Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1120

Search results for: wireless transaction protocol

1120 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: Event-B, wireless transaction protocol, refinement, proof obligation, Rodin, ProB.

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1119 Modeling of Session Initiation Protocol Invite Transaction using Colored Petri Nets

Authors: Sabina Baraković, Dragan Jevtić, Jasmina Baraković Husić

Abstract:

Wireless mobile communications have experienced the phenomenal growth through last decades. The advances in wireless mobile technologies have brought about a demand for high quality multimedia applications and services. For such applications and services to work, signaling protocol is required for establishing, maintaining and tearing down multimedia sessions. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an application layer signaling protocols, based on request/response transaction model. This paper considers SIP INVITE transaction over an unreliable medium, since it has been recently modified in Request for Comments (RFC) 6026. In order to help in assuring that the functional correctness of this modification is achieved, the SIP INVITE transaction is modeled and analyzed using Colored Petri Nets (CPNs). Based on the model analysis, it is concluded that the SIP INVITE transaction is free of livelocks and dead codes, and in the same time it has both desirable and undesirable deadlocks. Therefore, SIP INVITE transaction should be subjected for additional updates in order to eliminate undesirable deadlocks. In order to reduce the cost of implementation and maintenance of SIP, additional remodeling of the SIP INVITE transaction is recommended.

Keywords: Colored Petri Nets, SIP INVITE, state space, dead marking

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1118 Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Kristoffer Clyde Magsino, H. Srikanth Kamath

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

Keywords: data-centric routing protocol, hierarchical routingprotocol, Nam, NS-2, Routing Protocol, sensor nodes, SPIN, throughput, Xgraph

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1117 Cryptanalysis of Chang-Chang-s EC-PAKA Protocol for Wireless Mobile Networks

Authors: Hae-Soon Ahn, Eun-Jun Yoon

Abstract:

With the rapid development of wireless mobile communication, applications for mobile devices must focus on network security. In 2008, Chang-Chang proposed security improvements on the Lu et al.-s elliptic curve authentication key agreement protocol for wireless mobile networks. However, this paper shows that Chang- Chang-s improved protocol is still vulnerable to off-line password guessing attacks unlike their claims.

Keywords: Authentication, key agreement, wireless mobile networks, elliptic curve, password guessing attacks.

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1116 Energy and Distance Based Clustering: An Energy Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Mojtaba Hajimohammadi, Ali Movaghar

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an energy efficient cluster based communication protocol for wireless sensor network. Our protocol considers both the residual energy of sensor nodes and the distance of each node from the BS when selecting cluster-head. This protocol can successfully prolong the network-s lifetime by 1) reducing the total energy dissipation on the network and 2) evenly distributing energy consumption over all sensor nodes. In this protocol, the nodes with more energy and less distance from the BS are probable to be selected as cluster-head. Simulation results with MATLAB show that proposed protocol could increase the lifetime of network more than 94% for first node die (FND), and more than 6% for the half of the nodes alive (HNA) factor as compared with conventional protocols.

Keywords: Clustering methods, energy efficiency, routing protocol, wireless sensor networks.

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1115 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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1114 A Wireless Sensor Network Protocol for a Car Parking Space Monitoring System

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

This paper presents a wireless sensor network protocol for a car parking monitoring system. A wireless sensor network for the purpose is composed of multiple sensor nodes, a sink node, a gateway, and a server. Each of the sensor nodes is equipped with a 3-axis AMR sensor and deployed in the center of a parking space. The sensor node reads its sensor values periodically and transmits the data to the sink node if the current and immediate past sensor values show a difference exceeding a threshold value. The operations of the sink and sensor nodes are described in detail along with flow diagrams. The protocol allows a low-duty cycle operation of the sensor nodes and a flexible adjustment of the threshold value used by the sensor nodes.

Keywords: Car parking monitoring, sensor node, wireless sensor network, network protocol.

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1113 A New Protocol for Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: M. Abbasi Dezfouli, S. Mazraeh, M. H. Yektaie

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Concealed Data Aggregation.

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1112 The New Method of Concealed Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor: A Case Study

Authors: M. Abbasi Dezfouli, S. Mazraeh, M. H. Yektaie

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) consists of many sensor nodes that are placed on unattended environments such as military sites in order to collect important information. Implementing a secure protocol that can prevent forwarding forged data and modifying content of aggregated data and has low delay and overhead of communication, computing and storage is very important. This paper presents a new protocol for concealed data aggregation (CDA). In this protocol, the network is divided to virtual cells, nodes within each cell produce a shared key to send and receive of concealed data with each other. Considering to data aggregation in each cell is locally and implementing a secure authentication mechanism, data aggregation delay is very low and producing false data in the network by malicious nodes is not possible. To evaluate the performance of our proposed protocol, we have presented computational models that show the performance and low overhead in our protocol.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Security, Concealed Data Aggregation.

