Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1536

Search results for: optimal

1536 Determination of Q and R Matrices for Optimal Pitch Aircraft Control

Authors: N. Popovich, P. Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, the process of obtaining Q and R matrices for optimal pitch aircraft control system has been described. Since the innovation of optimal control method, the determination of Q and R matrices for such system has not been fully specified. The value of Q and R for optimal pitch aircraft control application, have been simulated and calculated. The suitable results for Q and R have been observed through the performance index (PI). If the PI is small “enough", we would say the Q & R values are suitable for that certain type of optimal control system. Moreover, for the same value of PI, we could have different Q and R sets. Due to the rule-free determination of Q and R matrices, a specific method is brought to find out the rough value of Q and R referring to rather small value of PI.

Keywords: Aircraft, control, digital, optimal, Q and R matrices

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1535 Optimal Management of Internal Capital of Company

Authors: S. Sadallah

Abstract:

In this paper, dynamic programming is used to determine the optimal management of financial resources in company. Solution of the problem by consider into simpler substructures is constructed. The optimal management of internal capital of company are simulated. The tools applied in this development are based on graph theory. The software of given problems is built by using greedy algorithm. The obtained model and program maintenance enable us to define the optimal version of management of proper financial flows by using visual diagram on each level of investment.

Keywords: Management, software, optimal, greedy algorithm, graph-diagram.

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1534 Optimal Distributed Generator Sizing and Placement by Analytical Method and PSO Algorithm Considering Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch

Authors: Kyaw Myo Lin, Pyone Lai Swe, Khine Zin Oo

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach combining analytical method for the distributed generator (DG) sizing and meta-heuristic search for the optimal location of DG has been presented. The optimal size of DG on each bus is estimated by the loss sensitivity factor method while the optimal sites are determined by Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based optimal reactive power dispatch for minimizing active power loss. To confirm the proposed approach, it has been tested on IEEE-30 bus test system. The adjustments of operating constraints and voltage profile improvements have also been observed. The obtained results show that the allocation of DGs results in a significant loss reduction with good voltage profiles and the combined approach is competent in keeping the system voltages within the acceptable limits.

Keywords: Analytical approach, distributed generations, optimal size, optimal location, optimal reactive power dispatch, particle swarm optimization algorithm.

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1533 Optimal Control Problem, Quasi-Assignment Problem and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Omid S. Fard, Akbar H. Borzabadi

Abstract:

In this paper we apply one of approaches in category of heuristic methods as Genetic Algorithms for obtaining approximate solution of optimal control problems. The firs we convert optimal control problem to a quasi Assignment Problem by defining some usual characters as defined in Genetic algorithm applications. Then we obtain approximate optimal control function as an piecewise constant function. Finally the numerical examples are given.

Keywords: Optimal control, Integer programming, Genetic algorithm, Discrete approximation, Linear programming.

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1532 Optimal Space Vector Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor based on Nonrecursive Riccati Equation

Authors: Marian Gaiceanu, Emil Rosu

Abstract:

In this paper the optimal control strategy for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) based drive system is presented. The designed full optimal control is available for speed operating range up to base speed. The optimal voltage space-vector assures input energy reduction and stator loss minimization, maintaining the output energy in the same limits with the conventional PMSM electrical drive. The optimal control with three components is based on the energetically criteria and it is applicable in numerical version, being a nonrecursive solution. The simulation results confirm the increased efficiency of the optimal PMSM drive. The properties of the optimal voltage space vector are shown.

Keywords: Matlab/Simulink, optimal control, permanent magnet synchronous motor, Riccati equation, space vector PWM

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1531 Operations Research Applications in Audit Planning and Scheduling

Authors: Abdel-Aziz M. Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper presents a state-of-the-art survey of the operations research models developed for internal audit planning. Two alternative approaches have been followed in the literature for audit planning: (1) identifying the optimal audit frequency; and (2) determining the optimal audit resource allocation. The first approach identifies the elapsed time between two successive audits, which can be presented as the optimal number of audits in a given planning horizon, or the optimal number of transactions after which an audit should be performed. It also includes the optimal audit schedule. The second approach determines the optimal allocation of audit frequency among all auditable units in the firm. In our review, we discuss both the deterministic and probabilistic models developed for audit planning. In addition, game theory models are reviewed to find the optimal auditing strategy based on the interactions between the auditors and the clients.

