Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 614

Search results for: Band-pass filter

614 Tunable Photonic Microwave Bandpass Filter Based on EOPM and VPBS

Authors: R. Heydari, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

A tunable photonic microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficient based on an electro-optic phase modulator (EOPM) and a variable polarization beamsplitter (VPBS) is demonstrated. A two-tap microwave bandpass filter with one negative coefficient is presented. The chromatic dispersion and optical coherence are not affected on this filter.

Keywords: Bandpass filter, EOPM, photonic microwave filter, polarization beamsplitter.

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613 New Triangle-Ring UWB Bandpass Filter with Sharp Roll-Off and Dual Notched Bands

Authors: Hung-Wei Wu, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Fu Chen, Cheng-Yuan Hung

Abstract:

This paper presents a new ultra-wideband (UWB) bandpass filter (BPF) with sharp roll-off and dual-notched bands. The filter consists of a triangle ring multi-mode resonator (MMR) with the stub-loaded resonator (SLR) for controlling the two transmission zeros at 2.8 / 11 GHz, the embedded open-circuited stub and the asymmetric tight coupled input/output (I/O) lines for introducing the dual notched bands at 5.2 / 6.8 GHz. The attenuation slope in the lower and higher passband edges of the proposed filter show 160- and 153-dB/GHz, respectively. This study mainly provides a simple method to design a UWB bandpass filter with high passband selectivity and dual-notched bands for satisfying the Federal Communications Commission (FCC-defined) indoor UWB specification

Keywords: steeply slopes transition band, bandpass filter, ultra-wideband (UWB), triangle-ring, multi-mode resonator, stub-loaded resonator.

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612 A Low Noise Microwave Filter with Minimum Distortion

Authors: Cheng Yuan Hung, Min Hang Weng, Siang Wen Lan, Wei Yu Chen, Hung Wei Wu, Chun Yueh Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, a low noise microwave bandpass filter (BPF) is presented. This filter is fabricated by modifying the conventional cross-coupled structure. The spurious response is improved by using the end open coupled lines, and the influence of the noise is minimized. Impedance matrix of the open end coupled circuit clarifies the characteristic of the suppression of the spurious response. The rejection of spurious suppression region of the proposed filter is greater than 20 dB from 3-13 GHz. The measured results of the fabricated filter confirm the concepts of the proposed design and exhibits high performance.

Keywords: Low noise, signal transmission, bandpass filter, end open coupled line, communication system.

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611 Compact Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Based on Quarter Wavelength Stepped Impedance Resonators

Authors: Yu-Fu Chen, Zih-Jyun Dai, Chen-Te Chiu, Shiue-Chen Chiou, Yung-Wei Chen, Yu-Ming Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Hung-Wei Wu, Hsin-Ying Lee, Yan-Kuin Su, Shoou-Jinn Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a compact dual-band bandpass filter that involves using the quarter wavelength stepped impedance resonators (SIRs) for achieving simultaneously compact circuit size and good dual-band performance. The filter is designed at 2.4 / 3.5 GHz and constructed by two pairs of quarter wavelength SIRs and source-load lines. By properly tuning the impedance ratio, length ratio and radius of via hole of the SIRs, dual-passbands performance can be easily determined. To improve the passband selectivity, the use of source-load lines is to increase coupling energy between the resonators. The filter is showing simple configuration, effective design method and small circuit size. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulation results.

Keywords: Dual-band, bandpass filter, stepped impedance resonators, SIR.

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610 Design and Synthesis of Two Tunable Bandpass Filters Based On Varactors and Defected Ground Structure

Authors: M. Boulakroune, M. Challal, H. Louazene, S. Fentiz

Abstract:

This paper presents two types of microstrip bandpass filter (BPF) at microwave frequencies. The first one is a tunable BPF using planar patch resonators based on a varactor diode. The filter is formed by a triple mode circular patch resonator with two pairs of slots, in which the varactor diodes are connected. Indeed, this filter is initially centered at 2.4 GHz; the center frequency of the tunable patch filter could be tuned up to 1.8 GHz simultaneously with the bandwidth, reaching high tuning ranges. Lossless simulations were compared to those considering the substrate dielectric, conductor losses and the equivalent electrical circuit model of the tuning element in order to assess their effects. Within these variations, simulation results showed insertion loss better than 2 dB and return loss better than 10 dB over the passband. The second structure is a BPF for ultra-wideband (UWB) applications based on multiple-mode resonator (MMR) and rectangular-shaped defected ground structure (DGS). This filter, which is compact size of 25.2 x 3.8 mm2, provides in the pass band an insertion loss of 0.57 dB and a return loss greater than 12 dB. The proposed filters presents good performances and the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimentation ones reported elsewhere.

