Search results for: Cold peace
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 285

Search results for: Cold peace

285 Great Powers’ Proxy Wars in Middle East and Difficulty in Transition from Cold War to Cold Peace

Authors: Arash Sharghi, Irina Dotu

Abstract:

The developments in the Middle East region have activated the involvement of a numerous diverse state and non-state actors in the regional affairs. The goals, positions, ideologies, different, and even contrast policy behaviors had procured the spreading and continuity of crisis. Non-state actors varying from Islamic organizations to takfiri-terrorist movements on one hand and regional and trans- regional actors, from another side, seek to reach their interests in the power struggle. Here, a research worthy question comes on the agenda: taking into consideration actors’ contradictory interests and constraints what are the regional peace and stability perspectives? Therein, different actors’ aims definition, their actions and behaviors, which affect instability, can be regarded as independent variables; whereas, on the contrary, Middle East peace and stability perspective analysis is a dependent variable. Though, this regional peace and war theory based research admits the significant influence of trans-regional actors, it asserts the roots of violence to derive from region itself. Consequently, hot war and conflict prevention and hot peace assurance in the Middle East region cannot be attained only by demands and approaches of trans-regional actors. Moreover, capacity of trans-regional actors is sufficient only for a cold war or cold peace to be reached in the region. Furthermore, within the framework of current conflict (struggle) between regional actors it seems to be difficult and even impossible to turn the cold war into a cold peace in the region.

Keywords: Cold peace, cold war, hot war, Middle East, non-state actors, regional and Great powers, war theory.

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284 Common Sense Leadership in the Example of Turkish Political Leader Devlet Bahçeli

Authors: B. Gültekin, T. Gültekin

Abstract:

Peace diplomacy is the most important international tool to maintain peace all over the World. This study consists of three parts. In the first part, the leadership of Devlet Bahçeli, leader of the Nationalist Movement Party, will be introduced as a tool of peace communication and peace management. Also, in this part, peace communication will be explained by the peace leadership traits of Devlet Bahçeli, who is one of the efficient political leaders representing the concepts of compromise and agreement on different sides of politics. In the second part of study, it is aimed to analyze Devlet Bahçeli’s leadership within the frame of peace communication and the final part of this study is about creating an original public communication model for public diplomacy based on Devlet Bahçeli as an example. As a result, the main purpose of this study is to develop an original peace communication model including peace modules, peace management projects, original dialogue procedures and protocols exhibited in the policies of Devlet Bahçeli. The political leadership represented by Devlet Bahçeli inspires political leaders to provide peace communication. In this study, principles and policies of peace leadership of Devlet Bahçeli will be explained as an original model on a peace communication platform.

Keywords: Dialogue management, public diplomacy, peace diplomacy, peace leadership.

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283 Peace through Environmental Stewardship

Authors: Elizabeth D. Ramos

Abstract:

Peace education supports a holistic appreciation for the value of life and the interdependence of all living systems. Peace education aims to build a culture of peace. One way of building a culture of peace is through environmental stewardship. This study sought to find out the environmental stewardship practices in selected Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in the Philippines and how these environmental stewardship practices lead to building a culture of peace. The findings revealed that there is still room for improvement in implementing environmental stewardship in schools through academic service learning. In addition, the following manifestations are implemented very satisfactorily in schools: 1) waste reduction, reuse, and recycling, 2) community service, and 3) clean and green surroundings. Administrators of schools in the study lead their staff and students in implementing environmental stewardship. It could be concluded that those involved in environmental stewardship display an acceptable culture of peace, particularly solidarity, respect for persons, and inner peace.

Keywords: Academic service learning, environmental stewardship, leadership support, peace, solidarity.