Keywords: Operations research applications, audit frequency, audit planning, audit-staff scheduling.

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1530 An Improved Optimal Sliding Mode Control for Structural Stability

Authors: Leila Fatemi, Morteza Moradi, Azadeh Mansouri

Abstract:

In this paper, the modified optimal sliding mode control with a proposed method to design a sliding surface is presented. Because of the inability of the previous approach of the sliding mode method to design a bounded and suitable input, the new variation is proposed in the sliding manifold to obviate problems in a structural system. Although the sliding mode control is a powerful method to reject disturbances and noises, the chattering problem is not good for actuators. To decrease the chattering phenomena, the optimal control is added to the sliding mode control. Not only the proposed method can decline the intense variations in the inputs of the system but also it can produce the efficient responses respect to the sliding mode control and optimal control that are shown by performing some numerical simulations.

Keywords: Structural Control, optimal control, optimal sliding mode controller, modified sliding surface.

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1529 Experimental Investigation on the Optimal Operating Frequency of a Thermoacoustic Refrigerator

Authors: Kriengkrai Assawamartbunlue, Channarong Wantha

Abstract:

This paper presents effects of the mean operating pressure on the optimal operating frequency based on temperature differences across stack ends in a thermoacoustic refrigerator. In addition to the length of the resonance tube, components of the thermoacoustic refrigerator have an influence on the operating frequency due to their acoustic properties, i.e., absorptivity, reflectivity and transmissivity. The interference of waves incurs and distorts the original frequency generated by the driver so that the optimal operating frequency differs from the designs. These acoustic properties are not parameters in the designs and be very complicated to infer their responses. A prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator is constructed and used to investigate its optimal operating frequency compared to the design at various operating pressures. Helium and air are used as working fluids during the experiments. The results indicate that the optimal operating frequency of the prototype thermoacoustic refrigerator using helium is at 6 bar and 490Hz or approximately 20% away from the design frequency. The optimal operating frequency at other mean pressures differs from the design in an unpredictable manner, however, the optimal operating frequency and pressure can be identified by testing.

Keywords: Acoustic properties, Carnot’s efficiency, Interference of waves, Operating pressure, Optimal operating frequency, Stack performance, Standing Wave, Thermoacoustic refrigerator.

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1528 Effect of Distributed Generators on the Optimal Operation of Distribution Networks

Authors: J. Olamaei , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for daily optimal operation of distribution networks considering Distributed Generators (DGs). Due to private ownership of DGs, a cost based compensation method is used to encourage DGs in active and reactive power generation. The objective function is summation of electrical energy generated by DGs and substation bus (main bus) in the next day. A genetic algorithm is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on an IEEE34 buses distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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1527 An Algorithm for an Optimal Staffing Problem in Open Shop Environment

Authors: Daniela I. Borissova, Ivan C. Mustakerov

Abstract:

The paper addresses a problem of optimal staffing in open shop environment. The problem is to determine the optimal number of operators serving a given number of machines to fulfill the number of independent operations while minimizing staff idle. Using a Gantt chart presentation of the problem it is modeled as twodimensional cutting stock problem. A mixed-integer programming model is used to get minimal job processing time (makespan) for fixed number of machines' operators. An algorithm for optimal openshop staffing is developed based on iterative solving of the formulated optimization task. The execution of the developed algorithm provides optimal number of machines' operators in the sense of minimum staff idle and optimal makespan for that number of operators. The proposed algorithm is tested numerically for a real life staffing problem. The testing results show the practical applicability for similar open shop staffing problems.

Keywords: Integer programming, open shop problem, optimal staffing.

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1526 Optimal Control for Coordinated Control of SVeC and PSS Damping Controllers

Authors: K. Himaja, T. S. Surendra, S. Tara Kalyani

Abstract:

In this article, Optimal Control for Coordinated Control (COC) of Series Vectorial Compensator (SVeC) and Power System Stabilizer (PSS) in order to damp Low Frequency Oscillations (LFO) is proposed. SVeC is a series Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) device. The Optimal Control strategy based on state feedback control for coordination of PSS and SVeC controllers under different loading conditions has not been developed. So, the Optimal State Feedback Controller (OSFC) for incorporating of PSS and SVeC controllers in COC manner has been developed in this paper. The performance of the proposed controller is checked through eigenvalue analysis and nonlinear time domain simulation results. The proposed Optimal Controller design for the COC of SVeC and PSS results will be analyzed without controller. The comparative results show that Optimal Controller for COC of SVeC and PSSs improve greatly the system damping LFO than without controller.

