Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2527

Search results for: Relative Distance Measurement

2527 FPGA based Relative Distance Measurement using Stereo Vision Technology

Authors: Manasi Pathade, Prachi Kadam, Renuka Kulkarni, Tejas Teredesai

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a novel concept of relative distance measurement using Stereo Vision Technology and discuss its implementation on a FPGA based real-time image processor. We capture two images using two CCD cameras and compare them. Disparity is calculated for each pixel using a real time dense disparity calculation algorithm. This algorithm is based on the concept of indexed histogram for matching. Disparity being inversely proportional to distance (Proved Later), we can thus get the relative distances of objects in front of the camera. The output is displayed on a TV screen in the form of a depth image (optionally using pseudo colors). This system works in real time on a full PAL frame rate (720 x 576 active pixels @ 25 fps).

Keywords: Stereo Vision, Relative Distance Measurement, Indexed Histogram, Real time FPGA Image Processor

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2526 Relative Navigation with Laser-Based Intermittent Measurement for Formation Flying Satellites

Authors: Jongwoo Lee, Dae-Eun Kang, Sang-Young Park

Abstract:

This study presents a precise relative navigational method for satellites flying in formation using laser-based intermittent measurement data. The measurement data for the relative navigation between two satellites consist of a relative distance measured by a laser instrument and relative attitude angles measured by attitude determination. The relative navigation solutions are estimated by both the Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and unscented Kalman filter (UKF). The solutions estimated by the EKF may become inaccurate or even diverge as measurement outage time gets longer because the EKF utilizes a linearization approach. However, this study shows that the UKF with the appropriate scaling parameters provides a stable and accurate relative navigation solutions despite the long measurement outage time and large initial error as compared to the relative navigation solutions of the EKF. Various navigation results have been analyzed by adjusting the scaling parameters of the UKF.

Keywords: Satellite relative navigation, laser-based measurement, intermittent measurement, unscented kalman filter.

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2525 Fiber Lens Structure for Large Distance Measurement

Authors: Jaemyoung Lee

Abstract:

We propose a new fiber lens structure for large distance measurement in which a polymer layer is added to a conventional fiber lens. The proposed fiber lens can adjust the working distance by properly choosing the refractive index and thickness of the polymer layer. In our numerical analysis for the fiber lens radius of 120 μm, the working distance of the proposed fiber lens is about 10 mm which is about 30 times larger than conventional fiber lens.

Keywords: fiber lens, distance measurement, collimation.

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2524 Using Ultrasonic and Infrared Sensors for Distance Measurement

Authors: Tarek Mohammad

Abstract:

The amplitude response of infrared (IR) sensors depends on the reflectance properties of the target. Therefore, in order to use IR sensor for measuring distances accurately, prior knowledge of the surface must be known. This paper describes the Phong Illumination Model for determining the properties of a surface and subsequently calculating the distance to the surface. The angular position of the IR sensor is computed as normal to the surface for simplifying the calculation. Ultrasonic (US) sensor can provide the initial information on distance to obtain the parameters for this method. In addition, the experimental results obtained by using LabView are discussed. More care should be taken when placing the objects from the sensors during acquiring data since the small change in angle could show very different distance than the actual one. Since stereo camera vision systems do not perform well under some environmental conditions such as plain wall, glass surfaces, or poor lighting conditions, the IR and US sensors can be used additionally to improve the overall vision systems of mobile robots.

Keywords: Distance Measurement, Infrared sensor, Surface properties, Ultrasonic sensor.