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282 Comparison Physicochemical Properties of Hexane Extracted Aniseed Oil from Cold Press Extraction Residue and Cold Press Aniseed Oil

Authors: Derya Ören Duran, Şeyma Akalin Benderli

Abstract:

Cold press technique is a traditional method to obtain oil. The cold-pressing procedure involves neither heat nor chemical treatments; therefore, cold press technique has low oil yield. The cold pressed herbal material residue still contains some oil after cold press. In this study, the oil that is remained in the cold pressed aniseed was extracted with hexane; and it was analyzed to determine physicochemical properties and quality parameters. It was found that the aniseed after cold press process still contained 10% oil. The values of other analysis parameters were 2.1 mgKOH/g for free fatty acid (FFA) and 7.6 meq02/kg for peroxide. Cold pressed aniseed oil values were determined as 2.1 mgKOH/g for FFA and 4.5 meq02/kg for peroxide, respectively. In addition, fatty acid composition was analyzed, and it was found that both types of oil had same fatty acid compositions. The main fatty acids were oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids.

Keywords: Aniseed oil, cold press, extraction, residue.

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281 Design of the Large Dimension Cold Shield Cooled by G-M Cryocooler

Authors: Gong Jie, Yu Qianxu, Liu Min, Shan Weiwei

Abstract:

The design of methods of the 20 K large dimension cold shield used for infrared radiation demarcating in space environment simulation test were introduced in this paper. The cold shield were cooled by five G-M cryocoolers , and the dimension of the cold shield is the largest in our country.Cold shield installation and distribution and compensator for contraction on cooling were introduced detailedly. The temperature distribution and cool-down time of cold shield surface were also calculated and analysed in this paper. The design of cold shield resolves the difficulty of compensator for contraction on cooling successfully. Test results show that the actual technical performance indicators of cold shield met and exceeded the design requirements.

Keywords: cold shield, G-M cryocooler,infrared radiometer demarcating, satellite, space environment simulation equipments

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280 Effects of ECCS on the Cold-Leg Fluid Temperature during SGTR Accidents

Authors: Tadashi Watanabe

Abstract:

The LSTF experiment simulating the SGTR accident at the Mihama Unit-2 reactor is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. In the accident, and thus in the experiment, the ECC water was injected not only into the cold legs but into the upper plenum. Overall transients during the experiment such as pressures and fluid temperatures are simulated well by the code. The cold-leg fluid temperatures are shown to decrease if the upper plenum injection system is connected to the cold leg. It is found that the cold-leg fluid temperatures also decrease if the upper-plenum injection is not used and the cold-leg injection alone is actuated.

Keywords: SGTR, LSTF, RELAP5, ECCS.

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279 Quality Monitoring and Dynamic Pricing in Cold Chain Management

Authors: Myo Min Aung, Yoon Seok Chang, Woo Ram Kim

Abstract:

This paper presents a cold chain monitoring system which focuses on assessment of quality and dynamic pricing information about food in cold chain. Cold chain is composed of many actors and stages; however it can be seen as a single entity since a breakdown in temperature control at any stage can impact the final quality of the product. In a cold chain, the shelf life, quality, and safety of perishable food throughout the supply chain is greatly impacted by environmental factors especially temperature. In this paper, a prototype application is implemented to retrieve timetemperature history, the current quality and the dynamic price setting according to changing quality impacted by temperature fluctuations in real-time.

Keywords: Cold chain, monitoring, quality, temperature, traceability.

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278 Terrorism as a Threat to International Peace: A Study on 9/11 Terrorism

Authors: Aftab

Abstract:

This paper is a theory-oriented study that seeks to generalize the process through which terrorism leads to the disruption of international peace. For this, it scrutinizes 9/11 terrorism based on five analytical domains of threat—security disorder, political tensions, economic adversity, socio-ideological intolerance, and the fear and cost of counterterrorism—each of which is explored in light of specific indicators. By applying qualitative correlation method, the paper finds that terrorism immediately entails five distinct kinds of negative impacts that lead to both internal disorders caused by state weakness and global disorder caused by international tensions, which in consequence, causes international peace to be disrupted. Thus, in following inductive process, the findings of this paper help to make a general inference that terrorism is a threat to international peace. 