Keywords: Coordinated control, damping controller, optimal state feedback controller, power system stabilizer, series vectorial compensator.

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1525 Optimal Control of Piezo-Thermo-Elastic Beams

Authors: Marwan Abukhaled, Ibrahim Sadek

Abstract:

This paper presents the vibrations suppression of a thermoelastic beam subject to sudden heat input by a distributed piezoelectric actuators. An optimization problem is formulated as the minimization of a quadratic functional in terms of displacement and velocity at a given time and with the least control effort. The solution method is based on a combination of modal expansion and variational approaches. The modal expansion approach is used to convert the optimal control of distributed parameter system into the optimal control of lumped parameter system. By utilizing the variational approach, an explicit optimal control law is derived and the determination of the corresponding displacement and velocity is reduced to solving a set of ordinary differential equations.

Keywords: Optimal control, Thermoelastic beam, variational approach, modal expansion approach

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1524 Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications

Authors: Hung Tuan Nguyen

Abstract:

In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband multi-user wireless communications. The results show that, by optimally selecting the number of used taps in the pre-filter the optimal one bit TR system can outperform the full one bit TR system. In some cases, the temporal and spatial focusing performance of the optimal one bit TR system appears to be compatible with that of the original TR system. This is a significant result as the overhead cost is much lower than it is required in the original TR system.

Keywords: Time reversal, optimal one bit, UWB, multi-user interference, inter symbol interference

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1523 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process.

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1522 Enhanced Genetic Algorithm Approach for Security Constrained Optimal Power Flow Including FACTS Devices

Authors: R.Narmatha Banu, D.Devaraj

Abstract:

This paper presents a genetic algorithm based approach for solving security constrained optimal power flow problem (SCOPF) including FACTS devices. The optimal location of FACTS devices are identified using an index called overload index and the optimal values are obtained using an enhanced genetic algorithm. The optimal allocation by the proposed method optimizes the investment, taking into account its effects on security in terms of the alleviation of line overloads. The proposed approach has been tested on IEEE-30 bus system to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for solving the SCOPF problem.

Keywords: Optimal Power Flow, Genetic Algorithm, FlexibleAC transmission system (FACTS) devices, Severity Index (SI), Security Enhancement, Thyristor controlled series capacitor (TCSC).

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1521 Optimal Control of a Linear Distributed Parameter System via Shifted Legendre Polynomials

Authors: Sanjeeb Kumar Kar

Abstract:

The optimal control problem of a linear distributed parameter system is studied via shifted Legendre polynomials (SLPs) in this paper. The partial differential equation, representing the linear distributed parameter system, is decomposed into an n - set of ordinary differential equations, the optimal control problem is transformed into a two-point boundary value problem, and the twopoint boundary value problem is reduced to an initial value problem by using SLPs. A recursive algorithm for evaluating optimal control input and output trajectory is developed. The proposed algorithm is computationally simple. An illustrative example is given to show the simplicity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Optimal control, linear systems, distributed parametersystems, Legendre polynomials.

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1520 Optimized Algorithm for Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Fuzhang Zhao

Abstract:

Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is becoming one of the most important swarm intelligent paradigms for solving global optimization problems. Although some progress has been made to improve PSO algorithms over the last two decades, additional work is still needed to balance parameters to achieve better numerical properties of accuracy, efficiency, and stability. In the optimal PSO algorithm, the optimal weightings of (√ 5 − 1)/2 and (3 − √5)/2 are used for the cognitive factor and the social factor, respectively. By the same token, the same optimal weightings have been applied for intensification searches and diversification searches, respectively. Perturbation and constriction effects are optimally balanced. Simulations of the de Jong, the Rosenbrock, and the Griewank functions show that the optimal PSO algorithm indeed achieves better numerical properties and outperforms the canonical PSO algorithm.

Keywords: Diversification search, intensification search, optimal weighting, particle swarm optimization.