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2523 Analysis of Reflectance Photoplethysmograph Sensors

Authors: Fu-Hsuan Huang, Po-Jung Yuan, Kang-Ping Lin, Hen-Hong Chang, Cheng-Lun Tsai

Abstract:

Photoplethysmography is a simple measurement of the variation in blood volume in tissue. It detects the pulse signal of heart beat as well as the low frequency signal of vasoconstriction and vasodilation. The transmission type measurement is limited to only a few specific positions for example the index finger that have a short path length for light. The reflectance type measurement can be conveniently applied on most parts of the body surface. This study analyzed the factors that determine the quality of reflectance photoplethysmograph signal including the emitter-detector distance, wavelength, light intensity, and optical properties of skin tissue. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) with four different visible wavelengths were used as the light emitters. A phototransistor was used as the light detector. A micro translation stage adjusts the emitter-detector distance from 2 mm to 15 mm. The reflective photoplethysmograph signals were measured on different sites. The optimal emitter-detector distance was chosen to have a large dynamic range for low frequency drifting without signal saturation and a high perfusion index. Among these four wavelengths, a yellowish green (571nm) light with a proper emitter-detection distance of 2mm is the most suitable for obtaining a steady and reliable reflectance photoplethysmograph signal

Keywords: Reflectance photoplethysmograph, Perfusion index, Signal-to-noise ratio

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2522 Capacitive ECG Measurement by Conductive Fabric Tape

Authors: Yue-Der Lin, Ya-Hsueh Chien, Yen-Ting Lin, Shih-Fan Wang, Cheng-Lun Tsai, Ching-Che Tsai

Abstract:

Capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement is an attractive approach for long-term health monitoring. However, there is little literature available on its implementation, especially for multichannel system in standard ECG leads. This paper begins from the design criteria for capacitive ECG measurement and presents a multichannel limb-lead capacitive ECG system with conductive fabric tapes pasted on a double layer PCB as the capacitive sensors. The proposed prototype system incorporates a capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit to reduce the common-mode power-line interference (PLI). The presented prototype system has been verified to be stable by theoretic analysis and practical long-term experiments. The signal quality is competitive to that acquired by commercial ECG machines. The feasible size and distance of capacitive sensor have also been evaluated by a series of tests. From the test results, it is suggested to be greater than 60 cm2 in sensor size and be smaller than 1.5 mm in distance for capacitive ECG measurement.

Keywords: capacitive driven-body (CDB) circuit, capacitive electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement, capacitive sensor, conductive fabric tape, power-line interference (PLI).

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2521 Temperature Dependence of Relative Permittivity: A Measurement Technique Using Split Ring Resonators

Authors: Sreedevi P. Chakyar, Jolly Andrews, V. P. Joseph

Abstract:

A compact method for measuring the relative permittivity of a dielectric material at different temperatures using a single circular Split Ring Resonator (SRR) metamaterial unit working as a test probe is presented in this paper. The dielectric constant of a material is dependent upon its temperature and the LC resonance of the SRR depends on its dielectric environment. Hence, the temperature of the dielectric material in contact with the resonator influences its resonant frequency. A single SRR placed between transmitting and receiving probes connected to a Vector Network Analyser (VNA) is used as a test probe. The dependence of temperature between 30 oC and 60 oC on resonant frequency of SRR is analysed. Relative permittivities ‘ε’ of test samples for different temperatures are extracted from a calibration graph drawn between the relative permittivity of samples of known dielectric constant and their corresponding resonant frequencies. This method is found to be an easy and efficient technique for analysing the temperature dependent permittivity of different materials.

Keywords: Metamaterials, negative permeability, permittivity measurement techniques, split ring resonators, temperature dependent dielectric constant.

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2520 Estimation of Relative Subsidence of Collapsible Soils Using Electromagnetic Measurements

Authors: Henok Hailemariam, Frank Wuttke

Abstract:

Collapsible soils are weak soils that appear to be stable in their natural state, normally dry condition, but rapidly deform under saturation (wetting), thus generating large and unexpected settlements which often yield disastrous consequences for structures unwittingly built on such deposits. In this study, a prediction model for the relative subsidence of stressed collapsible soils based on dielectric permittivity measurement is presented. Unlike most existing methods for soil subsidence prediction, this model does not require moisture content as an input parameter, thus providing the opportunity to obtain accurate estimation of the relative subsidence of collapsible soils using dielectric measurement only. The prediction model is developed based on an existing relative subsidence prediction model (which is dependent on soil moisture condition) and an advanced theoretical frequency and temperature-dependent electromagnetic mixing equation (which effectively removes the moisture content dependence of the original relative subsidence prediction model). For large scale sub-surface soil exploration purposes, the spatial sub-surface soil dielectric data over wide areas and high depths of weak (collapsible) soil deposits can be obtained using non-destructive high frequency electromagnetic (HF-EM) measurement techniques such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). For laboratory or small scale in-situ measurements, techniques such as an open-ended coaxial line with widely applicable time domain reflectometry (TDR) or vector network analysers (VNAs) are usually employed to obtain the soil dielectric data. By using soil dielectric data obtained from small or large scale non-destructive HF-EM investigations, the new model can effectively predict the relative subsidence of weak soils without the need to extract samples for moisture content measurement. Some of the resulting benefits are the preservation of the undisturbed nature of the soil as well as a reduction in the investigation costs and analysis time in the identification of weak (problematic) soils. The accuracy of prediction of the presented model is assessed by conducting relative subsidence tests on a collapsible soil at various initial soil conditions and a good match between the model prediction and experimental results is obtained.

Keywords: Collapsible soil, relative subsidence, dielectric permittivity, moisture content.

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2519 Investigating Performance of Numerical Distance Relay with Higher Order Antialiasing Filter

Authors: Venkatesh C., K. Shanti Swarup

Abstract:

This paper investigates the impact on operating time delay and relay maloperation when 1st,2nd and 3rd order analog antialiasing filters are used in numerical distance protection. RC filter with cut-off frequency 90 Hz is used. Simulations are carried out for different SIR (Source to line Impedance Ratio), load, fault type and fault conditions using SIMULINK, where the voltage and current signals are fed online to the developed numerical distance relay model. Matlab is used for plotting the impedance trajectory. Investigation results shows that, about 75 % of the simulated cases, numerical distance relay operating time is not increased even-though there is a time delay when higher order filters are used. Relay maloperation (selectivity) also reduces (increases) when higher order filters are used in numerical distance protection.

Keywords: Antialiasing, capacitive voltage transformers, delay estimation, discrete Fourier transform (DFT), distance measurement, low-pass filters, source to line impedance ratio (SIR), protective relaying.

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2518 Speckle Characterization in Laser Projector Display

Authors: Meifang Xu, Yunbo Shi, Guoxian Tang, Jun Liu, Xuyuan Chen

Abstract:

Speckle phenomena results from when coherent radiation is reflected from a rough surface. Characterizing the speckle strongly depends on the measurement condition and experimental setup. In this paper we report the experimental results produced with different parameters in the setup. We investigated the factors which affects the speckle contrast, such as, F-number, gamma value and exposure time of the camera, rather than geometric factors like the distance between the projector lens to the screen, the viewing distance, etc. The measurement results show that the speckle contrast decreases by decreasing F-number, by increasing gamma value, and slightly affects by exposure time of the camera and the gain value of the camera.

Keywords: Characterization, laser projector, speckle

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2517 A Distance Function for Data with Missing Values and Its Application

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Ilan Shimshoni

Abstract:

Missing values in data are common in real world applications. Since the performance of many data mining algorithms depend critically on it being given a good metric over the input space, we decided in this paper to define a distance function for unlabeled datasets with missing values. We use the Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions, to define our new distance function. According to this distance, the distance between two points without missing attributes values is simply the Mahalanobis distance. When on the other hand there is a missing value of one of the coordinates, the distance is computed according to the distribution of the missing coordinate. Our distance is general and can be used as part of any algorithm that computes the distance between data points. Because its performance depends strongly on the chosen distance measure, we opted for the k nearest neighbor classifier to evaluate its ability to accurately reflect object similarity. We experimented on standard numerical datasets from the UCI repository from different fields. On these datasets we simulated missing values and compared the performance of the kNN classifier using our distance to other three basic methods. Our  experiments show that kNN using our distance function outperforms the kNN using other methods. Moreover, the runtime performance of our method is only slightly higher than the other methods.