Keywords: Domains, global disorder, internal disorder, international peace, terrorism, threat.

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277 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda

Abstract:

In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: Flow visualization, Pressure measurement, Reverse flow, Vortex tube.

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276 Optimum Design of Heat Exchanger in Diesel Engine Cold EGR for Pollutants Reduction

Authors: Nasser Ghassembaglou, Armin Rahmatfam, Faramarz Ranjbar

Abstract:

Using cold EGR method with variable venturi and turbocharger has a very significant effect on reduction of NOX and grime simultaneously. EGR cooler is one of the most important parts in the cold EGR circuit. In this paper optimum design of cooler for working in different percentages of EGR and for determining optimum temperature of exhausted gases, growth of efficiency, reduction of weight, dimension, expenditures, sediment and also optimum performance by using gasoil which has significant amounts of brimstone are investigated and optimized.

Keywords: Cold EGR, NOX, Cooler.

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275 RFID Logistic Management with Cold Chain Monitoring – Cold Store Case Study

Authors: Mira Trebar

Abstract:

Logistics processes of perishable food in the supply chain include the distribution activities and the real time temperature monitoring to fulfil the cold chain requirements. The paper presents the use of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology as an identification tool of receiving and shipping activities in the cold store. At the same time, the use of RFID data loggers with temperature sensors is presented to observe and store the temperatures for the purpose of analyzing the processes and having the history data available for traceability purposes and efficient recall management.

Keywords: Logistics, warehouse, RFID device, cold chain.

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274 Performance of an Absorption Refrigerator Using a Solar Thermal Collector

Authors: Abir Hmida, Nihel Chekir, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

In the present paper, we investigate the feasibility of a thermal solar driven cold room in Gabes, southern region of Tunisia. The cold room of 109 m3 is refrigerated using an ammonia absorption machine. It is destined to preserve dates during the hot months of the year. A detailed study of the cold room leads previously to the estimation of the cooling load of the proposed storage room in the operating conditions of the region. The next step consists of the estimation of the required heat in the generator of the absorption machine to ensure the desired cold temperature. A thermodynamic analysis was accomplished and complete description of the system is determined. We propose, here, to provide the needed heat thermally from the sun by using vacuum tube collectors. We found that at least 21m² of solar collectors are necessary to accomplish the work of the solar cold room.

Keywords: Absorption, ammonia, cold room, solar collector, vacuum tube.

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273 3D CFD Modelling of the Airflow and Heat Transfer in Cold Room Filled with Dates

Authors: Zina Ghiloufi, Tahar Khir

Abstract:

A transient three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed to determine the velocity and temperature distribution in different positions cold room during pre-cooling of dates. The turbulence model used is the k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) with the standard wall function, the air. The numerical results obtained show that cooling rate is not uniform inside the room; the product at the medium of room has a slower cooling rate. This cooling heterogeneity has a large effect on the energy consumption during cold storage.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, CFD, k-ω (SST), cold room, dates, cooling rate.

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272 Changes in Student Definition of De-Escalation in Professional Peace Officer Education

Authors: Pat Nelson

Abstract:

Since the release of the 21st century policing report in the United States, the techniques of de-escalation have received a lot of attention and focus in political systems, policy changes, and the media. The challenge in professional peace officer education is that there is a vast range of defining de-escalation and understanding the various techniques involved, many of which are based on popular media. This research surveyed professional peace officer education university students on their definition of de-escalation and the techniques associated with de-escalation before specific communications coursework was completed. The students were then surveyed after the communication coursework was completed to determine the changes in defining and understanding de-escalation techniques. This research has found that clearly defining de-escalation and emphasizing the broad range of techniques available enhances the students’ understanding and application of proper de-escalation. This research demonstrates the need for professional peace officer education to move students from media concepts of law enforcement to theoretical concepts.

Keywords: Criminal justice education, de-escalation, law enforcement, peace officer communications.

