Search results for: cold-adapted vaccine
24 Unnoticeable Mumps Infection in India: Does MMR Vaccine Protect against Circulating Mumps Virus Genotype C?
Authors: Jeevan Malayan, Aparna Warrier, Padmasani Venkat Ramanan, Sanjeeva Reddy N, Elanchezhiyan Manickan
Abstract:MMR vaccine failure had been reported globally and here we report that it occurs now in India. Samples were collected from clinically suspected mumps cases were subjected for anti mumps antibodies, virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis. 56 samples collected from men and women belonging to various age groups. 30 had been vaccinated and the status of 26 patients was unknown. 28 out of 30 samples were found to be symptomatic and positive for Mumps IgM, indicating active mumps infection in 93.4% of the vaccinated population. A phylogenetic tree comparison of the clinical isolate is shown to be genotype C which is distinct from vaccine strain. Our study clearly sending warning signs that MMR vaccine is a failure and it needs to be revamped for the human use by increasing its efficacy and efficiency.
Keywords: Genotype C, Mumps virus, MMR vaccine, Sero types.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2333
23 Implementation of a “DIVA“ Concept withspecific Elisa Kits; When Subunit H5 Avian Influenza Vaccine is used
Authors: Robles F, Uribe A, Guadarrama A , Castellanos L, González C.
The main objective of this study was to demonstrate that differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) strategy using different ELISA tests is possible when a subunit vaccine (Haemagglutinin protein) is used to prevent Avian influenza. Special emphasis was placed on the differentiation in the serological response to different components of the AIV (Nucleoprotein, Neuraminidase, Haemagglutinin, Nucleocapsid) between chickens that were vaccinated with a whole virus kill vaccine and recombinant vaccine. Furthermore, the potential use of this DIVA strategy using ELISA assays to detect Neuraminidase 1 (N1) was analyzed as strategy in countries where the field virus is H5N1 and the vaccine used is formulated with H5N2. Detection of AIV-s antibodies to any component in serum was negative for all animals on the study days 0-13. At study day 14 the titers of antibodies against Nucleoprotein (NP) and Nucleocapsid (NC) rose in the experimental groups vaccinated with Volvac® AI KV and were negatives during all the trial in the experimental groups vaccinated with a subunit H5; significant statistically differences were observed between these groups (p < 0.05). The seroconversion either Haemagglutinin or Neuraminidase was evident after 21 days post-vaccination in the experimental groups vaccinated with the respective viral fraction. Regarding the main aim of this study and according with the results that were obtained, use a combination of different ELISA test as a DIVA strategy is feasible when the vaccination is carry out with a subunit H5 vaccine. Also is possible to use the ELISA kit to detect Neuraminidase (either N1 or N2) as a DIVA concept in countries where H5N1 is present and the vaccination programs are done with H5N2 vaccine.
Keywords: Avian Influenza Virus, "DIVA concept", ELISAassay, subunit H5 vaccine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2171
22 Immune Responce in Mice Immunized with Live Cold-Adapted Influenza Vaccine in Combination with Chitosan-Based Adjuvants
Authors: Nelly К. Akhmatova, Оlga V. Lebedinskaya, Ancha V. Baranova, Еlena А. Lebedinskaya, Ekaterina V. Sorokina, Elvin А. Akhmatov, Аnatoliy P. Godovalov, Stanislav G. Markushin
Abstract:An influence of intranasal combined injection of live cold-adapted influenza vaccine with chitosan derivatives as adjuvants on the subpopulation structure of mononuclear leukocytes of mouse spleen which reflects the orientation of the immune response was studied. It is found that the inclusion of chitosan preparations promotes activation of cellular-level of immune response.
