Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8908

Search results for: Requirements Analysis.

8908 An Evaluation of Requirements Management and Traceability Tools

Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Suhaimi Ibrahim, Mohd Naz'ri Mahrin

Abstract:

Requirements management is critical to software delivery success and project lifecycle. Requirements management and their traceability provide assistance for many software engineering activities like impact analysis, coverage analysis, requirements validation and regression testing. In addition requirements traceability is the recognized component of many software process improvement initiatives. Requirements traceability also helps to control and manage evolution of a software system. This paper aims to provide an evaluation of current requirements management and traceability tools. Management and test managers require an appropriate tool for the software under test. We hope, evaluation identified here will help to select the efficient and effective tool.

Keywords: Requirements Traceability, Requirements TraceabilityTools; Requirements Management, Requirement Engineering

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8907 Suitability of Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM) Requirements for High-Level System Testing

Authors: Naeem Muhammad, Yves Vandewoude, Yolande Berbers, Robert Feldt

Abstract:

The Requirements Abstraction Model (RAM) helps in managing abstraction in requirements by organizing them at four levels (product, feature, function and component). The RAM is adaptable and can be tailored to meet the needs of the various organizations. Because software requirements are an important source of information for developing high-level tests, organizations willing to adopt the RAM model need to know the suitability of the RAM requirements for developing high-level tests. To investigate this suitability, test cases from twenty randomly selected requirements were developed, analyzed and graded. Requirements were selected from the requirements document of a Course Management System, a web based software system that supports teachers and students in performing course related tasks. This paper describes the results of the requirements document analysis. The results show that requirements at lower levels in the RAM are suitable for developing executable tests whereas it is hard to develop from requirements at higher levels.

Keywords: Market-driven requirements engineering, requirements abstraction model, requirements abstraction, system testing.

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8906 Detecting Interactions between Behavioral Requirements with OWL and SWRL

Authors: Haibo Hu, Dan Yang, Chunxiao Ye, Chunlei Fu, Ren Li

Abstract:

High quality requirements analysis is one of the most crucial activities to ensure the success of a software project, so that requirements verification for software system becomes more and more important in Requirements Engineering (RE) and it is one of the most helpful strategies for improving the quality of software system. Related works show that requirement elicitation and analysis can be facilitated by ontological approaches and semantic web technologies. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid method which aims to verify requirements with structural and formal semantics to detect interactions. The proposed method is twofold: one is for modeling requirements with the semantic web language OWL, to construct a semantic context; the other is a set of interaction detection rules which are derived from scenario-based analysis and represented with semantic web rule language (SWRL). SWRL based rules are working with rule engines like Jess to reason in semantic context for requirements thus to detect interactions. The benefits of the proposed method lie in three aspects: the method (i) provides systematic steps for modeling requirements with an ontological approach, (ii) offers synergy of requirements elicitation and domain engineering for knowledge sharing, and (3)the proposed rules can systematically assist in requirements interaction detection.

Keywords: Requirements Engineering, Semantic Web, OWL, Requirements Interaction Detection, SWRL.

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8905 User Requirements Analysis for the Development of Assistive Navigation Mobile Apps for Blind and Visually Impaired People

Authors: Paraskevi Theodorou, Apostolos Meliones

Abstract:

In the context of the development process of two assistive navigation mobile apps for blind and visually impaired people (BVI) an extensive qualitative analysis of the requirements of potential users has been conducted. The analysis was based on interviews with BVIs and aimed to elicit not only their needs with respect to autonomous navigation but also their preferences on specific features of the apps under development. The elicited requirements were structured into four main categories, namely, requirements concerning the capabilities, functionality and usability of the apps, as well as compatibility requirements with respect to other apps and services. The main categories were then further divided into nine sub-categories. This classification, along with its content, aims to become a useful tool for the researcher or the developer who is involved in the development of digital services for BVI.

Keywords: Accessibility, assistive mobile apps, blind and visually impaired people, user requirements analysis.