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271 Implication of Taliban’s Recent Relationship with Neighboring Countries and Its Impact on the Current Peace Process

Authors: Lutfurahman Aftab

Abstract:

The Taliban’s relationships with the neighboring countries are a complex political issue that local people interpret one way, and politicians have different perceptions; therefore, it is a current issue that needs to be analyzed broadly and impartially. In this article, we investigate the Taliban’s current relationships with the neighboring countries, as well as look at the effects these relationships have on the current peace negotiations in Doha, which began on September 12, 2020. The issue of Taliban and the current peace process has turned to be the center-of-attention for most of the neighboring countries, and every country has opened new pages in their foreign policies because after the Taliban-US peace agreement, the neighboring countries are meticulously and closely observing the situation and they believe that the Taliban is on the verge to tighten their grips on the future political power of Afghanistan. Every neighboring country of Afghanistan has political, economic, and social interests in this land-locked country. The Taliban’s current role within the peace talks and anticipated future position within the Afghan government will have great political, economic, and social implications on countries in the region as they assess their foreign policies. As these countries move to form closer ties with the Taliban, the government of Afghanistan is worried that this may hinder the peace process. Afghanistan has long blamed Pakistan for sheltering the Taliban and providing safe havens for the terrorist groups, including Al Qaeda, and the recent visits of Taliban’s delegations to Islamabad, Pakistan, have raised concern among government officials in Afghanistan who believe that the Taliban is not independent in their decisions, and for every step they take, are consulting with Pakistan’s political leadership.

Keywords: peace process, USA, Afghanistan, Taliban

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270 Cold Hardiness in Near Isogenic Lines of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. em. Thell.)

Authors: Abolfazl Rashidi Asl, Siroos Mahfoozi, Mohammad Reza Bihamta

Abstract:

Low temperature (LT) is one of the most abiotic stresses causing loss of yield in wheat (T. aestivum). Four major genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) with the dominant alleles designated Vrn–A1,Vrn–B1,Vrn–D1 and Vrn4, are known to have large effects on the vernalization response, but the effects on cold hardiness are ambiguous. Poor cold tolerance has restricted winter wheat production in regions of high winter stress [9]. It was known that nearly all wheat chromosomes [5] or at least 10 chromosomes of 21 chromosome pairs are important in winter hardiness [15]. The objective of present study was to clarify the role of each chromosome in cold tolerance. With this purpose we used 20 isogenic lines of wheat. In each one of these isogenic lines only a chromosome from ‘Bezostaya’ variety (a winter habit cultivar) was substituted to ‘Capple desprez’ variety. The plant materials were planted in controlled conditions with 20º C and 16 h day length in moderately cold areas of Iran at Karaj Agricultural Research Station in 2006-07 and the acclimation period was completed for about 4 weeks in a cold room with 4º C. The cold hardiness of these isogenic lines was measured by LT50 (the temperature in which 50% of the plants are killed by freezing stress).The experimental design was completely randomized block design (RCBD)with three replicates. The results showed that chromosome 5A had a major effect on freezing tolerance, and then chromosomes 1A and 4A had less effect on this trait. Further studies are essential to understanding the importance of each chromosome in controlling cold hardiness in wheat.

Keywords: Cold hardiness, isogenic lines, LT50 , Triticum.

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269 An Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Deep cold Rolling Parameters on Surface Roughness and Hardness of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: P. R. Prabhu, S. M. Kulkarni, S. S. Sharma

Abstract:

Deep cold rolling (DCR) is a cold working process, which easily produces a smooth and work-hardened surface by plastic deformation of surface irregularities. In the present study, the influence of main deep cold rolling process parameters on the surface roughness and the hardness of AISI 4140 steel were studied by using fractional factorial design of experiments. The assessment of the surface integrity aspects on work material was done, in terms of identifying the predominant factor amongst the selected parameters, their order of significance and setting the levels of the factors for minimizing surface roughness and/or maximizing surface hardness. It was found that the ball diameter, rolling force, initial surface roughness and number of tool passes are the most pronounced parameters, which have great effects on the work piece-s surface during the deep cold rolling process. A simple, inexpensive and newly developed DCR tool, with interchangeable collet for using different ball diameters, was used throughout the experimental work presented in this paper.