Keywords: Immunophenotype, chitosan, cold-adapted vaccine, intranasal injection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682
21 Chitosan Nanoparticle as a Novel Delivery System for A/H1n1 Influenza Vaccine: Safe Property and Immunogenicity in Mice
Authors: Nguyen Anh Dzung, Nguyen Thi Ngoc Hà, Dang Thi Hong Van, Nguyen Thi Lan Phuong, Nguyen Thi Nhu Quynh, Dinh Minh Hiep, Le Van Hiep
Abstract:The aims of this paper are to study the efficacy of chitosan nanoparticles in stimulating specific antibody against A/H1N1 influenza antigen in mice. Chitosan nanoparticles (CSN) were characterized by TEM. The results showed that the average size of CSN was from 80nm to 106nm. The efficacy of A/H1N1 influenza vaccine loaded on the surface of CSN showed that loading efficiency of A/H1N1 influenza antigen on CSN was from 93.75 to 100%. Safe property of the vaccine were tested. In 10 days post vaccination, group of CSN 30 kDa and 300 kDa loaded A/H1N1 influenza antigen were the rate of immune response on mice to be 100% (9/9) higher than Al(OH)3 and other adjuvant. 100% mice in the experiment of all groups had immune response in 20 days post vaccination. The results also showed that HI titer of the group using CSN 300 kDa as an adjuvant increased significantly up to 3971 HIU, over three-fold higher than the Al(OH)3 adjuvant, chitosan (CS), and one hundredfold than the A/H1N1 antigen only. Stability of the vaccine formulation was investigated.
Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, A/H1N1 influenza antigen, vaccine, immunogenicity, adjuvant, antibody titerProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2336
20 Displaying of GnRH Peptides on Bacteriophage T7 and Its Immunogenicity in Mice Model
Authors: Hai Xu, Yiwei Wang, Xi Bao, Bihua Deng, Pengcheng Li, Yu Lu
T7 phage could be used as a perfect vector for peptides expression and haptens presentation. T7-3GnRH recombinant phage was constructed by inserting three copies of Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) gene into the multiple cloning site of T7 Select 415-1b phage genome. The positive T7-3GnRH phage was selected by using polymerase chain reaction amplification, and the p10B-3GnRH fusion protein was verified by SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting assay. T7-3GnRH vaccine was made and immunized with 1010 pfu in 0.2 ml per dose in mice. Blood samples were collected at an interval in weeks, and anti-GnRH antibody and testosterone concentrations were detected by ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The results show that T7-3GnRH phage particles confer a high immunogenicity to the GnRH-derived epitope. Moreover, the T7-3GnRH vaccine induced higher level of anti-GnRH antibody than ImproVac®. However, the testosterone concentrations in both immunized groups were at a similar level, and the testis developments were significantly inhibited compared to controls. These findings demonstrated that the anti-GnRH antibody could neutralize the endogenous GnRH to down regulate testosterone level and limit testis development, highlighting the potential value of T7-3GnRH in the immunocastration vaccine research.
Keywords: Gonadotrophin releasing hormone, GnRH, immunocastration, T7 phage, phage vaccine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 908
19 Vaccinated Susceptible Infected and Recovered (VSIR) Mathematical Model to Study the Effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Vaccine and the Disease Stability Analysis
Authors: Muhammad Shahid, Nasir-uddin Khan, Mushtaq Hussain, Muhammad Liaquat Ali, Asif Mansoor
Abstract:Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of infectious mortality. It is primarily transmitted by the respiratory route, individuals with active disease may infect others through airborne particles which releases when they cough, talk, or sing and subsequently inhale by others. In order to study the effect of the Bacilli Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine after vaccination of TB patient, a Vaccinated Susceptible Infected and Recovered (VSIR) mathematical model is being developed to achieve the desired objectives. The mathematical model, so developed, shall be used to quantify the effect of BCG Vaccine to protect the immigrant young adult person. Moreover, equations are to be established for the disease endemic and free equilibrium states and subsequently utilized in disease stability analysis. The stability analysis will give a complete picture of disease annihilation from the total population if the total removal rate from the infectious group should be greater than total number of dormant infections produced throughout infectious period.
Keywords: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, disease-free equilibrium state, VSIR Quantification, disease stability analysis.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1517
18 The Need for Including Hepatitis a Vaccine in Routine Childhood Immunization Programs in Europe as a Response to the Influx of Refugees from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Regions
Authors: S. Ramia, N. Melhem, K. Kreidieh
The world is facing an unprecedented displacement crisis. Recently, over 1.1 million asylum seekers have been granted protection status in the European Union (EU). The majority of these asylum seekers were from countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region.This influx carries with it a potential introduction of infectious diseases that have been eliminated in the EU, which poses a challenge for EU health authorities. Compared to MENA region countries where Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) endemicity is high to intermediate, member states of the EU show very low (Western Europe) to low (Eastern Europe) levels of HAV endemicity. Because of this situation, there is an ongoing public health concern in high-income countries, like members of the EU, that many adults remain susceptible to HAV outbreaks. The overwhelming majority of the EU members’ states do not include HAV vaccine in their immunization calendars. Hence, this paper urgently calls for the implementation of new policies regarding HAV in EU members’ states.