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8904 Conflicts Identification among Non-functional Requirements using Matrix Maps

Authors: Abdul H, Jamil A, Imran U

Abstract:

Conflicts identification among non-functional requirements is often identified intuitively which impairs conflict analysis practices. This paper proposes a new model to identify conflicts among non-functional requirements. The proposed model uses the matrix mechanism to identify the quality based conflicts among non-functional requirements. The potential conflicts are identified through the mapping of low level conflicting quality attributes to low level functionalities using the matrices. The proposed model achieves the identification of conflicts among product and process requirements, identifies false conflicts, decreases the documentation overhead, and maintains transparency of identified conflicts. The attributes are not concomitantly taken into account by current models in practice.

Keywords: Conflict Identification, Matrix Maps, Non-functional Requirements, Requirements Analysis, Software Engineering

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8903 An Automation of Check Focusing on CRUD for Requirements Analysis Model in UML

Authors: Shinpei Ogata, Yoshitaka Aoki, Hirotaka Okuda, Saeko Matsuura

Abstract:

A key to success of high quality software development is to define valid and feasible requirements specification. We have proposed a method of model-driven requirements analysis using Unified Modeling Language (UML). The main feature of our method is to automatically generate a Web user interface mock-up from UML requirements analysis model so that we can confirm validity of input/output data for each page and page transition on the system by directly operating the mock-up. This paper proposes a support method to check the validity of a data life cycle by using a model checking tool “UPPAAL" focusing on CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete). Exhaustive checking improves the quality of requirements analysis model which are validated by the customers through automatically generated mock-up. The effectiveness of our method is discussed by a case study of requirements modeling of two small projects which are a library management system and a supportive sales system for text books in a university.

Keywords: CRUD, Model Checking, Model Driven Development, Requirements Analysis, Unified Modeling Language, UPPAAL.

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8902 Rating the Importance of Customer Requirements for Green Product Using Analytic Hierarchy Process Methodology

Authors: Lara F. Horani, Shurong Tong

Abstract:

Identification of customer requirements and their preferences are the starting points in the process of product design. Most of design methodologies focus on traditional requirements. But in the previous decade, the green products and the environment requirements have increasingly attracted the attention with the constant increase in the level of consumer awareness towards environmental problems (such as green-house effect, global warming, pollution and energy crisis, and waste management). Determining the importance weights for the customer requirements is an essential and crucial process. This paper used the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) approach to evaluate and rate the customer requirements for green products. With respect to the ultimate goal of customer satisfaction, surveys are conducted using a five-point scale analysis. With the help of this scale, one can derive the weight vectors. This approach can improve the imprecise ranking of customer requirements inherited from studies based on the conventional AHP. Furthermore, the AHP with extent analysis is simple and easy to implement to prioritize customer requirements. The research is based on collected data through a questionnaire survey conducted over a sample of 160 people belonging to different age, marital status, education and income groups in order to identify the customer preferences for green product requirements.

Keywords: Analytic hierarchy process, green product, customer requirements for green design, importance weights for the customer requirements.

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8901 Early Requirement Engineering for Design of Learner Centric Dynamic LMS

Authors: Kausik Halder, Nabendu Chaki, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

We present a modeling framework that supports the engineering of early requirements specifications for design of learner centric dynamic Learning Management System. The framework is based on i* modeling tool and Means End Analysis, that adopts primitive concepts for modeling early requirements (such as actor, goal, and strategic dependency). We show how pedagogical and computational requirements for designing a learner centric Learning Management system can be adapted for the automatic early requirement engineering specifications. Finally, we presented a model on a Learner Quanta based adaptive Courseware. Our early requirement analysis shows that how means end analysis reveals gaps and inconsistencies in early requirements specifications that are by no means trivial to discover without the help of formal analysis tool.

Keywords: Adaptive Courseware, Early Requirement Engineering, Means End Analysis, Organizational Modeling, Requirement Modeling.

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8900 ReSeT : Reverse Engineering System Requirements Tool

Authors: Rosziati Ibrahim, Tiu Kian Yong

Abstract:

Reverse Engineering is a very important process in Software Engineering. It can be performed backwards from system development life cycle (SDLC) in order to get back the source data or representations of a system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. We use reverse engineering to introduce an automatic tool to generate system requirements from its program source codes. The tool is able to accept the Cµ programming source codes, scan the source codes line by line and parse the codes to parser. Then, the engine of the tool will be able to generate system requirements for that specific program to facilitate reuse and enhancement of the program. The purpose of producing the tool is to help recovering the system requirements of any system when the system requirements document (SRD) does not exist due to undocumented support of the system.

