Commenced in January 2007
Paper Count: 30172
Performance of an Electrocoagulation Process in Treating Direct Dye: Batch and Continuous Upflow Processes
Abstract:This study presents an investigation of electrochemical variables and an application of the optimal parameters in operating a continuous upflow electrocoagulation reactor in removing dye. Direct red 23, which is azo-based, was used as a representative of direct dyes. First, a batch mode was employed to optimize the design parameters: electrode type, electrode distance, current density and electrocoagulation time. The optimal parameters were found to be iron anode, distance between electrodes of 8 mm and current density of 30 A·m-2 with contact time of 5 min. The performance of the continuous upflow reactor with these parameters was satisfactory, with >95% color removal and energy consumption in the order of 0.6-0.7 kWh·m-3.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1080179Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2601
 Abuzaid N.S., Bukhari A.A., Al-Hamouz Z.M. Removal of bentonite causing turbidity by electrocoagulation. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A 1998; 33(7): 1341-1358.
 Bukhari A. Investigation of the electro-coagulation treatment process for the removal of total suspended solids and turbidity from municipal wastewater. Bioresour. Technol. 2008; 99(5): 914-921.
 Mattenson M.J., Dobson R.L., Glenn R.W., Kukunoor W.H., Clayfield E.J. Electrocoagulation and separation of aqueous suspension of ultrafine particles. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochem. Eng. Aspects 1995; 104: 101-109.
 Aleboyeh A., Daneshvar N., Kasiri M.B. Optimization of C.I. acid red 14 azo dye removal by electrocoagulation batch process with response surface methodology. Chem. Eng. Process. 2008; 47(5): 827-832.
 Can O.T., Kobya M., Demirbas E., Bayramoglu M. Treatment of the textile wastewater by combined electrocoagulation. Chemosphere 2006; 62(2): 181-187.
 Vlyssides A.G., Papaioannou D., Loizidoy M., Karlis P.K., Zorpas A.A. Testing an electrochemical method for treatment of textile dye wastewater. Waste Manag. 2000; 20(7): 569-574.
 Xiong Y.A., Strunk P.J., Xia H., Zhu X., Karlsson H.T. Treatment of dye wastewater containing acid orange II using a cell with three-phase three-dimensional electrode. Wat. Res. 2001; 35(17): 4226-4230.
 Yang C.-L., McGarrahan J. Electrochemical coagulation for textile effluent decolorization. J. Hazard. Mater. 2005; 127: 40-47.
 Yildiz Y.┼×. Optimization of bomaplex Red CR-L dye removal from aqueous solution by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrodes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 153: 194-200.
 Zidane F., DroguinP., Lekhlif B., Bensaid J., Blais J.-F., Belcadi S., El kacemi K. Decolourization of dye-containing effluent using mineral coagulants produced by electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 155(1-2): 153-163.
 Heidmann I., Calmano W. Removal of Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Ag(I) and Cr(VI) present in aqueous solutions by aluminium electrocoagulation. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 152(3): 934-941.
 Meunier N., Drogui P., Montané C., Hausler R., Mercier G., Blais J.-F. Comparison between electrocoagulation and chemical precipitation for metals removal from acidic soil leachate. J. Hazard. Mater. 2006; 137(1): 581-590.
 Bensadok K., Benammar S., Lapicque F., Nezzal G. Electrocoagulation of cutting oil emulsions using aluminium plate electrodes. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 152(1): 423-430.
 Ca├▒izares P., Carmona M., Lobato J., Martinez F., Rodrigo M.A. Electrodissolution of aluminum electrodes in electrocoagulation processes. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2005; 44: 4178-4185.
 U─ƒurlu M., G├╝rses A., Do─ƒar ├ç., Yal├º─▒n M. The removal of lignin and phenol from paper mill effluents by electrocoagulation. J. Environ. Manage. 2008; 87(3): 420-428.
 Yild─▒z Y.┼×., Koparal A.S., Keskinler B. Effect of initial pH and supporting electrolyte on the treatment of water containing high concentration of humic substances by electrocoagulation. Chem. Eng. J. 2008; 138(1-3): 63-72.
 Zhu B., Clifford D. A., Chellam S. Comparison of electrocoagulation and chemical coagulation pretreatment for enhanced virus removal using microfiltration membranes. Water Res. 2005; 39(13): 3098-3108.
 Gregory P. Azo dyes: Structure-carcinogenicity relationships. Dyes Pigments 1986; 7(1): 45-56.
 Merzouk B., Gourich B., Sekki A., Madani K., Vial Ch., Barkaoui M. Studies on the decolorization of textile dye wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process. Chem. Eng. J. 2009; 49: 207-214
 Daneshvar N., Salari D., Khataee A.R. Photocatalytic degradation of azo dye acid red 14 in water: investigation of the effect of operational parameters. J. Photochem. Photobiol. 2003; A 157: 111-116.
 Kim T.-H., Park C., Shin E.-B., Kim S. Decolorization of direct and reactive dyes by continuous electrocoagulation process. Desalination 2002; 150: 165-175.
 Johnson P.N., Amirtharajah A. Ferric chloride and alum as single and dual coagulants. Jour. AWWA. 1983; 75(5): 232-239.
 Daily Foreign Exchange Rates, Bank of Thailand. http://www.bot.or.th. Last accessed on April 30, 2009.
 Report on Drought Situation on March 12, 2005. http://www.moac.go.th/disaster/. Last accessed on April 30, 2009.