Keywords: European Union, Hepatitis A, MENA Region Refugees, Vaccine preventable diseases.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 740
17 Production of H5N1 Hemagglutinin inTrichoplusia ni Larvae by a Novel Bi-cistronic Baculovirus Expression Vector
Authors: Tzyy Rong Jinn, Nguyen Tiep Khac, Tzong Yuan Wu
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses have created demand for a cost-effective vaccine to prevent a pandemic of the disease. Here, we report that Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae can act as a cost-effective bioreactor to produce recombinant HA5 (rH5HA) proteins as an potential effective vaccine for chickens. To facilitate the recombinant virus identification, virus titer determination and access the infected larvae, we employed the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) derived from Perina nuda virus (PnV, belongs to insect picorna like Iflavirus genus) to construct a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression vector that can express the rH5HA protein and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) simultaneously. Western blot analysis revealed that the 70 kDa rH5HA protein and partially cleaved products (40 kDa H5HA1) were generated in T. ni larvae infected with recombinant baculovirus carrying the H5HA gene. These data suggest that the baculovirus-larvae recombinant protein expression system could be a cost-effective platform for H5N1 vaccine production.
Keywords: Avian Influenza, baculovirus, hemagglutinin, Trichoplusia ni larvaeProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
16 Features of the Immune Response in Mice were Immunized with Polio Vaccine in Combination with Chitosan Preparations as Adjuvants
Authors: Nelly К. Akhmatova, Оlga V. Lebedinskaya, Stanislav G. Markushin, Elvin А. Akhmatov, Lidiya A. Geiderova, Еlena А. Lebedinskaya, Vera M. Axenova, Аnatoliy P. Godovalov
Abstract:The study of cytokine expression in mice under the influence of inactivated poliovirus and Imovaks polio vaccine in combination with derivatives of chitosan shows various kinds of processes. There is a significant increase in IL-12 in the serum of immunized animals, which should stimulate the production of IFN-γ NK-cells and T-cells and polarize the immune response to Th1 type. Thus, the derivatives of chitosan can promote cell component of the immune response, providing a full antiviral immunity.
Keywords: Poliovirus, chitosan, cytokine expression, antiviral immunity.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1745
15 Tuberculin, Tetanus Immunoglobulin and DPT Vaccine as an Avian in vivo T- Lymphocyte Mitogens
Authors: Ibrahim Mohammed Saeed Shnawa
The avian phytohaemagglutinin skin test is being proved as an in vivo system for the evaluation an avian in vivo T cell mitogenicity. The test system was one week old Gallus domesticus broiler Chickens. Five replicates were done for each of the whole, 1:10 dilutions of each of 0.05 IU tuberculin, tetanus immunoglobulin and DPT vaccine as test materials. The evaluation parameters were the skin indurations and lymphoblast percentages in bone marrow lymphocytes. Tuberculin indurations were 2.06 and 1.26mm for 0.05 IU respectively while lymphoblast percent were 0.234 and 0.1 accordingly. The skin indurations of 135mg/ml and 1.35mg/ml tetanus immunoglobulin were 4.86 and 3.96mm while lymphoblast percentages were 0.3 and 0.14 respectively. The whole DPT and 1:10 concentration were with 4.5 and 3.2mm while their lymphoblast percentages were 0.28 and 0.12 accordingly. Thus the mitogenicity of the test materials was of dependant type.
Keywords: DPT, Mitogenicity, Tetenus, immunoglobulin, Tubercular.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1505
14 Identification of Promiscuous Epitopes for Cellular Immune Responses in the Major Antigenic Protein Rv3873 Encoded by Region of Difference 1 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Authors: Abu Salim Mustafa
Rv3873 is a relatively large size protein (371 amino acids in length) and its gene is located in the immunodominant genomic region of difference (RD)1 that is present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but deleted from the genomes of all the vaccine strains of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) and most other mycobacteria. However, when tested for cellular immune responses using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tuberculosis patients and BCG-vaccinated healthy subjects, this protein was found to be a major stimulator of cell mediated immune responses in both groups of subjects. In order to further identify the sequence of immunodominant epitopes and explore their Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restriction for epitope recognition, 24 peptides (25-mers overlapping with the neighboring peptides by 10 residues) covering the sequence of Rv3873 were synthesized chemically using fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl chemistry and tested in cell mediated immune responses. The results of these experiments helped in the identification of an immunodominant peptide P9 that was recognized by people expressing varying HLA-DR types. Furthermore, it was also predicted to be a promiscuous binder with multiple epitopes for binding to HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ alleles of HLA-class II molecules that present antigens to T helper cells, and to HLA-class I molecules that present antigens to T cytotoxic cells. In addition, the evaluation of peptide P9 using an immunogenicity predictor server yielded a high score (0.94), which indicated a greater probability of this peptide to elicit a protective cellular immune response. In conclusion, P9, a peptide with multiple epitopes and ability to bind several HLA class I and class II molecules for presentation to cells of the cellular immune response, may be useful as a peptide-based vaccine against tuberculosis.