Keywords: System Requirements, Reverse Engineering, SourceCodes.

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8899 The Influence of EU Regulation of Margin Requirements on Market Stock Volatility

Authors: Nadira Kaimova

Abstract:

In this paper it was examined the influence of margin regulation on stock market volatility in EU 1993 – 2014. Regulating margin requirements or haircuts for securities financing transactions has for a long time been considered as a potential tool to limit the build-up of leverage and dampen volatility in financial markets. The margin requirement dictates how much investors can borrow against these securities. Margin can be an important part of investment. Using daily and monthly stock returns and there is no convincing evidence that EU Regulation margin requirements have served to dampen stock market volatility. In this paper was detected the expected negative relation between margin requirements and the amount of margin credit outstanding. Also, it confirmed that changes in margin requirements by the EU regulation have tended to follow than lead changes in market volatility. For the analysis have been used the modified Levene statistics to test whether the standard deviation of stock returns in the 25, 50 and 100 days preceding margin changes is the same as that in the succeeding 25, 50 and 100 days. The analysis started in May 1993 when it was first empowered to set the initial margin requirement and the last sample was in May 2014. To test whether margin requirements influence stock market volatility over the long term, the sample of stock returns was divided into 14 periods, according to the 14 changes in margin requirements.

Keywords: Levene statistic, Margin Regulation, Stock Market, Volatility.

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8898 Requirements Management in a Distributed Agile Environment

Authors: Paul Prior, Frank Keenan

Abstract:

The importance of good requirements engineering is well documented. Agile practices, promoting collaboration and communications, facilitate the elicitation and management of volatile requirements. However, current Agile practices work in a well-defined environment. It is necessary to have a co-located customer. With distributed development it is not always possible to realize this co-location. In this environment a suitable process, possibly supported by tools, is required to support changing requirements. This paper introduces the issues of concern when managing requirements in a distributed environment and describes work done at the Software Technology Research Centre as part of the NOMAD project.

Keywords: Agile, Distributed, Requirements Management, XP.

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8897 Requirements Management as a Competitive Factor in the it Mid Tier Business Concerning the Implementation of Erp-Software

Authors: Oliver Grün

Abstract:

The success of IT-projects concerning the implementation of business application Software is strongly depending upon the application of an efficient requirements management, to understand the business requirements and to realize them in the IT. But in fact, the Potentials of the requirements management are not fully exhausted by small and medium sized enterprises (SME) of the IT sector. To work out recommendations for action and furthermore a possible solution, allowing a better exhaust of potentials, it shall be examined in a scientific research project, which problems occur out of which causes. In the same place, the storage of knowledge from the requirements management, and its later reuse are important, to achieve sustainable improvements of the competitive of the IT-SMEs. Requirements Engineering is one of the most important topics in Product Management for Software to achieve the goal of optimizing the success of the software product.

Keywords: ERP, Requirements Management

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8896 Towards Development of Solution for Business Process-Oriented Data Analysis

Authors: M. Klimavicius

Abstract:

This paper proposes a modeling methodology for the development of data analysis solution. The Author introduce the approach to address data warehousing issues at the at enterprise level. The methodology covers the process of the requirements eliciting and analysis stage as well as initial design of data warehouse. The paper reviews extended business process model, which satisfy the needs of data warehouse development. The Author considers that the use of business process models is necessary, as it reflects both enterprise information systems and business functions, which are important for data analysis. The Described approach divides development into three steps with different detailed elaboration of models. The Described approach gives possibility to gather requirements and display them to business users in easy manner.

Keywords: Data warehouse, data analysis, business processmanagement.

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8895 Teaching Students Collaborative Requirements Engineering: Case Study of Red:Wire

Authors: Dagmar Monett, Sven-Erik Kujat, Marvin Hartmann

Abstract:

This paper discusses the use of a template-based approach for documenting high-quality requirements as part of course projects in an undergraduate Software Engineering course. In order to ease some of the Requirements Engineering activities that are performed when defining requirements by using the template, a new CASE tool, RED:WIRE, was first developed and later tested by students attending the course. Two questionnaires were conceived around a study that aims to analyze the new tool’s learnability as well as other obtained results concerning its usability in particular and the Requirements Engineering skills developed by the students in general.