Keywords: Missing values, Distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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2516 Mathematical Modeling of the Working Principle of Gravity Gradient Instrument

Authors: Danni Cong, Meiping Wu, Hua Mu, Xiaofeng He, Junxiang Lian, Juliang Cao, Shaokun Cai, Hao Qin

Abstract:

Gravity field is of great significance in geoscience, national economy and national security, and gravitational gradient measurement has been extensively studied due to its higher accuracy than gravity measurement. Gravity gradient sensor, being one of core devices of the gravity gradient instrument, plays a key role in measuring accuracy. Therefore, this paper starts from analyzing the working principle of the gravity gradient sensor by Newton’s law, and then considers the relative motion between inertial and non-inertial systems to build a relatively adequate mathematical model, laying a foundation for the measurement error calibration, measurement accuracy improvement.

Keywords: Gravity gradient, accelerometer, gravity gradient sensor, single-axis rotation modulation.

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2515 The New Relative Efficiency Based on the Least Eigenvalue in Generalized Linear Model

Authors: Chao Yuan, Bao Guang Tian

Abstract:

A new relative efficiency is defined as LSE and BLUE in the generalized linear model. The relative efficiency is based on the ratio of the least eigenvalues. In this paper, we discuss about its lower bound and the relationship between it and generalized relative coefficient. Finally, this paper proves that the new estimation is better under Stein function and special condition in some degree.

Keywords: Generalized linear model, generalized relative coefficient, least eigenvalue, relative efficiency.

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2514 Comparative Evaluation of Adaptive and Conventional Distance Relay for Parallel Transmission Line with Mutual Coupling

Authors: S.G. Srivani, Chandrasekhar Reddy Atla, K.P.Vittal

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of adaptive distance relay for protection of parallel transmission line with mutual coupling. The proposed adaptive relay, automatically adjusts its operation based on the acquisition of the data from distance relay of adjacent line and status of adjacent line from line circuit breaker IED (Intelligent Electronic Device). The zero sequence current of the adjacent parallel transmission line is used to compute zero sequence current ratio and the mutual coupling effect is fully compensated. The relay adapts to changing circumstances, like failure in communication from other relays and non - availability of adjacent transmission line. The performance of the proposed adaptive relay is tested using steady state and dynamic test procedures. The fault transients are obtained by simulating a realistic parallel transmission line system with mutual coupling effect in PSCAD. The evaluation test results show the efficacy of adaptive distance relay over the conventional distance relay.

Keywords: Adaptive relaying, distance measurement, mutualcoupling, quadrilateral trip characteristic, zones of protection.

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2513 Differences in Students` Satisfaction with Distance Learning Studies

Authors: Ana Horvat, Maja Krsmanovic, Mladen Djuric

Abstract:

Rapid growth of distance learning resulted in importance to conduct research on students- satisfaction with distance learning because differences in students- satisfaction might influence educational opportunities for learning in a relevant Web-based environment. In line with this, this paper deals with satisfaction of students with distance module at Faculty of organizational sciences (FOS) in Serbia as well as some factors affecting differences in their satisfaction . We have conducted a research on a population of 68 first-year students of distance learning studies at FOS. Using statistical techniques, we have found out that there is no significant difference in students- satisfaction with distance learning module between men and women. In the same way, we also concluded that there is a difference in satisfaction with distance learning module regarding to student-s perception of opportunity to gain knowledge as the classic students.