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Rv3873, peptides, vaccineProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 700
13 Barriers and Drivers towards the Use of Childhood Vaccination Services by Undocumented Migrant Caregivers in Sabah, Malaysia: A Qualitative Analysis
Authors: Michal Christina Steven, Mohd. Yusof Hj Ibrahim, Haryati Abdul Karim, Prabakaran Dhanaraj, Kelly Alexius Mansin
After 27 years, Malaysia reported polio cases in 2019 involving the children of the undocumented migrants living in Sabah. These undocumented migrants present a significant challenge in achieving the elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Due to the recent polio outbreak among the undocumented migrant children in Sabah, an in-depth interview was conducted among the caregivers of undocumented migrant children to identify the barriers and drivers towards vaccinating their children. Financial barriers, legal citizenship status, language barrier, the COVID-19 pandemic, and physical barriers have been the barriers to access vaccination services by undocumented migrants. Five significant drivers for undocumented migrants to vaccinate their children are social influence, fear of disease, parental trust in healthcare providers, good support, and vaccine availability. Necessary action should be taken immediately to address the problems of vaccinating the children of undocumented migrants to prevent the re-emergence of VPD.
Keywords: Malaysia, polio, Sabah, undocumented migrants.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 360
12 Assessment of the Efficacy of Oral Vaccination of Wild Canids and Stray Dogs against Rabies in Azerbaijan
Authors: E. N. Hasanov, K. Y. Yusifova, M. A. Ali
Rabies is a zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis in domestic and wild carnivores. The goal of this investigation was to analyze the data on oral vaccination of wild canids and stray dogs in Azerbaijan. Before the start of vaccination campaign conducted by the IDEA (International Dialogue for Environmental Action) Animal Care Center (IACC), all rabies cases in Azerbaijan for the period of 2017-2020 were analyzed. So, 30 regions for oral immunization with the Rabadrop vaccine were selected. In total, 95.9 thousand doses of baits were scattered in 30 regions, 970 (0.97%) remained intact. In addition, a campaign to sterilize and vaccinate stray dogs and cats undoubtedly had a positive impact on reducing the dynamics of rabies incidence. During the period 2017-2020, 2,339 dogs and 2,962 cats were sterilized and vaccinated under this program. It can be noted that the risk of rabies infection can be reduced through special preventive measures against disease reservoirs, which include oral immunization of wild and stray animals.
Keywords: Rabies, vaccination, oral immunization, wild canids, stray dogs, vaccine, disease reservoirs.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 137
11 Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases
Authors: H. Al-Khalaifa, A. Al-Nasser
The viewpoint towards the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of a vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.
Keywords: Drugs, parasitology, poultry, vaccines.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1190
10 The Lymphocytes Number in the Blood of Kwashiorkor Rat Model Induced by Oral Immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis Protein
Authors: Novi Khila Firani, Elisa Nesdyaningtyas
Abstract:Kwashiorkor is one of nutritional problem in Indonesia, which lead to decrease immune system. This condition causes susceptibility to infectious disease, especially tuberculosis. Development of new tuberculosis vaccine will be an important strategy to eliminate tuberculosis in kwashiorkor. Previous research showed that 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein is one of the potent immunogen. However, the role of oral immunization with 38- kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein to the number of lymphocytes in the rat model of kwashiorkor is still unknown. We used kwashiorkor rat model groups with 4% and 2% low protein diet. Oral immunization with 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein given with 2 booster every week. The lymphocytes number were measured by flowcytometry. There was no significant difference between the number of lymphocytes in the normal rat group and the kwashiorkor rat groups. It may reveal the role of 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein as a potent immunogen that can increase the lymphocytes number from kwashiorkor rat model same as normal rat.