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1111 Concepts for Designing Low Power Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Wireless sensor networks have been used in wide areas of application and become an attractive area for researchers in recent years. Because of the limited energy storage capability of sensor nodes, Energy consumption is one of the most challenging aspects of these networks and different strategies and protocols deals with this area. This paper presents general methods for designing low power wireless sensor network. Different sources of energy consumptions in these networks are discussed here and techniques for alleviating the consumption of energy are presented.

Keywords: Energy consumption, MAC protocol, Routing protocol, Sensor node, Topology control, Wireless sensor network.

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1110 An Innovative Wireless Sensor Network Protocol Implementation using a Hybrid FPGA Technology

Authors: Danielle Reichel, Antoine Druilhe, Tuan Dang

Abstract:

Traditional development of wireless sensor network mote is generally based on SoC1 platform. Such method of development faces three main drawbacks: lack of flexibility in terms of development due to low resource and rigid architecture of SoC; low capability of evolution and portability versus performance if specific micro-controller architecture features are used; and the rapid obsolescence of micro-controller comparing to the long lifetime of power plants or any industrial installations. To overcome these drawbacks, we have explored a new approach of development of wireless sensor network mote using a hybrid FPGA technology. The application of such approach is illustrated through the implementation of an innovative wireless sensor network protocol called OCARI.

Keywords: Hybrid FPGA, Embedded system, Mote, flexibility, durability, OCARI protocol, SoC, Wireless Sensor Network

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1109 Vulnerabilities of IEEE 802.11i Wireless LAN CCMP Protocol

Authors: M. Junaid , Muid Mufti, M. Umar Ilyas

Abstract:

IEEE has recently incorporated CCMP protocol to provide robust security to IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs. It is found that CCMP has been designed with a weak nonce construction and transmission mechanism, which leads to the exposure of initial counter value. This weak construction of nonce renders the protocol vulnerable to attacks by intruders. This paper presents how the initial counter can be pre-computed by the intruder. This vulnerability of counter block value leads to pre-computation attack on the counter mode encryption of CCMP. The failure of the counter mode will result in the collapse of the whole security mechanism of 802.11 WLAN.

Keywords: Information Security, Cryptography, IEEE 802.11i, Computer security, Wireless LAN

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1108 Adaptive Routing Protocol for Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Fayez Mostafa Alhamoui, Adnan Hadi Mahdi Al- Helali

Abstract:

The main issue in designing a wireless sensor network (WSN) is the finding of a proper routing protocol that complies with the several requirements of high reliability, short latency, scalability, low power consumption, and many others. This paper proposes a novel routing algorithm that complies with these design requirements. The new routing protocol divides the WSN into several subnetworks and each sub-network is divided into several clusters. This division is designed to reduce the number of radio transmission and hence decreases the power consumption. The network division may be changed dynamically to adapt with the network changes and allows the realization of the design requirements.

Keywords: Wireless sensor networks, routing protocols, ad hoc topology, cluster, sub-network, WSN design requirements.

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1107 An Energy Efficient Cluster Formation Protocol with Low Latency In Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Allirani, M. Suganthi

Abstract:

Data gathering is an essential operation in wireless sensor network applications. So it requires energy efficiency techniques to increase the lifetime of the network. Similarly, clustering is also an effective technique to improve the energy efficiency and network lifetime of wireless sensor networks. In this paper, an energy efficient cluster formation protocol is proposed with the objective of achieving low energy dissipation and latency without sacrificing application specific quality. The objective is achieved by applying randomized, adaptive, self-configuring cluster formation and localized control for data transfers. It involves application - specific data processing, such as data aggregation or compression. The cluster formation algorithm allows each node to make independent decisions, so as to generate good clusters as the end. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol utilizes minimum energy and latency for cluster formation, there by reducing the overhead of the protocol.

Keywords: Sensor networks, Low latency, Energy sorting protocol, data processing, Cluster formation.