Keywords: CASE tool, collaborative learning, requirements engineering, undergraduate teaching.

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8894 Moving From Problem Space to Solution Space

Authors: Bilal Saeed Raja, M. Ali Iqbal, Imran Ihsan

Abstract:

Extracting and elaborating software requirements and transforming them into viable software architecture are still an intricate task. This paper defines a solution architecture which is based on the blurred amalgamation of problem space and solution space. The dependencies between domain constraints, requirements and architecture and their importance are described that are to be considered collectively while evolving from problem space to solution space. This paper proposes a revised version of Twin Peaks Model named Win Peaks Model that reconciles software requirements and architecture in more consistent and adaptable manner. Further the conflict between stakeholders- win-requirements is resolved by proposed Voting methodology that is simple adaptation of win-win requirements negotiation model and QARCC.

Keywords: Functional Requirements, Non Functional Requirements, Twin Peaks Model, QARCC.

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8893 Revisiting the Concept of Risk Analysis within the Context of Geospatial Database Design: A Collaborative Framework

Authors: J. Grira, Y. Bédard, S. Roche

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to design a collaborative framework that integrates risk analysis activities into the geospatial database design (GDD) process. Risk analysis is rarely undertaken iteratively as part of the present GDD methods in conformance to requirement engineering (RE) guidelines and risk standards. Accordingly, when risk analysis is performed during the GDD, some foreseeable risks may be overlooked and not reach the output specifications especially when user intentions are not systematically collected. This may lead to ill-defined requirements and ultimately in higher risks of geospatial data misuse. The adopted approach consists of 1) reviewing risk analysis process within the scope of RE and GDD, 2) analyzing the challenges of risk analysis within the context of GDD, and 3) presenting the components of a risk-based collaborative framework that improves the collection of the intended/forbidden usages of the data and helps geo-IT experts to discover implicit requirements and risks.

Keywords: Collaborative risk analysis, intention of use, Geospatial database design, Geospatial data misuse.

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8892 Limitations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Technique with Respect to Geographically Distributed Stakeholders

Authors: Azeem Ahmad, Magnus Goransson, Aamir Shahzad

Abstract:

The selection of appropriate requirements for product releases can make a big difference in a product success. The selection of requirements is done by different requirements prioritization techniques. These techniques are based on pre-defined and systematic steps to calculate the requirements relative weight. Prioritization is complicated by new development settings, shifting from traditional co-located development to geographically distributed development. Stakeholders, connected to a project, are distributed all over the world. These geographically distributions of stakeholders make it hard to prioritize requirements as each stakeholder have their own perception and expectations of the requirements in a software project. This paper discusses limitations of the Analytical Hierarchy Process with respect to geographically distributed stakeholders- (GDS) prioritization of requirements. This paper also provides a solution, in the form of a modified AHP, in order to prioritize requirements for GDS. We will conduct two experiments in this paper and will analyze the results in order to discuss AHP limitations with respect to GDS. The modified AHP variant is also validated in this paper.

Keywords: Requirements Prioritization, GeographicallyDistributed Stakeholders, AHP, Modified AHP.

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8891 A User - Requirements Approach in Medical Devices Maintenance System Development: A Case Study from an Industry Perspective

Authors: Manar AlJazzazi, Mohammed Rawashdeh, Tariq Alshawaheen, Aktham Malkawi

Abstract:

This paper is a part of research, in which the way the biomedical engineers follow in their work is analyzed. The goal of this paper is to present a method for specification of user requirements in the medical devices maintenance process. Data Gathering Methods, Research Model Phases and Descriptive Analysis is presented. These technology and verification rules can be implemented in Medical devices maintenance management process to the maintenance process.

Keywords: Quality Function Deployment (QFD), User - requirements approach.