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1519 Solutions to Probabilistic Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Concentration Inequalities

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto

Abstract:

Recently, optimal control problems subject to probabilistic constraints have attracted much attention in many research field. Although probabilistic constraints are generally intractable in optimization problems, several methods haven been proposed to deal with probabilistic constraints. In most methods, probabilistic constraints are transformed to deterministic constraints that are tractable in optimization problems. This paper examines a method for transforming probabilistic constraints into deterministic constraints for a class of probabilistic constrained optimal control problems.

Keywords: Optimal control, stochastic systems, discrete-time systems, probabilistic constraints.

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1518 Optimization of SAD Algorithm on VLIW DSP

Authors: Hui-Jae You, Sun-Tae Chung, Souhwan Jung

Abstract:

SAD (Sum of Absolute Difference) algorithm is heavily used in motion estimation which is computationally highly demanding process in motion picture encoding. To enhance the performance of motion picture encoding on a VLIW processor, an efficient implementation of SAD algorithm on the VLIW processor is essential. SAD algorithm is programmed as a nested loop with a conditional branch. In VLIW processors, loop is usually optimized by software pipelining, but researches on optimal scheduling of software pipelining for nested loops, especially nested loops with conditional branches are rare. In this paper, we propose an optimal scheduling and implementation of SAD algorithm with conditional branch on a VLIW DSP processor. The proposed optimal scheduling first transforms the nested loop with conditional branch into a single loop with conditional branch with consideration of full utilization of ILP capability of the VLIW processor and realization of earlier escape from the loop. Next, the proposed optimal scheduling applies a modulo scheduling technique developed for single loop. Based on this optimal scheduling strategy, optimal implementation of SAD algorithm on TMS320C67x, a VLIW DSP is presented. Through experiments on TMS320C6713 DSK, it is shown that H.263 encoder with the proposed SAD implementation performs better than other H.263 encoder with other SAD implementations, and that the code size of the optimal SAD implementation is small enough to be appropriate for embedded environments.

Keywords: Optimal implementation, SAD algorithm, VLIW, TMS320C6713.

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1517 The Frequency Graph for the Traveling Salesman Problem

Authors: Y. Wang

Abstract:

Traveling salesman problem (TSP) is hard to resolve when the number of cities and routes become large. The frequency graph is constructed to tackle the problem. A frequency graph maintains the topological relationships of the original weighted graph. The numbers on the edges are the frequencies of the edges emulated from the local optimal Hamiltonian paths. The simplest kind of local optimal Hamiltonian paths are computed based on the four vertices and three lines inequality. The search algorithm is given to find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit based on the frequency graph. The experiments show that the method can find the optimal Hamiltonian circuit within several trials.

Keywords: Traveling salesman problem, frequency graph, local optimal Hamiltonian path, four vertices and three lines inequality.

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1516 Optimal Path Planning under Priori Information in Stochastic, Time-varying Networks

Authors: Siliang Wang, Minghui Wang, Jun Hu

Abstract:

A novel path planning approach is presented to solve optimal path in stochastic, time-varying networks under priori traffic information. Most existing studies make use of dynamic programming to find optimal path. However, those methods are proved to be unable to obtain global optimal value, moreover, how to design efficient algorithms is also another challenge. This paper employs a decision theoretic framework for defining optimal path: for a given source S and destination D in urban transit network, we seek an S - D path of lowest expected travel time where its link travel times are discrete random variables. To solve deficiency caused by the methods of dynamic programming, such as curse of dimensionality and violation of optimal principle, an integer programming model is built to realize assignment of discrete travel time variables to arcs. Simultaneously, pruning techniques are also applied to reduce computation complexity in the algorithm. The final experiments show the feasibility of the novel approach.

Keywords: pruning method, stochastic, time-varying networks, optimal path planning.

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1515 An Inverse Optimal Control Approach for the Nonlinear System Design Using ANN

Authors: M. P. Nanda Kumar, K. Dheeraj

Abstract:

The design of a feedback controller, so as to minimize a given performance criterion, for a general non-linear dynamical system is difficult; if not impossible. But for a large class of non-linear dynamical systems, the open loop control that minimizes a performance criterion can be obtained using calculus of variations and Pontryagin’s minimum principle. In this paper, the open loop optimal trajectories, that minimizes a given performance measure, is used to train the neural network whose inputs are state variables of non-linear dynamical systems and the open loop optimal control as the desired output. This trained neural network is used as the feedback controller. In other words, attempts are made here to solve the “inverse optimal control problem” by using the state and control trajectories that are optimal in an open loop sense.