Keywords: Deep cold rolling, design of experiments, surface hardness, surface roughness

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268 Words of Peace in the Speeches of the Egyptian President, Abdulfattah El-Sisi: A Corpus-Based Study

Authors: Mohamed S. Negm, Waleed S. Mandour

Abstract:

The present study aims primarily at investigating words of peace (lexemes of peace) in the formal speeches of the Egyptian president Abdulfattah El-Sisi in a two-year span of time, from 2018 to 2019. This paper attempts to shed light not only on the contextual use of the antonyms, war and peace, but also it underpins quantitative analysis through the current methods of corpus linguistics. As such, the researchers have deployed a corpus-based approach in collecting, encoding, and processing 30 presidential speeches over the stated period (23,411 words and 25,541 tokens in total). Further, semantic fields and collocational networkzs are identified and compared statistically. Results have shown a significant propensity of adopting peace, including its relevant collocation network, textually and therefore, ideationally, at the expense of war concept which in most cases surfaces euphemistically through the noun conflict. The president has not justified the action of war with an honorable cause or a valid reason. Such results, so far, have indicated a positive sociopolitical mindset the Egyptian president possesses and moreover, reveal national and international fair dealing on arising issues.

Keywords: Corpus-assisted discourse studies, critical discourse analysis, collocation network, corpus linguistics.

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267 A Novel Cold Asphalt Concrete Mixture for Heavily Trafficked Binder Course

Authors: A. Dulaimi, H. Al Nageim, F. Ruddock, L. Seton

Abstract:

This study aims at developing a novel cold asphalt concrete binder course mixture by using Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a replacement for conventional mineral filler (0%-100%) with new by-product material (LJMU-A2) used as a supplementary cementitious material. With this purpose, cold asphalt concrete binder course mixtures with cationic emulsions were studied by means of stiffness modulus whereas water sensitivity was assessed by measuring the stiffness modulus ratio before and after sample conditioning. The results indicate that a substantial enhancement in the stiffness modulus and a considerable improvement of water sensitivity resistance is achieved by adding LJMU-A2 to the cold asphalt mixtures as a supplementary cementitious material. Moreover, the addition of LJMU-A2 to those mixtures leads to a stiffness modulus after 2-day curing compared to that obtained with Portland cement, which occurs after 7-day curing.

Keywords: Binder course, cold mix asphalt, cement, stiffness modulus, water sensitivity.

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266 Combined Effect of Cold Rolling and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Al-Ti Alloy

Authors: Adeosun S. Oluropo, Sekunowo O. Israel, Talabi S. Isaac

Abstract:

This study investigated the combined effect of cold rolling and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of Al-Ti alloy. Samples of the alloy are cast in metal mould to obtain 0.94-2.19wt% mixes of titanium. These samples are grouped into untreated (as-cast) and those that are cold rolled to fifty percent reduction, homogenized at 5000C and soaked for one hour. The cold rolled and heat treated samples are normalized (RTn) and quench-tempered (RTq-t) at 1000C. All these samples are subjected to tensile, micro-hardness and microstructural evaluation. Results show remarkable improvement in the mechanical properties of the cold rolled and heat treated samples compared to the as-cast. In particular, the RTq-t samples containing titanium in the range of 1.7-2.2% demonstrates improve tensile strength by 24.7%, yield strength, 28%, elastic modulus, 38.3% and micro-hardness, 20.5%. The Al3Ti phase being the most stable precipitate in the α-Al matrix appears to have been responsible for the significant improvement in the alloy’s mechanical properties. It is concluded that quench and temper heat treatment is an effective method of improving the strength-strain ratio of cold rolled Al-.0.9-2.2%Ti alloy.