Keywords: distance learning, students' satisfaction

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2512 Breast Cancer Treatment Evaluation based on Mammographic and Echographic Distance Computing

Authors: M. Caramihai, Irina Severin, H. Balan, A. Blidaru, V. Balanica

Abstract:

Accurate assessment of the primary tumor response to treatment is important in the management of breast cancer. This paper introduces a new set of treatment evaluation indicators for breast cancer cases based on the computational process of three known metrics, the Euclidian, Hamming and Levenshtein distances. The distance principals are applied to pairs of mammograms and/or echograms, recorded before and after treatment, determining a reference point in judging the evolution amount of the studied carcinoma. The obtained numerical results are indeed very transparent and indicate not only the evolution or the involution of the tumor under treatment, but also a quantitative measurement of the benefit in using the selected method of treatment.

Keywords: Breast cancer, Distance metrics, Cancer treatment evaluation.

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2511 OWA Operators in Generalized Distances

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

Different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic mean (Quasi-OWA) operator and the normalized Hamming distance are studied. We introduce the use of the OWA operator in generalized distances such as the quasiarithmetic distance. We will call these new distance aggregation the ordered weighted quasi-arithmetic distance (Quasi-OWAD) operator. We develop a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties such as the distinction between descending and ascending orders. We also consider different families of Quasi-OWAD operators such as the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator, the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized quasi-arithmetic distance, etc.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Distance measures, Quasi- OWA operator.

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2510 Analyzing Methods of the Relation between Concepts based on a Concept Hierarchy

Authors: Ke Lu, Tetsuya Furukawa

Abstract:

Data objects are usually organized hierarchically, and the relations between them are analyzed based on a corresponding concept hierarchy. The relation between data objects, for example how similar they are, are usually analyzed based on the conceptual distance in the hierarchy. If a node is an ancestor of another node, it is enough to analyze how close they are by calculating the distance vertically. However, if there is not such relation between two nodes, the vertical distance cannot express their relation explicitly. This paper tries to fill this gap by improving the analysis method for data objects based on hierarchy. The contributions of this paper include: (1) proposing an improved method to evaluate the vertical distance between concepts; (2) defining the concept horizontal distance and a method to calculate the horizontal distance; and (3) discussing the methods to confine a range by the horizontal distance and the vertical distance, and evaluating the relation between concepts.

Keywords: Concept Hierarchy, Horizontal Distance, Relation Analysis, Vertical Distance

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2509 Using the OWA Operator in the Minkowski Distance

Authors: José M. Merigó, Anna M. Gil-Lafuente

Abstract:

We study different types of aggregation operators such as the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator and the generalized OWA (GOWA) operator. We analyze the use of OWA operators in the Minkowski distance. We will call these new distance aggregation operator the Minkowski ordered weighted averaging distance (MOWAD) operator. We give a general overview of this type of generalization and study some of their main properties. We also analyze a wide range of particular cases found in this generalization such as the ordered weighted averaging distance (OWAD) operator, the Euclidean ordered weighted averaging distance (EOWAD) operator, the normalized Minkowski distance, etc. Finally, we give an illustrative example of the new approach where we can see the different results obtained by using different aggregation operators.

Keywords: Aggregation operators, Minkowski distance, OWA operators, Selection of strategies.

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2508 The Distance between a Point and a Bezier Curveon a Bezier Surface

Authors: Wen-Haw Chen, Sheng-Gwo Chen

Abstract:

The distance between two objects is an important problem in CAGD, CAD and CG etc. It will be presented in this paper that a simple and quick method to estimate the distance between a point and a Bezier curve on a Bezier surface.

Keywords: Geodesic-like curve, distance, projection, Bezier.

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2507 Interaction at a Distance – An Approach for Redesigning for Distance Education

Authors: Martin Henkel

Abstract:

Different forms of interaction are an integral part of modern courses. Traditional courses held on-campus might focus on teacher-student interaction, or student-student interaction, or both. However when these traditional on-campus courses are to be held as distance courses there is a risk that these well-designed interactions will be difficult or impossible to uphold. For example, studentstudent interaction in traditional project assignments might not work well if the students are scattered across the world. Thus, even a welldesigned traditional on-site course cannot without modification be turned into a distance course. Traditional on-site courses simply have to be redesigned to become true distance courses. This paper describes a structured approach which facilitates the redesign of a traditional course into a distance course. The approach is based on that the desired forms of course flexibility are identified, and thereafter that the course activities are redesigned to facilitate interaction in a distance course. The approach is making use of known patterns of pedagogic interaction and existing guidelines for distance education design. The approach is illustrated with an example course in the field of information systems design.