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8890 A Causal Model for Environmental Design of Residential Community for Elderly Well-Being in Thailand

Authors: Porntip Ruengtam

Abstract:

This article is an extension of previous research presenting the relevant factors related to environmental perceptions, residential community, and the design of a healing environment, which have effects on the well-being and requirements of Thai elderly. Research methodology began with observations and interviews in three case studies in terms of the management processes and environment design of similar existing projects in Thailand. The interview results were taken to summarize with related theories and literature. A questionnaire survey was designed for data collection to confirm the factors of requirements in a residential community intended for the Thai elderly. A structural equation model (SEM) was formulated to explain the cause-effect factors for the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly. The research revealed that the requirements of a residential community for Thai elderly were classified into three groups when utilizing a technique for exploratory factor analysis. The factors were comprised of (1) requirements for general facilities and activities, (2) requirements for facilities related to health and security, and (3) requirements for facilities related to physical exercise in the residential community. The results from the SEM showed the background of elderly people had a direct effect on their requirements for a residential community from various aspects. The results should lead to the formulation of policies for design and management of residential communities for the elderly in order to enhance quality of life as well as both the physical and mental health of the Thai elderly.

Keywords: Elderly, environmental design, residential community, structural equation modeling.

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8889 Evaluation and Analysis of the Secure E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme

Authors: Nidal F. Shilbayeh, Reem A. Al-Saidi, Ahmed H. Alsswey

Abstract:

In this paper, we presented an evaluation and analysis of E-Voting Authentication Preparation Scheme (EV-APS). EV-APS applies some modified security aspects that enhance the security measures and adds a strong wall of protection, confidentiality, non-repudiation and authentication requirements. Some of these modified security aspects are Kerberos authentication protocol, PVID scheme, responder certificate validation, and the converted Ferguson e-cash protocol. Authentication and privacy requirements have been evaluated and proved. Authentication guaranteed only eligible and authorized voters were permitted to vote. Also, the privacy guaranteed that all votes will be kept secret. Evaluation and analysis of some of these security requirements have been given. These modified aspects will help in filtering the counter buffer from unauthorized votes by ensuring that only authorized voters are permitted to vote.

Keywords: E-Voting preparation stage, blind signature protocol, nonce based authentication scheme, Kerberos authentication protocol, pseudo voter identity scheme PVID.

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8888 Managing User Expectations in Information Systems Development

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling Lai

Abstract:

This paper provides new ways to explore the old problem of failure of information systems development in an organisation. Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, information systems (IS) failure is defined as a gap between what the users expect from an information system and how well these expectations are met by the perceived performance of the delivered system. Bridging the expectation-perception gap requires that IS professionals make a radical change from being the proprietor of information systems and products to being service providers. In order to deliver systems and services that IS users perceive as valuable, IS people must become expert in determining and assessing users- expectations and perceptions. It is also suggested that the IS community, in general, has given relatively little attention to the front-end process of requirements specification for IS development. There is a simplistic belief that requirements are obtainable from users, they are then translatable into a formal specification. The process of information needs analysis is problematic and worthy of investigation.

Keywords: Information Systems Development, Cognitive Dissonance, Expectation-Perception Gap, Requirements Analysis.

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8887 A Framework for Teaching Distributed Requirements Engineering in Latin American Universities

Authors: G. Sevilla, S. Zapata, F. Giraldo, E. Torres, C. Collazos

Abstract:

This work describes a framework for teaching of global software engineering (GSE) in university undergraduate programs. This framework proposes a method of teaching that incorporates adequate techniques of software requirements elicitation and validated tools of communication, critical aspects to global software development scenarios. The use of proposed framework allows teachers to simulate small software development companies formed by Latin American students, which build information systems. Students from three Latin American universities played the roles of engineers by applying an iterative development of a requirements specification in a global software project. The proposed framework involves the use of a specific purpose Wiki for asynchronous communication between the participants of the process. It is also a practice to improve the quality of software requirements that are formulated by the students. The additional motivation of students to participate in these practices, in conjunction with peers from other countries, is a significant additional factor that positively contributes to the learning process. The framework promotes skills for communication, negotiation, and other complementary competencies that are useful for working on GSE scenarios.

Keywords: Requirements analysis, distributed requirements engineering, practical experiences, collaborative support.