Keywords: Inverse Optimal Control, Radial basis function neural network, Controller Design.

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1514 Numerical Investigation of the Optimal Spatial Domain Discretization for the 2-D Analysis of a Darrieus Vertical-Axis Water Turbine

Authors: M. Raciti Castelli, S. De Betta, E. Benini

Abstract:

The optimal grid spacing and turbulence model for the 2D numerical analysis of a vertical-axis water turbine (VAWaterT) operating in a 2 m/s freestream current has been investigated. The results of five different spatial domain discretizations and two turbulence models (k-ω SST and k-ε RNG) have been compared, in order to gain the optimal y+ parameter distribution along the blade walls during a full rotor revolution. The resulting optimal mesh has appeared to be quite similar to that obtained for the numerical analysis of a vertical-axis wind turbine.

Keywords: CFD, vertical axis water turbine, NACA 0025, blade y+.

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1513 Optimal Policy for a Deteriorating Inventory Model with Finite Replenishment Rate and with Price Dependant Demand Rate and Cycle Length Dependant Price

Authors: Hamed Sabahno

Abstract:

In this paper, an inventory model with finite and constant replenishment rate, price dependant demand rate, time value of money and inflation, finite time horizon, lead time and exponential deterioration rate and with the objective of maximizing the present worth of the total system profit is developed. Using a dynamic programming based solution algorithm, the optimal sequence of the cycles can be found and also different optimal selling prices, optimal order quantities and optimal maximum inventories can be obtained for the cycles with unequal lengths, which have never been done before for this model. Also, a numerical example is used to show accuracy of the solution procedure.

Keywords: Deteriorating items, Dynamic programming, Finitereplenishment rate, Inventory control, Operation Research.

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1512 Optimal Portfolio Selection in a DC Pension with Multiple Contributors and the Impact of Stochastic Additional Voluntary Contribution on the Optimal Investment Strategy

Authors: Edikan E. Akpanibah, Okwigbedi Oghen’Oro

Abstract:

In this paper, we studied the optimal portfolio selection in a defined contribution (DC) pension scheme with multiple contributors under constant elasticity of variance (CEV) model and the impact of stochastic additional voluntary contribution on the investment strategies. We assume that the voluntary contributions are stochastic and also consider investments in a risk free asset and a risky asset to increase the expected returns of the contributing members. We derived a stochastic differential equation which consists of the members’ monthly contributions and the invested fund and obtained an optimized problem with the help of Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equation. Furthermore, we find an explicit solution for the optimal investment strategy with stochastic voluntary contribution using power transformation and change of variables method and the corresponding optimal fund size was obtained. We discussed the impact of the voluntary contribution on the optimal investment strategy with numerical simulations and observed that the voluntary contribution reduces the optimal investment strategy of the risky asset.

Keywords: DC pension fund, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman, optimal investment strategies, power transformation method, stochastic, voluntary contribution.

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1511 Optimal Location of the I/O Point in the Parking System

Authors: Jing Zhang, Jie Chen

Abstract:

In this paper, we deal with the optimal I/O point location in an automated parking system. In this system, the S/R machine (storage and retrieve machine) travels independently in vertical and horizontal directions. Based on the characteristics of the parking system and the basic principle of AS/RS system (Automated Storage and Retrieval System), we obtain the continuous model in units of time. For the single command cycle using the randomized storage policy, we calculate the probability density function for the system travel time and thus we develop the travel time model. And we confirm that the travel time model shows a good performance by comparing with discrete case. Finally in this part, we establish the optimal model by minimizing the expected travel time model and it is shown that the optimal location of the I/O point is located at the middle of the left-hand above corner.

Keywords: Parking system, optimal location, response time, S/R machine.