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1106 Augmentation Opportunity of Transmission Control Protocol Performance in Wireless Networks and Cellular Systems

Authors: Ghassan A. Abed, Samir I. Badrawi

Abstract:

The advancement in wireless technology with the wide use of mobile devices have drawn the attention of the research and technological communities towards wireless environments, such as Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs), Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs), and mobile systems and ad-hoc networks. Unfortunately, wired and wireless networks are expressively different in terms of link reliability, bandwidth, and time of propagation delay and by adapting new solutions for these enhanced telecommunications, superior quality, efficiency, and opportunities will be provided where wireless communications were otherwise unfeasible. Some researchers define 4G as a significant improvement of 3G, where current cellular network’s issues will be solved and data transfer will play a more significant role. For others, 4G unifies cellular and wireless local area networks, and introduces new routing techniques, efficient solutions for sharing dedicated frequency bands, and an increased mobility and bandwidth capacity. This paper discusses the possible solutions and enhancements probabilities that proposed to improve the performance of Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) over different wireless networks and also the paper investigated each approach in term of advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: TCP, Wireless Networks, Cellular Systems, WLAN.

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1105 Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sumanpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.

Keywords: Deterministic stable election protocol, energy model, fuzzy logic, wireless sensor network.

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1104 Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol

Authors: Rani Astya, S.C. Sharma

Abstract:

The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

Keywords: Adhoc networks, wireless networks, CBR, routingprotocols, route discovery, simulation, performance evaluation, MAC, IEEE 802.11, STAR, DSR

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1103 An Energy-Efficient Protocol with Static Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Amir Sepasi Zahmati, Bahman Abolhassani, Ali Asghar Beheshti Shirazi, Ali Shojaee Bakhtiari

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network with a large number of tiny sensor nodes can be used as an effective tool for gathering data in various situations. One of the major issues in wireless sensor networks is developing an energy-efficient routing protocol which has a significant impact on the overall lifetime of the sensor network. In this paper, we propose a novel hierarchical with static clustering routing protocol called Energy-Efficient Protocol with Static Clustering (EEPSC). EEPSC, partitions the network into static clusters, eliminates the overhead of dynamic clustering and utilizes temporary-cluster-heads to distribute the energy load among high-power sensor nodes; thus extends network lifetime. We have conducted simulation-based evaluations to compare the performance of EEPSC against Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH). Our experiment results show that EEPSC outperforms LEACH in terms of network lifetime and power consumption minimization.

Keywords: Clustering methods, energy efficiency, routingprotocol, wireless sensor networks.

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1102 An Enhanced AODV Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

Authors: Apidet Booranawong, Wiklom Teerapabkajorndet

Abstract:

An enhanced ad-hoc on-demand distance vector routing (E-AODV) protocol for control system applications in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) is proposed. Our routing algorithm is designed by considering both wireless network communication and the control system aspects. Control system error and network delay are the main selection criteria in our routing protocol. The control and communication performance is evaluated on multi-hop IEEE 802.15.4 networks for building-temperature control systems. The Gilbert-Elliott error model is employed to simulate packet loss in wireless networks. The simulation results demonstrate that the E-AODV routing approach can significantly improve the communication performance better than an original AODV routing under various packet loss rates. However, the control performance result by our approach is not much improved compared with the AODV routing solution.

Keywords: WSANs, building temperature control, AODV routing protocol, control system error, settling time, delay, delivery ratio.

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1101 Maximization of Lifetime for Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Frodouard Minani

Abstract:

Since last decade, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been used in many areas like health care, agriculture, defense, military, disaster hit areas and so on. Wireless Sensor Networks consist of a Base Station (BS) and more number of wireless sensors in order to monitor temperature, pressure, motion in different environment conditions. The key parameter that plays a major role in designing a protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks is energy efficiency which is a scarcest resource of sensor nodes and it determines the lifetime of sensor nodes. Maximizing sensor node’s lifetime is an important issue in the design of applications and protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks. Clustering sensor nodes mechanism is an effective topology control approach for helping to achieve the goal of this research. In this paper, the researcher presents an energy efficiency protocol to prolong the network lifetime based on Energy efficient clustering algorithm. The Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) is a routing protocol for clusters which is used to lower the energy consumption and also to improve the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks. Maximizing energy dissipation and network lifetime are important matters in the design of applications and protocols for wireless sensor networks. Proposed system is to maximize the lifetime of the Wireless Sensor Networks by choosing the farthest cluster head (CH) instead of the closest CH and forming the cluster by considering the following parameter metrics such as Node’s density, residual-energy and distance between clusters (inter-cluster distance). In this paper, comparisons between the proposed protocol and comparative protocols in different scenarios have been done and the simulation results showed that the proposed protocol performs well over other comparative protocols in various scenarios.

Keywords: Base station, clustering algorithm, energy efficient, wireless sensor networks.