Keywords: Aluminum-titanium alloy, heat treatment, mechanical properties, precipitate.

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265 Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

Authors: Khaled Alenezi, Talal Alhajri, M. M. Tahir, Mohamed Ragaee K. Badr, S. O. Bamaga

Abstract:

The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

Keywords: Cold formed steel, composite column, push out test, shear connector, ferrocement, strengthen method.

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264 The Influence of Surface Roughness of Drawbead on Non-Symmetry Deep Drawing Cold Rolled Steel Sheet

Authors: A. Watanapa, S. Torsakul

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explain the influence of surface roughness of the drawbead on non-symmetry deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet to improve the drawability of cold rolled steel sheet. The variables used in this study included semi-circle drawbead with 3 levels of surface roughness which are 6.127 mm Ra, 0.963 mm Ra and 0.152 mm Ra and cold rolled steel sheet according to 3 grades of the JIS standards which are SPCC, SPCE and SPCD with the thickness of 1.0 mm and the blankholder force which is 50% of the drawing force and the depth of 50 mm. According to the test results, when there was the increase in the surface roughness of drawbead, there would be the increase in deep drawing force, especially the SPCC cold rolled steel sheet. This is similar to the increase in the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution when the surface roughness of the drawbead increased. It could be concluded that the surface roughness of drawbead has an influence on deep drawing cold rolled steel sheet, especially the drawing force, the equivalent strain and the wall thickness distribution.

Keywords: Drawbead, Deep Drawing, Drawing Force, Equivalent Strain, Surface roughness

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263 Increasing Fishery Economic Added Value through Post Fishing Program: Cold Storage Program

Authors: Indrijuli Magsari Putri, Dicky R. Munaf

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to guide the effort in improving the economic added value of Indonesian fisheries product through post fishing program, which is cold storage program. Indonesia's fisheries potential has been acknowledged by the world. FAO (2009) stated that Indonesia is one of the tenth highest producers of fishery products in the world. Based on BPS (Statistics Indonesia data), the national fisheries production in 2011 reached 5.714 million tons, which 93.55% came from marine fisheries and 6.45% from open waters. Indonesian territory consist of 2/3 of Indonesian waters, has given enormous benefits for Indonesia, especially fishermen. To improve the economic level of fishermen requires efforts to develop fisheries business unit. On of the efforts is by improving the quality of products which are marketed in the regional and international levels. It is certainly need the support of the existence of various fishery facilities (infrastructure to superstructure), one of which is cold storage. Given the many benefits of cold storage as a means of processing of fishery resources, Indonesia Maritime Security Coordinating Board (IMSCB) as one of the maritime institutions for maritime security and safety, has a program to empower the coastal community through encourages the development of cold storage in the middle and lower fishery business unit. The development of cold storage facilities which able to run its maximum role requires synergistic efforts of various parties.

Keywords: Cold Storage, Fish, Regulation.

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262 Underpricing of IPOs during Hot and Cold Market Periods on the South African Stock Exchange (JSE)

Authors: Brownhilder N. Neneh, A. Van Aardt Smit

Abstract:

Underpricing is one anomaly in initial public offerings (IPO) literature that has been widely observed across different stock markets with different trends emerging over different time periods. This study seeks to determine how IPOs on the JSE performed on the first day, first week and first month over the period of 1996-2011. Underpricing trends are documented for both hot and cold market periods in terms of four main sectors (cyclical, defensive, growth stock and interest rate sensitive stocks). Using a sample of 360 listed companies on the JSE, the empirical findings established that IPOs on the JSE are significantly underpriced with an average market adjusted first day return of 62.9%. It is also established that hot market IPOs on the JSE are more underpriced than the cold market IPOs. Also observed is the fact that as the offer price per share increases above the median price for any given period, the level of underpricing decreases substantially. While significant differences exist in the level of underpricing of IPOs in the four different sectors in the hot and cold market periods, interest rates sensitive stocks showed a different trend from the other sectors and thus require further investigation to uncover this pattern.