Keywords: Distance education, interaction in education, course design.

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2506 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

Authors: Varun

Abstract:

Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4- 16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

Keywords: Artificial roughness, Solar Air heater, Triangular duct, V-Shaped Ribs.

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2505 Performance Evaluation of Complex Electrical Bio-impedance from V/I Four-electrode Measurements

Authors: Towfeeq Fairooz, Salim Istyaq

Abstract:

The passive electrical properties of a tissue depends on the intrinsic constituents and its structure, therefore by measuring the complex electrical impedance of the tissue it might be possible to obtain indicators of the tissue state or physiological activity [1]. Complete bio-impedance information relative to physiology and pathology of a human body and functional states of the body tissue or organs can be extracted by using a technique containing a fourelectrode measurement setup. This work presents the estimation measurement setup based on the four-electrode technique. First, the complex impedance is estimated by three different estimation techniques: Fourier, Sine Correlation and Digital De-convolution and then estimation errors for the magnitude, phase, reactance and resistance are calculated and analyzed for different levels of disturbances in the observations. The absolute values of relative errors are plotted and the graphical performance of each technique is compared.

Keywords: Electrical Impedance, Fast Fourier Transform, Additive White Gaussian Noise, Total Least Square, Digital De-Convolution, Sine-Correlation.

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2504 Heat Stress Monitor by Using Low-Cost Temperature and Humidity Sensors

Authors: Kiattisak Batsungnoen, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to develop a cost-effective WBGT heat stress monitor which provides precise heat stress measurement. The proposed device employs SHT15 and DS18B20 as a temperature and humidity sensors, respectively, incorporating with ATmega328 microcontroller. The developed heat stress monitor was calibrated and adjusted to that of the standard temperature and humidity sensors in the laboratory. The results of this study illustrated that the mean percentage error and the standard deviation from the measurement of the globe temperature was 2.33 and 2.71 respectively, while 0.94 and 1.02 were those of the dry bulb temperature, 0.79 and 0.48 were of the wet bulb temperature, and 4.46 and 1.60 were of the relative humidity sensor. This device is relatively low-cost and the measurement error is acceptable.

Keywords: Heat stress monitor, WBGT, Temperature and Humidity Sensors.

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2503 Distances over Incomplete Diabetes and Breast Cancer Data Based on Bhattacharyya Distance

Authors: Loai AbdAllah, Mahmoud Kaiyal

Abstract:

Missing values in real-world datasets are a common problem. Many algorithms were developed to deal with this problem, most of them replace the missing values with a fixed value that was computed based on the observed values. In our work, we used a distance function based on Bhattacharyya distance to measure the distance between objects with missing values. Bhattacharyya distance, which measures the similarity of two probability distributions. The proposed distance distinguishes between known and unknown values. Where the distance between two known values is the Mahalanobis distance. When, on the other hand, one of them is missing the distance is computed based on the distribution of the known values, for the coordinate that contains the missing value. This method was integrated with Wikaya, a digital health company developing a platform that helps to improve prevention of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cancer. In order for Wikaya’s recommendation system to work distance between users need to be measured. Since there are missing values in the collected data, there is a need to develop a distance function distances between incomplete users profiles. To evaluate the accuracy of the proposed distance function in reflecting the actual similarity between different objects, when some of them contain missing values, we integrated it within the framework of k nearest neighbors (kNN) classifier, since its computation is based only on the similarity between objects. To validate this, we ran the algorithm over diabetes and breast cancer datasets, standard benchmark datasets from the UCI repository. Our experiments show that kNN classifier using our proposed distance function outperforms the kNN using other existing methods.