Keywords: kwashiorkor rat, lymphocytes, 38-kDa Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteinProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2378
9 Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Egyptian Children Vaccinated during Infancy
Authors: Iman I. Salama, Samia M. Sami, Somaia I. Salama, Zeinab N. Said, Thanaa M. Rabah, Aida M. Abdel-Mohsin
This is a national community based project to evaluate effectiveness of HBV vaccination program in prevention of infection. HBV markers were tested in the sera of 3600 vaccinated children. Infected children were followed up for 1 year. Prevalence of HBV infection was 0.39 % (0.28% positive for anti-HBc, 0.03% positive for HBsAg and 0.08% positive for both). One year later, 50% of positive anti-HBc children turned negative with sustained positivity for positive HBsAg cases. HBV infection was significantly higher at age above 9 years (0.6%) compared to 0.2% at age 3-9 years and 0% at younger age (P<0.05). Logistic analysis revealed that predictors for HBV infection were history of blood transfusion, regular medical injection, and family history of either HBV infection or drug abuse (adjusted odds ratios 6.2, 5.6, 7.6 & 19.1 respectively). HBV vaccination program produced adequate protection. Adherence to infection control measures and safe blood transfusion are recommended.
Keywords: Children, Egypt, HBV Infection, HBV Vaccine.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2569
8 Evaluation Rabbit Serum of the Immunodominant Proteins of Mycobacterium Avium Paratuberculosis Extracts
Authors: M. Hashemi, R. Madani, N. Razmi
M. paratuberculosis is a slow growing mycobactin dependent mycobacterial species known to be the causative agent of Johne’s disease in all species of domestic ruminants worldwide. JD is characterized by gradual weight loss; decreased milk production. Excretion of the organism may occur for prolonged periods (1 to 2.5 years) before the onset of clinical disease. In recent years researchers focus on identification a specific antigen of MAP to use in diagnosis test and preparation of effective vaccine. In this paper, for production of polyclonal antibody against proteins of Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis cell well a rabbit immunization at a certain time period with antigen. After immunization of the animal, rabbit was bleeded for producing enriched serum. Antibodies were purification with ion exchange chromatography. For exact measurement of interaction, western blotting test was used that this study demonstrated sharp bands appears in nitrocellulose paper and specific bands were 50 and 150 KD molecular weight. These were indicating immunodominant proteins.
Keywords: Paratuberculosis, Immunodominant, Western blotting, Ion exchange choromatography.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1648
7 The in vitro Effects of Various Immunomodulatory Nutritional Compounds on Antigen-Stimulated Whole-Blood Culture Cytokine Production
Authors: Ayu S. Muhamad, Michael Gleeson
Immunomodulators are substances that alter immune system via dynamic regulation of messenger molecules. It can be divided into immunostimulant and immunosuppressant. It can help to increase immunity of people with a low immune system, and also can help to normalize an overactive immune system. Aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in vitro exposure to low and high doses of several immunomodulators which include caffeine, kaloba and quercetin on antigen-stimulated whole blood culture cytokine production. Whole blood samples were taken from 5 healthy males (age: 32 ± 12 years; weight: 75.7 ± 6.1 kg; BMI: 24.3 ± 1.5 kg/m2) following an overnight fast with no vigorous activity during the preceding 24 h. The whole blood was then stimulated with 50 μl of 100 x diluted Pediacel vaccine and low or high dose of immunomodulators in the culture plate. After 20 h incubation (5% CO2, 37°C), it was analysed using the Evidence Investigator to determine the production of cytokines including IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-1α. Caffeine and quercetin showed a tendency towards decrease cytokine production as the doses were increased. On the other hand, an upward trend was evident with kaloba, where a high dose of kaloba seemed to increase the cytokine production. In conclusion, we found that caffeine and quercetin have potential as immunosuppressant and kaloba as immunostimulant.
