

In this paper, a mathematical model is proposed to estimate the dropping probabilities of cellular wireless networks by queuing handoff instead of reserving guard channels. Usually, prioritized handling of handoff calls is done with the help of guard channel reservation. To evaluate the proposed model, gamma inter-arrival and general service time distributions have been considered. Prevention of some of the attempted calls from reaching to the switching center due to electromagnetic propagation failure or whimsical user behaviour (missed call, prepaid balance etc.), make the inter-arrival time of the input traffic to follow gamma distribution. The performance is evaluated and compared with that of guard channel scheme.

Keywords: Cellular wireless networks, non-classical traffic, mathematicalmodel, guard channel, queuing, handoff.

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41 A Robust Image Steganography Method Using PMM in Bit Plane Domain

Authors: Souvik Bhattacharyya, Aparajita Khan, Indradip Banerjee, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

Steganography is the art and science that hides the information in an appropriate cover carrier like image, text, audio and video media. In this work the authors propose a new image based steganographic method for hiding information within the complex bit planes of the image. After slicing into bit planes the cover image is analyzed to extract the most complex planes in decreasing order based on their bit plane complexity. The complexity function next determines the complex noisy blocks of the chosen bit plane and finally pixel mapping method (PMM) has been used to embed secret bits into those regions of the bit plane. The novel approach of using pixel mapping method (PMM) in bit plane domain adaptively embeds data on most complex regions of image, provides high embedding capacity, better imperceptibility and resistance to steganalysis attack.

Keywords: PMM (Pixel Mapping Method), Bit Plane, Steganography, SSIM, KL-Divergence.

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40 Signal Processing Approach to Study Multifractality and Singularity of Solar Wind Speed Time Series

Authors: Tushnik Sarkar, Mofazzal H. Khondekar, Subrata Banerjee

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nature of the fluctuation of the daily average Solar wind speed time series collected over a period of 2492 days, from 1st January, 1997 to 28th October, 2003. The degree of self-similarity and scalability of the Solar Wind Speed signal has been explored to characterise the signal fluctuation. Multi-fractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA) method has been implemented on the signal which is under investigation to perform this task. Furthermore, the singularity spectra of the signals have been also obtained to gauge the extent of the multifractality of the time series signal.

Keywords: Detrended fluctuation analysis, generalized Hurst exponent, holder exponents, multifractal exponent, multifractal spectrum, singularity spectrum, time series analysis.

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39 DWT Based Image Steganalysis

Authors: Indradip Banerjee, Souvik Bhattacharyya, Gautam Sanyal

Abstract:

‘Steganalysis’ is one of the challenging and attractive interests for the researchers with the development of information hiding techniques. It is the procedure to detect the hidden information from the stego created by known steganographic algorithm. In this paper, a novel feature based image steganalysis technique is proposed. Various statistical moments have been used along with some similarity metric. The proposed steganalysis technique has been designed based on transformation in four wavelet domains, which include Haar, Daubechies, Symlets and Biorthogonal. Each domain is being subjected to various classifiers, namely K-nearest-neighbor, K* Classifier, Locally weighted learning, Naive Bayes classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees and Support vector machines. The experiments are performed on a large set of pictures which are available freely in image database. The system also predicts the different message length definitions.

Keywords: Steganalysis, Moments, Wavelet Domain, KNN, K*, LWL, Naive Bayes Classifier, Neural networks, Decision trees, SVM.

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38 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Portevin-Le Chatelier Effect of Al-2.5%Mg Alloy

Authors: A. Chatterjee, A. Sarkar, N. Gayathri, P. Mukherjee, P. Barat

Abstract:

An experimental study is presented on the effect of microstructural change on the Portevin-Le Chatelier effect behaviour of Al-2.5%Mg alloy. Tensile tests are performed on the as received and heat treated (at 400 ºC for 16 hours) samples for a wide range of strain rates. The serrations observed in the stress-time curve are investigated from statistical analysis point of view. Microstructures of the samples are characterized by optical metallography and X-ray diffraction. It is found that the excess vacancy generated due to heat treatment leads to decrease in the strain rate sensitivity and the increase in the number of stress drop occurrences per unit time during the PLC effect. The microstructural parameters like domain size, dislocation density have no appreciable effect on the PLC effect as far as the statistical behavior of the serrations is considered.