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1100 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocol for WSN Using Data Centric Approach

Authors: A. H. Azni, Madihah Mohd Saudi, Azreen Azman, Ariff Syah Johari

Abstract:

Sensor Network are emerging as a new tool for important application in diverse fields like military surveillance, habitat monitoring, weather, home electrical appliances and others. Technically, sensor network nodes are limited in respect to energy supply, computational capacity and communication bandwidth. In order to prolong the lifetime of the sensor nodes, designing efficient routing protocol is very critical. In this paper, we illustrate the existing routing protocol for wireless sensor network using data centric approach and present performance analysis of these protocols. The paper focuses in the performance analysis of specific protocol namely Directed Diffusion and SPIN. This analysis reveals that the energy usage is important features which need to be taken into consideration while designing routing protocol for wireless sensor network.

Keywords: Data Centric Approach, Directed Diffusion, SPIN WSN Routing Protocol.

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1099 Cryptanalysis of Two-Factor Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol in Public Wireless LANs

Authors: Hyunseung Lee, Donghyun Choi, Yunho Lee, Dongho Won, Seungjoo Kim

Abstract:

In Public Wireless LANs(PWLANs), user anonymity is an essential issue. Recently, Juang et al. proposed an anonymous authentication and key exchange protocol using smart cards in PWLANs. They claimed that their proposed scheme provided identity privacy, mutual authentication, and half-forward secrecy. In this paper, we point out that Juang et al.'s protocol is vulnerable to the stolen-verifier attack and does not satisfy user anonymity.

Keywords: PWLANs, user privacy, smart card, authentication, key exchange

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1098 An Energy Efficient Protocol for Target Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Shun-Kai Yang, Kuo-Feng Ssu

Abstract:

Target tracking and localization are important applications in wireless sensor networks. In these applications, sensor nodes collectively monitor and track the movement of a target. They have limited energy supplied by batteries, so energy efficiency is essential for sensor networks. Most existing target tracking protocols need to wake up sensors periodically to perform tracking. Some unnecessary energy waste is thus introduced. In this paper, an energy efficient protocol for target localization is proposed. In order to preserve energy, the protocol fixes the number of sensors for target tracking, but it retains the quality of target localization in an acceptable level. By selecting a set of sensors for target localization, the other sensors can sleep rather than periodically wake up to track the target. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol saves a significant amount of energy and also prolongs the network lifetime.

Keywords: Coverage, energy efficiency, target localization, wireless sensor network.

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1097 Privacy in New Mobile Payment Protocol

Authors: Tan Soo Fun, Leau Yu Beng, Rozaini Roslan, Habeeb Saleh Habeeb

Abstract:

The increasing development of wireless networks and the widespread popularity of handheld devices such as Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), mobile phones and wireless tablets represents an incredible opportunity to enable mobile devices as a universal payment method, involving daily financial transactions. Unfortunately, some issues hampering the widespread acceptance of mobile payment such as accountability properties, privacy protection, limitation of wireless network and mobile device. Recently, many public-key cryptography based mobile payment protocol have been proposed. However, limited capabilities of mobile devices and wireless networks make these protocols are unsuitable for mobile network. Moreover, these protocols were designed to preserve traditional flow of payment data, which is vulnerable to attack and increase the user-s risk. In this paper, we propose a private mobile payment protocol which based on client centric model and by employing symmetric key operations. The proposed mobile payment protocol not only minimizes the computational operations and communication passes between the engaging parties, but also achieves a completely privacy protection for the payer. The future work will concentrate on improving the verification solution to support mobile user authentication and authorization for mobile payment transactions.

Keywords: Mobile Network Operator, Mobile payment protocol, Privacy, Symmetric key.

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1096 A New Group Key Management Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Rony H. Rahman, Lutfar Rahman

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity and frequently changing network topology. Forming security association among a group of nodes in ad-hoc networks is more challenging than in conventional networks due to the lack of central authority, i.e. fixed infrastructure. With that view in mind, group key management plays an important building block of any secure group communication. The main contribution of this paper is a low complexity key management scheme that is suitable for fully self-organized ad-hoc networks. The protocol is also password authenticated, making it resilient against active attacks. Unlike other existing key agreement protocols, ours make no assumption about the structure of the underlying wireless network, making it suitable for “truly ad-hoc" networks. Finally, we will analyze our protocol to show the computation and communication burden on individual nodes for key establishment.