Keywords: Caffeine, cytokine, immunomodulators, kaloba, quercetin.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2188
6 Molecular Detection and Characterization of Infectious Bronchitis Virus from Libya
Authors: Abdulwahab Kammon, Tan Sheau Wei, Abdul Rahman Omar, Abdunaser Dayhum, Ibrahim Eldghayes, Monier Sharif
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a very dynamic and evolving virus, causing major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Recently, the Libyan poultry industry faced severe outbreak of respiratory distress associated with high mortality and dramatic drop in egg production. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were analyzed for several poultry viruses. IBV was detected using SYBR Green I real-time PCR detection based on the nucleocapsid (N) gene. Sequence analysis of the partial N gene indicated high similarity (~ 94%) to IBV strain 3382/06 that was isolated from Taiwan. Even though the IBV strain 3382/06 is more similar to that of the Mass type H120, the isolate has been implicated associated with intertypic recombinant of 3 putative parental IBV strains namely H120, Taiwan strain 1171/92 and China strain CK/CH/LDL/97I. Complete sequencing and antigenicity studies of the Libya IBV strains are currently underway to determine the evolution of the virus and its importance in vaccine induced immunity. In this paper we documented for the first time the presence of possibly variant IBV strain from Libya which required dramatic change in vaccination program.
Keywords: Libya, Infectious bronchitis, Molecular characterization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2347
5 Blockchain Technology Applications in Patient Tracking Systems Regarding Privacy-Preserving Concerns and COVID-19 Pandemic
Authors: Farbod Behnaminia, Saeed Samet
The COVID-19 pandemic has paralyzed many lives until a vaccine has been available, which caused the so-called "new normal". COVID-19 is an infectious disease. It can cause significant illness or death in anyone. Governments and health officials tried to impose rules and regulations to avoid and slow down transmission. Therefore, software engineers worldwide developed applications to trace and track patients’ movements and notify others, mainly using Bluetooth. In this way, everyone could be informed whether they came in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 and take proper safety precautions. Because most of the applications use technologies that can potentially reveal the user’s identity and location, researchers have debated privacy preservation and how to improve user privacy during such pandemics. We conducted a comprehensive evaluation of the literature by looking for papers in the relevant field and dividing them into pre- and post-pandemic systems. Additionally, we discussed the many uses of blockchain technology in pandemic control. We found that two major obstacles facing blockchain implementation across many healthcare systems are scalability and privacy. The Polkadot platform is presented, along with a review of its efficacy in tackling current concerns. A more scalable healthcare system is achievable in near future using Polkadot as well as a much more privacy-preserving environment.
Keywords: Blockchain, Electronic Record Management, EHR, Privacy-Preserving, patient tracking, COVID-19, trust and confidence, Polkadot.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 57
4 Virulent-GO: Prediction of Virulent Proteins in Bacterial Pathogens Utilizing Gene Ontology Terms
Authors: Chia-Ta Tsai, Wen-Lin Huang, Shinn-Jang Ho, Li-Sun Shu, Shinn-Ying Ho
Abstract:Prediction of bacterial virulent protein sequences can give assistance to identification and characterization of novel virulence-associated factors and discover drug/vaccine targets against proteins indispensable to pathogenicity. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation which describes functions of genes and gene products as a controlled vocabulary of terms has been shown effectively for a variety of tasks such as gene expression study, GO annotation prediction, protein subcellular localization, etc. In this study, we propose a sequence-based method Virulent-GO by mining informative GO terms as features for predicting bacterial virulent proteins. Each protein in the datasets used by the existing method VirulentPred is annotated by using BLAST to obtain its homologies with known accession numbers for retrieving GO terms. After investigating various popular classifiers using the same five-fold cross-validation scheme, Virulent-GO using the single kind of GO term features with an accuracy of 82.5% is slightly better than VirulentPred with 81.8% using five kinds of sequence-based features. For the evaluation of independent test, Virulent-GO also yields better results (82.0%) than VirulentPred (80.7%). When evaluating single kind of feature with SVM, the GO term feature performs much well, compared with each of the five kinds of features.