Keywords: Underpricing, hot and cold markets, South Africa, JSE.

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261 Integrating Blockchain and Internet of Things Platforms: An Empirical Study on Immunization Cold Chain

Authors: F. Abujalala, A. Elmangoush, M. Ashibani

Abstract:

The adoption of Blockchain technology introduces the possibility to decentralize cold chain systems. This adaptation enhances them to be more efficient, accessible, verifiable, and data security. Additionally, the Internet of Things (IoT) concept is considered as an added-value to various application domains. Cargo tracking and cold chain are a few to name. However, the security of the IoT transactions and integrated devices remains one of the key challenges to the IoT application’s success. Consequently, Blockchain technology and its consensus protocols have been used to solve many information security problems. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of integrating Blockchain technology into IoT platform to improve security and provide an overview of existing literature on integrating Blockchain and IoT platforms. Then, we present the immunization cold chain solution as a use-case that could be applied to any critical goods based on integrating Hyperledger fabric platform and IoT platform.

Keywords: Blockchain, Hyperledger fabric, internet of things, security, traceability.

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260 Immune Responce in Mice Immunized with Live Cold-Adapted Influenza Vaccine in Combination with Chitosan-Based Adjuvants

Authors: Nelly К. Akhmatova, Оlga V. Lebedinskaya, Ancha V. Baranova, Еlena А. Lebedinskaya, Ekaterina V. Sorokina, Elvin А. Akhmatov, Аnatoliy P. Godovalov, Stanislav G. Markushin

Abstract:

An influence of intranasal combined injection of live cold-adapted influenza vaccine with chitosan derivatives as adjuvants on the subpopulation structure of mononuclear leukocytes of mouse spleen which reflects the orientation of the immune response was studied. It is found that the inclusion of chitosan preparations promotes activation of cellular-level of immune response.

Keywords: Immunophenotype, chitosan, cold-adapted vaccine, intranasal injection.

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259 Key Performance Indicators of Cold Supply Chain Practices in the Agriculture Sector: An Empirical Study on Egyptian Export Companies

Authors: Ahmed Barakat, Nourhan A. Saad, Mahmoud Hammad

Abstract:

Tracking and monitoring agricultural products, cold chain activities, and transportation in real-time can effectively ensure both the quality and safety of agricultural products, as well as reduce overall logistics costs. Effective supply chain practices are one of the main requirements for enhancing agricultural business in Egypt. Cold chain is among the best practices for the storage and transportation of perishable goods and has potential within the agricultural sector in Egypt. This practice has the scope of reducing the wastage of food and increasing the profitability with a reduction in costs. Even though it has several implementation challenges for the farmers, traders, and people involved in the entire supply chain, it has highlighted better benefits for all and for the export of goods for the economic progression for Egypt. The aim of this paper is to explore cold supply chain practices for the agriculture sector in Egypt, to enhance the export performance of fresh goods. In this context, this study attempts to explore those aspects of the performance of cold supply chain practices that can enhance the functioning of the agriculture sector in Egypt from the perspective of export companies (traders) and farmers. Based on the empirical results obtained by data collection from the farmers and traders, the study argues that there is a significant association between cold supply chain practices and enhancement of the agriculture value chain. The paper thus highlights the contribution of the study with final conclusions and limitations with scope for future research.

Keywords: Agriculture sector, cold chain management, export companies, non-traded goods, supply chain management.