Keywords: Ad-hoc Networks, Group Key Management, Key Management Protocols, Password Authentication

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1095 Data Rate Based Grouping Scheme for Cooperative Communications in Wireless LANs

Authors: Sunmyeng Kim

Abstract:

IEEE 802.11a/b/g standards provide multiple transmission rates, which can be changed dynamically according to the channel condition. Cooperative communications were introduced to improve the overall performance of wireless LANs with the help of relay nodes with higher transmission rates. The cooperative communications are based on the fact that the transmission is much faster when sending data packets to a destination node through a relay node with higher transmission rate, rather than sending data directly to the destination node at low transmission rate. To apply the cooperative communications in wireless LAN, several MAC protocols have been proposed. Some of them can result in collisions among relay nodes in a dense network. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new protocol. Relay nodes are grouped based on their transmission rates. And then, relay nodes only in the highest group try to get channel access. Performance evaluation is conducted using simulation, and shows that the proposed protocol significantly outperforms the previous protocol in terms of throughput and collision probability.

Keywords: Cooperative communications, MAC protocol, relay node, WLAN.

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1094 Protocol Modifications for Improved Co-Channel Wireless LAN Goodput in Partitioned Spaces

Authors: Raymond J. Jayabal, Chiew Tong Lau

Abstract:

Partitions can play a significant role in minimising cochannel interference of Wireless LANs by attenuating signals across room boundaries. This could pave the way towards higher density deployments in home and office environments through spatial channel reuse. Yet, due to protocol limitations, the latest incantation of IEEE 802.11 standard is still unable to take advantage of this fact: Despite having clearly adequate Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) over co-channel neighbouring networks in other rooms, its goodput falls significantly lower than its maximum in the absence of cochannel interferers. In this paper, we describe how this situation can be remedied via modest modifications to the standard.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN, spatial channel re-use, physical layer capture.

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1093 An Energy-Latency-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Tahar Ezzedine, Mohamed Miladi, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Because nodes are usually battery-powered, the energy presents a very scarce resource in wireless sensor networks. For this reason, the design of medium access control had to take energy efficiency as one of its hottest concerns. Accordingly, in order to improve the energy performance of MAC schemes in wireless sensor networks, several ways can be followed. In fact, some researchers try to limit idle listening while others focus on mitigating overhearing (i.e. a node can hear a packet which is destined to another node) or reducing the number of the used control packets. We, in this paper, propose a new hybrid MAC protocol termed ELE-MAC (i.e. Energy Latency Efficient MAC). The ELE-MAC major design goals are energy and latency efficiencies. It adopts less control packets than SMAC in order to preserve energy. We carried out ns- 2 simulations to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol. Thus, our simulation-s results prove the ELE-MAC energy efficiency. Additionally, our solution performs statistically the same or better latency characteristic compared to adaptive SMAC.

Keywords: Control packet, energy efficiency, medium access control, wireless sensor networks.

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1092 Performance Comparison of AODV and Soft AODV Routing Protocol

Authors: Abhishek, Seema Devi, Jyoti Ohri

Abstract:

A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) represents a system of wireless mobile nodes that can self-organize freely and dynamically into arbitrary and temporary network topology. Unlike a wired network, wireless network interface has limited transmission range. Routing is the task of forwarding data packets from source to a given destination. Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV) routing protocol creates a path for a destination only when it required. This paper describes the implementation of AODV routing protocol using MATLAB-based Truetime simulator. In MANET's node movements are not fixed while they are random in nature. Hence intelligent techniques i.e. fuzzy and ANFIS are used to optimize the transmission range. In this paper, we compared the transmission range of AODV, fuzzy AODV and ANFIS AODV. For soft computing AODV, we have taken transmitted power and received threshold as input and transmission range as output. ANFIS gives better results as compared to fuzzy AODV.

Keywords: ANFIS, AODV, fuzzy, MANET, reactive routing protocol, routing protocol, Truetime.

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1091 Life Time Based Analysis of MAC Protocols of Wireless Ad Hoc Networks in WSN Applications

Authors: R. Alageswaran, S. Selvakumar, P. Neelamegam

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are emerging because of the developments in wireless communication technology and miniaturization of the hardware. WSN consists of a large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional sensor nodes to monitor physical conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion, etc. The MAC protocol to be used in the sensor networks must be energy efficient and this should aim at conserving the energy during its operation. In this paper, with the focus of analyzing the MAC protocols used in wireless Adhoc networks to WSN, simulation experiments were conducted in Global Mobile Simulator (GloMoSim) software. Number of packets sent by regular nodes, and received by sink node in different deployment strategies, total energy spent, and the network life time have been chosen as the metric for comparison. From the results of simulation, it is evident that the IEEE 802.11 protocol performs better compared to CSMA and MACA protocols.

Keywords: CSMA, DCF, MACA, TelosB

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