Keywords: Bacterial virulence factors, GO terms, prediction, protein sequence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2018
3 Chikungunya Protease Domain–High Throughput Virtual Screening
Authors: Surender Singh Jadav, Venkatesan Jayaprakash, Arijit Basu, Barij Nayan Sinha
Chikungunya virus (CHICKV) is an arboviruses belonging to family Tagoviridae and is transmitted to human through by mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) bite. A large outbreak of chikungunya has been reported in India between 2006 and 2007, along with several other countries from South-East Asia and for the first time in Europe. It was for the first time that the CHICKV outbreak has been reported with mortality from Reunion Island and increased mortality from Asian countries. CHICKV affects all age groups, and currently there are no specific drugs or vaccine to cure the disease. The need of antiviral agents for the treatment of CHICKV infection and the success of virtual screening against many therapeutically valuable targets led us to carry out the structure based drug design against Chikungunya nSP2 protease (PDB: 3TRK). Highthroughput virtual screening of publicly available databases, ZINC12 and BindingDB, has been carried out using the Openeye tools and Schrodinger LLC software packages. Openeye Filter program has been used to filter the database and the filtered outputs were docked using HTVS protocol implemented in GLIDE package of Schrodinger LLC. The top HITS were further used for enriching the similar molecules from the database through vROCS; a shape based screening protocol implemented in Openeye. The approach adopted has provided different scaffolds as HITS against CHICKV protease. Three scaffolds: Indole, Pyrazole and Sulphone derivatives were selected based on the docking score and synthetic feasibility. Derivatives of Pyrazole were synthesized and submitted for antiviral screening against CHICKV.
Keywords: Chikungunya, nsP2 protease, ADME filter, HTVS, Docking, Active site.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2352
2 Dengue Disease Mapping with Standardized Morbidity Ratio and Poisson-gamma Model: An Analysis of Dengue Disease in Perak, Malaysia
Authors: N. A. Samat, S. H. Mohd Imam Ma’arof
Dengue disease is an infectious vector-borne viral disease that is commonly found in tropical and sub-tropical regions, especially in urban and semi-urban areas, around the world and including Malaysia. There is no currently available vaccine or chemotherapy for the prevention or treatment of dengue disease. Therefore prevention and treatment of the disease depend on vector surveillance and control measures. Disease risk mapping has been recognized as an important tool in the prevention and control strategies for diseases. The choice of statistical model used for relative risk estimation is important as a good model will subsequently produce a good disease risk map. Therefore, the aim of this study is to estimate the relative risk for dengue disease based initially on the most common statistic used in disease mapping called Standardized Morbidity Ratio (SMR) and one of the earliest applications of Bayesian methodology called Poisson-gamma model. This paper begins by providing a review of the SMR method, which we then apply to dengue data of Perak, Malaysia. We then fit an extension of the SMR method, which is the Poisson-gamma model. Both results are displayed and compared using graph, tables and maps. Results of the analysis shows that the latter method gives a better relative risk estimates compared with using the SMR. The Poisson-gamma model has been demonstrated can overcome the problem of SMR when there is no observed dengue cases in certain regions. However, covariate adjustment in this model is difficult and there is no possibility for allowing spatial correlation between risks in adjacent areas. The drawbacks of this model have motivated many researchers to propose other alternative methods for estimating the risk.
Keywords: Dengue disease, Disease mapping, Standardized Morbidity Ratio, Poisson-gamma model, Relative risk.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3101
1 21st Century Biotechnological Research and Development Advancements for Industrial Development in India
Authors: Monisha Isaac
Biotechnology is a discipline which explains the use of living organisms and systems to construct a product, or we can define it as an application or technology developed to use biological systems and organisms processes for a specific use. Particularly, it includes cells and its components use for new technologies and inventions. The tools developed can be further used in diverse fields such as agriculture, industry, research and hospitals etc. The 21st century has seen a drastic development and advancement in biotechnology in India. Significant increase in Government of India’s outlays for biotechnology over the past decade has been observed. A sectoral break up of biotechnology-based companies in India shows that most of the companies are agriculture-based companies having interests ranging from tissue culture to biopesticides. Major attention has been given by the companies in health related activities and in environmental biotechnology. The biopharmaceutical, which comprises of vaccines, diagnostic, and recombinant products is the most reliable and largest segment of the Indian Biotech industry. India has developed its vaccine markets and supplies them to various countries. Then there are the bio-services, which mainly comprise of contract researches and manufacturing services. India has made noticeable developments in the field of bio industries including manufacturing of enzymes, biofuels and biopolymers. Biotechnology is also playing a crucial and significant role in the field of agriculture. Traditional methods have been replaced by new technologies that mainly focus on GM crops, marker assisted technologies and the use of biotechnological tools to improve the quality of fertilizers and soil. It may only be a small contributor but has shown to have huge potential for growth. Bioinformatics is a computational method which helps to store, manage, arrange and design tools to interpret the extensive data gathered through experimental trials, making it important in the design of drugs.
Keywords: Biotechnology, advancement, agriculture, bio-services, bio-industries, bio-pharmaceuticals.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1927