Keywords: Missing values, distance metric, Bhattacharyya distance.

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2502 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System

Authors: JanuszKwaśniewski, IreneuszDominik, KrzysztofLalik

Abstract:

The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.

Keywords: Autooscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement.

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2501 An Advanced Time-Frequency Domain Method for PD Extraction with Non-Intrusive Measurement

Authors: Guomin Luo, Daming Zhang, Yong Kwee Koh, Kim Teck Ng, Helmi Kurniawan, Weng Hoe Leong

Abstract:

Partial discharge (PD) detection is an important method to evaluate the insulation condition of metal-clad apparatus. Non-intrusive sensors which are easy to install and have no interruptions on operation are preferred in onsite PD detection. However, it often lacks of accuracy due to the interferences in PD signals. In this paper a novel PD extraction method that uses frequency analysis and entropy based time-frequency (TF) analysis is introduced. The repetitive pulses from convertor are first removed via frequency analysis. Then, the relative entropy and relative peak-frequency of each pulse (i.e. time-indexed vector TF spectrum) are calculated and all pulses with similar parameters are grouped. According to the characteristics of non-intrusive sensor and the frequency distribution of PDs, the pulses of PD and interferences are separated. Finally the PD signal and interferences are recovered via inverse TF transform. The de-noised result of noisy PD data demonstrates that the combination of frequency and time-frequency techniques can discriminate PDs from interferences with various frequency distributions.

Keywords: Entropy, Fourier analysis, non-intrusive measurement, time-frequency analysis, partial discharge

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2500 An Approach in the Improvement of the Reliability of Impedance Relay

Authors: D. Ouahdi, R. Ladjeroud, I. Habi

Abstract:

The distance protection mainly the impedance relay which is considered as the main protection for transmission lines can be subjected to impedance measurement error which is, mainly, due to the fault resistance and to the power fluctuation. Thus, the impedance relay may not operate for a short circuit at the far end of the protected line (case of the under reach) or operates for a fault beyond its protected zone (case of overreach). In this paper, an approach to fault detection by a distance protection, which distinguishes between the faulty conditions and the effect of overload operation mode, has been developed. This approach is based on the symmetrical components; mainly the negative sequence, and it is taking into account both the effect of fault resistance and the overload situation which both have an effect upon the reliability of the protection in terms of dependability for the former and security for the latter.

Keywords: Distance Protection, Fault Detection, negative sequence, overload, Transmission line.

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2499 A Study of Relationship between WBGT and Relative Humidity to Worker Performance

Authors: A.R. Ismail, M. R. A. Rani, Z. K. M. Makhbul, M. J. M. Nor, M. N. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The environmental factors such as temperature and relative humidity are very contribute to the effect of comfort, health, performance and worker productivity. To ensure an ergonomics work environment, it is possible to require a specific attention especially in industries. The aim of this study is to show the effect of temperature and relative humidity on worker productivity in automotive industry by taking a workstation in an automotive plant as the location to conduct the study. From the analysis of the data, there were relationship between temperature and relative humidity on worker productivity. Mathematical equation to represent the relationship between temperatures and relative humidity on the production rate is modelled. From the equation model, the production rate for the workstation can be predicted base on the value of temperature and relative humidity.

Keywords: WBGT, Relative Humidity, Comfort, Productivity.

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2498 The Traits That Facilitate Successful Student Performance in Distance Education: The Case of the Distance Education Unit at European University Cyprus

Authors: D. Vlachopoulos, G. Tsokkas

Abstract:

Although it is not intended to identify distance education students as a homogeneous group, recent research has demonstrated that there are some demographic and personality common traits among most of them that provide the basis for the description of a typical distance learning student. The purpose of this paper is to describe these common traits and to facilitate their learning journey within a distance education program. The described research is an initiative of the Distance Education Unit at the European University Cyprus (Laureate International Universities) in the context of its action for the improvement of the students’ performance.

Keywords: Distance education students, successful student performance, European University Cyprus, common traits.

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