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1510 Optimal Channel Equalization for MIMO Time-Varying Channels

Authors: Ehab F. Badran, Guoxiang Gu

Abstract:

We consider optimal channel equalization for MIMO (multi-input/multi-output) time-varying channels in the sense of MMSE (minimum mean-squared-error), where the observation noise can be non-stationary. We show that all ZF (zero-forcing) receivers can be parameterized in an affine form which eliminates completely the ISI (inter-symbol-interference), and optimal channel equalizers can be designed through minimization of the MSE (mean-squarederror) between the detected signals and the transmitted signals, among all ZF receivers. We demonstrate that the optimal channel equalizer is a modified Kalman filter, and show that under the AWGN (additive white Gaussian noise) assumption, the proposed optimal channel equalizer minimizes the BER (bit error rate) among all possible ZF receivers. Our results are applicable to optimal channel equalization for DWMT (discrete wavelet multitone), multirate transmultiplexers, OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing), and DS (direct sequence) CDMA (code division multiple access) wireless data communication systems. A design algorithm for optimal channel equalization is developed, and several simulation examples are worked out to illustrate the proposed design algorithm.

Keywords: Channel equalization, Kalman filtering, Time-varying systems.

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1509 Effect of Supplementary Premium on the Optimal Portfolio Policy in a Defined Contribution Pension Scheme with Refund of Premium Clauses

Authors: Edikan E. Akpanibah Obinichi C. Mandah Imoleayo S. Asiwaju

Abstract:

In this paper, we studied the effect of supplementary premium on the optimal portfolio policy in a defined contribution (DC) pension scheme with refund of premium clauses. This refund clause allows death members’ next of kin to withdraw their relative’s accumulated wealth during the accumulation period. The supplementary premium is to help sustain the scheme and is assumed to be stochastic. We considered cases when the remaining wealth is equally distributed and when it is not equally distributed among the remaining members. Next, we considered investments in cash and equity to help increase the remaining accumulated funds to meet up with the retirement needs of the remaining members and composed the problem as a continuous time mean-variance stochastic optimal control problem using the actuarial symbol and established an optimization problem from the extended Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equations. The optimal portfolio policy, the corresponding optimal fund size for the two assets and also the efficient frontier of the pension members for the two cases was obtained. Furthermore, the numerical simulations of the optimal portfolio policies with time were presented and the effect of the supplementary premium on the optimal portfolio policy was discussed and observed that the supplementary premium decreases the optimal portfolio policy of the risky asset (equity). Secondly we observed a disparity between the optimal policies for the two cases.

Keywords: Defined contribution pension scheme, extended Hamilton Jacobi Bellman equations, optimal portfolio policies, refund of premium clauses, supplementary premium.

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1508 Determination of the Optimal DG PV Interconnection Location Using Losses and Voltage Regulation as Assessment Indicators Case Study: ECG 33 kV Sub-Transmission Network

Authors: Ekow A. Kwofie, Emmanuel K. Anto, Godfred Mensah

Abstract:

In this paper, CYME Distribution software has been used to assess the impacts of solar Photovoltaic (PV) distributed generation (DG) plant on the Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) 33 kV sub-transmission network at different PV penetration levels. As ECG begins to encourage DG PV interconnections within its network, there has been the need to assess the impacts on the sub-transmission losses and voltage contribution. In Tema, a city in Accra - Ghana, ECG has a 33 kV sub-transmission network made up of 20 No. 33 kV buses that was modeled. Three different locations were chosen: The source bus, a bus along the sub-transmission radial network and a bus at the tail end to determine the optimal location for DG PV interconnection. The optimal location was determined based on sub-transmission technical losses and voltage impact. PV capacities at different penetration levels were modeled at each location and simulations performed to determine the optimal PV penetration level. Interconnection at a bus along (or in the middle of) the sub-transmission network offered the highest benefits at an optimal PV penetration level of 80%. At that location, the maximum voltage improvement of 0.789% on the neighboring 33 kV buses and maximum loss reduction of 6.033% over the base case scenario were recorded. Hence, the optimal location for DG PV integration within the 33 kV sub-transmission utility network is at a bus along the sub-transmission radial network.

Keywords: Distributed generation photovoltaic, DG PV, optimal location, penetration level, sub-transmission network.

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1507 Optimal Capacitor Placement in Distribution Feeders

Authors: N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Auchariyamet

Abstract:

Optimal capacitor allocation in distribution systems has been studied for a long times. It is an optimization problem which has an objective to define the optimal sizes and locations of capacitors to be installed. In this works, an overview of capacitor placement problem in distribution systems is briefly introduced. The objective functions and constraints of the problem are listed and the methodologies for solving the problem are summarized.

Keywords: Capacitor Placement, Distribution Systems, Optimization Techniques

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