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258 Tribological Aspects of Advanced Roll Material in Cold Rolling of Stainless Steel

Authors: Mohammed Tahir, Jonas Lagergren

Abstract:

Vancron 40, a nitrided powder metallurgical tool Steel, is used in cold work applications where the predominant failure mechanisms are adhesive wear or galling. Typical applications of Vancron 40 are among others fine blanking, cold extrusion, deep drawing and cold work rolls for cluster mills. Vancron 40 positive results for cold work rolls for cluster mills and as a tool for some severe metal forming process makes it competitive compared to other type of work rolls that require higher precision, among others in cold rolling of thin stainless steel, which required high surface finish quality. In this project, three roll materials for cold rolling of stainless steel strip was examined, Vancron 40, Narva 12B (a high-carbon, high-chromium tool steel alloyed with tungsten) and Supra 3 (a Chromium-molybdenum tungsten-vanadium alloyed high speed steel). The purpose of this project was to study the depth profiles of the ironed stainless steel strips, emergence of galling and to study the lubrication performance used by steel industries. Laboratory experiments were conducted to examine scratch of the strip, galling and surface roughness of the roll materials under severe tribological conditions. The critical sliding length for onset of galling was estimated for stainless steel with four different lubricants. Laboratory experiments result of performance evaluation of resistance capability of rolls toward adhesive wear under severe conditions for low and high reductions. Vancron 40 in combination with cold rolling lubricant gave good surface quality, prevents galling of metal surfaces and good bearing capacity.

Keywords: Adhesive wear, Cold rolling, Lubricant, Stainless steel, Surface finish, Vancron 40.

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257 Cascaded Transcritical/Supercritical CO2 Cycles and Organic Rankine Cycles to Recover Low-Temperature Waste Heat and LNG Cold Energy Simultaneously

Authors: Haoshui Yu, Donghoi Kim, Truls Gundersen

Abstract:

Low-temperature waste heat is abundant in the process industries, and large amounts of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cold energy are discarded without being recovered properly in LNG terminals. Power generation is an effective way to utilize low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy simultaneously. Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and CO2 power cycles are promising technologies to convert low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy into electricity. If waste heat and LNG cold energy are utilized simultaneously in one system, the performance may outperform separate systems utilizing low-temperature waste heat and LNG cold energy, respectively. Low-temperature waste heat acts as the heat source and LNG regasification acts as the heat sink in the combined system. Due to the large temperature difference between the heat source and the heat sink, cascaded power cycle configurations are proposed in this paper. Cascaded power cycles can improve the energy efficiency of the system considerably. The cycle operating at a higher temperature to recover waste heat is called top cycle and the cycle operating at a lower temperature to utilize LNG cold energy is called bottom cycle in this study. The top cycle condensation heat is used as the heat source in the bottom cycle. The top cycle can be an ORC, transcritical CO2 (tCO2) cycle or supercritical CO2 (sCO2) cycle, while the bottom cycle only can be an ORC due to the low-temperature range of the bottom cycle. However, the thermodynamic path of the tCO2 cycle and sCO2 cycle are different from that of an ORC. The tCO2 cycle and the sCO2 cycle perform better than an ORC for sensible waste heat recovery due to a better temperature match with the waste heat source. Different combinations of the tCO2 cycle, sCO2 cycle and ORC are compared to screen the best configurations of the cascaded power cycles. The influence of the working fluid and the operating conditions are also investigated in this study. Each configuration is modeled and optimized in Aspen HYSYS. The results show that cascaded tCO2/ORC performs better compared with cascaded ORC/ORC and cascaded sCO2/ORC for the case study.

Keywords: LNG cold energy, low-temperature waste heat, organic Rankine cycle, supercritical CO2 cycle, transcritical CO2 cycle.

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256 Development of a Thrust Measurement System

Authors: S. Jeon, J. Kim, H. Choi

Abstract:

KSLV-I(Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I) is designed as a launch vehicle to enter a 100 kg-class satellite to the LEO(Low Earth Orbit). Attitude angles of the upper-stage, including roll, pitch and yaw are controlled by the cold gas thruster system using nitrogen gas. The cold gas thruster is an actuator in the RCS(Reaction Control System). To design an attitude controller for the upper-stage, thrust measurement in vacuum condition is required. In this paper, the new thrust measurement system and calibration mechanism are developed and measurement errors and signal processing method are presented.

Keywords: cold gas thruster, launch vehicle, thrust measurement, calibration mechanism, signal processing

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