Keywords: Dynamic strain ageing, Heat treatment, Portevin-LeChatelier effect

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37 Impact of MAC Layer on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Authors: T.G. Basavaraju, Subir Kumar Sarkar, C Puttamadappa

Abstract:

Mobile Ad hoc Networks is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by multi-hop wireless links without centralized infrastructure support. As mobile communication gains popularity, the need for suitable ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. Efficient dynamic routing is an important research challenge in such a network. Bandwidth constrained mobile devices use on-demand approach in their routing protocols because of its effectiveness and efficiency. Many researchers have conducted numerous simulations for comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. Most of them are not aware of MAC Protocols, which will impact the relative performance of routing protocols considered in different network scenarios. In this paper we investigate the choice of MAC protocols affects the relative performance of ad hoc routing protocols under different scenarios. We have evaluated the performance of these protocols using NS2 simulations. Our results show that the performance of routing protocols of ad hoc networks will suffer when run over different MAC Layer protocols.

Keywords: AODV, DSR, DSDV, MAC, MANETs, relativeperformance

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36 DNS of a Laminar Separation Bubble

Authors: N. K. Singh, S. Sarkar

Abstract:

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the evolution of a boundary layer that was laminar initially followed by separation and then reattachment owing to generation of turbulence. This creates a closed region of recirculation, known as the laminar-separation bubble. The present simulation emulates the flow environment encountered in a modern LP turbine blade, where a laminar separation bubble may occur on the suction surface. The unsteady, incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equations have been solved over a flat plate in the Cartesian coordinates. The adverse pressure gradient, which causes the flow to separate, is created by a boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition through appearance of ╬ø vortices, stretching of these create longitudinal streaks. Breakdown of the streaks into small and irregular structures makes the flow turbulent downstream.

Keywords: Adverse pressure gradient, direct numerical simulation, laminar separation bubble.

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35 Design of a Novel Inclination Sensor Utilizing Grayscale Image

Authors: Tuhin Subhra Sarkar, Subir Das

Abstract:

Several research works have been done in recent times utilizing grayscale image for the measurement of many physical phenomena. In this present paper, we have designed an embedded based inclination sensor utilizing the grayscale image with a resolution of 0.3º. The sensor module consists of a circular shaped metal disc, laminated with grayscale image and an optical transreceiver. The sensor principle is based on temporal changes in light intensity by the movement of grayscale image with the inclination of the target surface and the variation of light intensity has been detected in terms of voltage by the signal processing circuit (SPC).The output of SPC is fed to a microcontroller program to display the inclination angel digitally. The experimental results are shown a satisfactory performance of the sensor in a small inclination measuring range of -40º to + 40º with a sensitivity of 62 mV/°.

Keywords: Grayscale image, Inclination Sensor, Microcontroller Program, Signal Processing Circuit.

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34 Process Optimization for Enhanced Production of Cell Biomass and Metabolites of Fluorescent Pseudomonad R81

Authors: M.V.R.K Sarma, Krishna Saharan, Lalit Kumar, Ashwani Gautam, Avhijeet Kapoor, Nishant Srivastava, Vikram Sahai, V.S Bisaria

Abstract:

The fluorescent pseudomonad strain R81 is a root colonizing rhizobacteria which promotes the growth of many plants by various mechanisms. Its broth containing siderophore (ironchelating compound) and 2,4- diacetyl phloroglucinol (DAPG) is used for preparing bioinoculant formulations for agronomical applications. Glycerol was found to be the best carbon source for improved biomass production. Splitting of nitrogen source to NH4Cl and urea had a stabilizing effect on pH during batch cultivation. Ltryptophan at 0.5 % in the medium increased the siderophore production to 850 mg/l. During batch cultivation of the strain in a bioreactor, a maximum of 4 g/l of dry cell mass, 1.8 g/l of siderophore and 20 mg/l of DAPG was achieved when glycerol was 15 g/l and C/N ratio was maintained at 12.5. In case of intermittent feeding of fresh medium during fed-batch cultivation, the dry cell mass was increased to 25 g/l with improved production of DAPG to 70 mg/l.

Keywords: Batch cultivation, Fed-batch cultivation, fluorescent pseudomonad, Metabolites

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