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8886 Requirements Gathering for Improved Software Usability and the Potential for Usage-Centred Design

Authors: Kholod J. Alotaibi, Andrew M. Gravell

Abstract:

Usability is an important software quality that is often neglected at the design stage. Although methods exist to incorporate elements of usability engineering, there is a need for more balanced usability focused methods that can enhance the experience of software usability for users. In this regard, the potential for Usage-Centred Design is explored with respect to requirements gathering and is shown to lead to high software usability besides other benefits. It achieves this through its focus on usage, defining essential use cases, by conducting task modeling, encouraging user collaboration, refining requirements, and so on. The requirements gathering process in UgCD is described in detail.

Keywords: Requirements gathering, Usability, Usage-Centred Design.

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8885 Meta-requirements that Model Change

Authors: Gouri Prakash

Abstract:

One of the common problems encountered in software engineering is addressing and responding to the changing nature of requirements. While several approaches have been devised to address this issue, ranging from instilling resistance to changing requirements in order to mitigate impact to project schedules, to developing an agile mindset towards requirements, the approach discussed in this paper is one of conceptualizing the delta in requirement and modeling it, in order to plan a response to it. To provide some context here, change is first formally identified and categorized as either formal change or informal change. While agile methodology facilitates informal change, the approach discussed in this paper seeks to develop the idea of facilitating formal change. To collect, document meta-requirements that represent the phenomena of change would be a pro-active measure towards building a realistic cognition of the requirements entity that can further be harnessed in the software engineering process.

Keywords: Change Management, Agile methodology, Metarequirements

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8884 Individual Configuration of Production Control to Suit Requirements

Authors: Ben Muenzberg, Prof. Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The logistical requirements placed on industrial manufacturing companies are steadily increasing. In order to meet those requirements, a consistent and efficient concept is necessary for production control. Set up properly, production control offers considerable potential with respect to achieving the logistical targets. As experience with the many production control methods already in existence and their compatibility is, however, often inadequate, this article describes a systematic approach to the configuration of production control based on the Lödding model. This model enables production control to be set up individually to suit a company and the requirements. It therefore permits today-s demands regarding logistical performance to be met.

Keywords: Production, planning, control, configuration.

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8883 Development of Non-functional Requirements for Decision Support Systems

Authors: Kassem Saleh

Abstract:

Decision Support System (DSS) are interactive software systems that are built to assist the management of an organization in the decision making process when faced with nonroutine problems in a specific application domain. Non-functional requirements (NFRs) for a DSS deal with the desirable qualities and restrictions that the DSS functionalities must satisfy. Unlike the functional requirements, which are tangible functionalities provided by the DSS, NFRs are often hidden and transparent to DSS users but affect the quality of the provided functionalities. NFRs are often overlooked or added later to the system in an ad hoc manner, leading to a poor overall quality of the system. In this paper, we discuss the development of NFRs as part of the requirements engineering phase of the system development life cycle of DSSs. To help eliciting NFRs, we provide a comprehensive taxonomy of NFRs for DSSs.

Keywords: Decision support system, Development, Elicitation, Non-functional requirements, Taxonomy

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8882 Inadequate Requirements Engineering Process: A Key Factor for Poor Software Development in Developing Nations: A Case Study

Authors: K. Adu Michael, K. Alese Boniface

Abstract:

Developing a reliable and sustainable software products is today a big challenge among up–coming software developers in Nigeria. The inability to develop a comprehensive problem statement needed to execute proper requirements engineering process is missing. The need to describe the ‘what’ of a system in one document, written in a natural language is a major step in the overall process of Software Engineering. Requirements Engineering is a process use to discover, analyze and validate system requirements. This process is needed in reducing software errors at the early stage of the development of software. The importance of each of the steps in Requirements Engineering is clearly explained in the context of using detailed problem statement from client/customer to get an overview of an existing system along with expectations from the new system. This paper elicits inadequate Requirements Engineering principle as the major cause of poor software development in developing nations using a case study of final year computer science students of a tertiary-education institution in Nigeria.

Keywords: Client/Customer, Problem Statement, Requirements Engineering, Software Developers.

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8881 Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Full Jacket Technics: A Case Study on an Existing Old Building in Madinah

Authors: Tarek M. Alguhane, Ayman H. Khalil, M. N. Fayed, Ayman M. Ismail

Abstract:

The retrofitting of existing buildings to resist the seismic loads is very important to avoid losing lives or financial disasters. The aim at retrofitting processes is increasing total structure strength by increasing stiffness or ductility ratio. In addition, the response modification factors (R) have to satisfy the code requirements for suggested retrofitting types. In this study, two types of jackets are used, i.e. full reinforced concrete jackets and surrounding steel plate jackets. The study is carried out on an existing building in Madinah by performing static pushover analysis before and after retrofitting the columns. The selected model building represents nearly all-typical structure lacks structure built before 30 years ago in Madina City, KSA. The comparison of the results indicates a good enhancement of the structure respect to the applied seismic forces. Also, the response modification factor of the RC building is evaluated for the studied cases before and after retrofitting. The design of all vertical elements (columns) is given. The results show that the design of retrofitted columns satisfied the code's design stress requirements. However, for some retrofitting types, the ductility requirements represented by response modification factor do not satisfy KSA design code (SBC- 301).

Keywords: Concrete jackets, steel jackets, RC buildings pushover analysis, non-linear analysis.

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8880 A Six-Year Case Study Evaluating the Stakeholders’ Requirements and Satisfaction in Higher Educational Establishments

Authors: Ioannis I. Αngeli

Abstract:

Worldwide and mainly in the European Union, many standards, regulations, models and systems exists for the evaluation and identification of stakeholders’ requirements of individual universities and higher education (HE) in general. All systems are targeting to measure or evaluate the Universities’ Quality Assurance Systems and the services offered to the recipients of HE, mainly the students. Numerous surveys were conducted in the past either by each university or by organized bodies to identify the students’ satisfaction or to evaluate to what extent these requirements are fulfilled. In this paper, the main results of an ongoing 6-year joint research will be presented very briefly. This research deals with an in depth investigation of student’s satisfaction, students personal requirements, a cup analysis among these two parameters and compares different universities. Through this research an attempt will be made to address four very important questions in higher education establishments (HEE): (1) Are there any common requirements, parameters, good practices or questions that apply to a large number of universities that will assure that students’ requirements are fulfilled? (2) Up to what extent the individual programs of HEE fulfil the requirements of the stakeholders? (3) Are there any similarities on specific programs among European HEE? (4) To what extent the knowledge acquired in a specific course program is utilized or used in a specific country? For the execution of the research an internationally accepted questionnaire(s) was used to evaluate up to what extent the students’ requirements and satisfaction were fulfilled in 2012 and five years later (2017). Samples of students and or universities were taken from many European Universities. The questionnaires used, the sampling method and methodology adopted, as well as the comparison tables and results will be very valuable to any university that is willing to follow the same route and methodology or compare the results with their own HHE. Apart from the unique methodology, valuable results are demonstrated from the four case studies. There is a great difference between the student’s expectations or importance from what they are getting from their universities (in all parameters they are getting less). When there is a crisis or budget cut in HEE there is a direct impact to students. There are many differences on subjects taught in European universities.

Keywords: Quality in higher education, students’ requirements, education standards, student’s survey, stakeholder’s requirements, Mechanical Engineering courses.

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8879 Experimental Verification and Finite Element Analysis of a Sliding Door System Used in Automotive Industry

Authors: C. Guven, M. Tufekci, E. Bayik, O. Gedik, M. Tas

Abstract:

A sliding door system is used in commercial vehicles and passenger cars to allow a larger unobstructed access to the interior for loading and unloading. The movement of a sliding door on vehicle body is ensured by mechanisms and tracks having special cross-section which is manufactured by roll forming and stretch bending process. There are three tracks and three mechanisms which are called upper, central and lower on a sliding door system. There are static requirements as strength on different directions, rigidity for mechanisms, door drop off, door sag; dynamic requirements as high energy slam opening-closing and durability requirement to validate these products. In addition, there is a kinematic requirement to find out force values from door handle during manual operating. In this study, finite element analysis and physical test results which are realized for sliding door systems will be shared comparatively.

Keywords: Finite element analysis, sliding door, experimental, verification, vehicle tests.

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