Keywords: Defected ground structure, varactor diode, microstrip bandpass filter, multiple-mode resonator.

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609 Motor Imaginary Signal Classification Using Adaptive Recursive Bandpass Filter and Adaptive Autoregressive Models for Brain Machine Interface Designs

Authors: Vickneswaran Jeyabalan, Andrews Samraj, Loo Chu Kiong

Abstract:

The noteworthy point in the advancement of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) research is the ability to accurately extract features of the brain signals and to classify them into targeted control action with the easiest procedures since the expected beneficiaries are of disabled. In this paper, a new feature extraction method using the combination of adaptive band pass filters and adaptive autoregressive (AAR) modelling is proposed and applied to the classification of right and left motor imagery signals extracted from the brain. The introduction of the adaptive bandpass filter improves the characterization process of the autocorrelation functions of the AAR models, as it enhances and strengthens the EEG signal, which is noisy and stochastic in nature. The experimental results on the Graz BCI data set have shown that by implementing the proposed feature extraction method, a LDA and SVM classifier outperforms other AAR approaches of the BCI 2003 competition in terms of the mutual information, the competition criterion, or misclassification rate.

Keywords: Adaptive autoregressive, adaptive bandpass filter, brain machine Interface, EEG, motor imaginary.

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608 The Excess Loop Delay Calibration in a Bandpass Continuous-Time Delta Sigma Modulators Based on Q-Enhanced LC Filter

Authors: Sorore Benabid

Abstract:

The Q-enhanced LC filters are the most used architecture in the Bandpass (BP) Continuous-Time (CT) Delta-Sigma (ΣΔ) modulators, due to their: high frequencies operation, high linearity than the active filters and a high quality factor obtained by Q-enhanced technique. This technique consists of the use of a negative resistance that compensate the ohmic losses in the on-chip inductor. However, this technique introduces a zero in the filter transfer function which will affect the modulator performances in term of Dynamic Range (DR), stability and in-band noise (Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)). In this paper, we study the effect of this zero and we demonstrate that a calibration of the excess loop delay (ELD) is required to ensure the best performances of the modulator. System level simulations are done for a 2ndorder BP CT (ΣΔ) modulator at a center frequency of 300MHz. Simulation results indicate that the optimal ELD should be reduced by 13% to achieve the maximum SNR and DR compared to the ideal LC-based ΣΔ modulator.

Keywords: Continuous-time bandpass delta-sigma modulators, excess loop delay, on-chip inductor, Q-enhanced LC filter.

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607 Numerical Analysis of All-Optical Microwave Mixing and Bandpass Filtering in an RoF Link

Authors: S. Khosroabadi, M. R. Salehi

Abstract:

In this paper, all-optical signal processors that perform both microwave mixing and bandpass filtering in a radio-over-fiber (RoF) link are presented. The key device is a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) which performs all-optical microwave mixing. An up-converted microwave signal is obtained and other unwanted frequency components are suppressed at the end of the fiber span.

Keywords: Microwave mixing, bandpass filtering, all-optical, signal processing, MZM.

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606 Resistor-less Current-mode Universal Biquad Filter Using CCTAs and Grounded Capacitors

Authors: T. Thosdeekoraphat, S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, S. Santalunai, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents a current-mode universal biquadratic filter. The proposed circuit can apparently provide standard functions of the biquad filter: low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, band-reject and all-pass functions. The circuit uses 4 current controlled transconductance amplifiers (CCTAs) and 2 grounded capacitors. In addition, the pole frequency and quality factor can be adjusted by electronic method by adjusting the bias currents of the CCTA. The proposed circuit uses only grounded capacitors without additional external resistors, the proposed circuit is considerably appropriate to further developing into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Resistor-less, Current-mode, Biquad filter, CCTA.

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605 Extraction of Fetal Heart Rate and Fetal Heart Rate Variability from Mother's ECG Signal

Authors: Khaldon Lweesy, Luay Fraiwan, Christoph Maier, Hartmut Dickhaus

Abstract:

This paper describes a new method for extracting the fetal heart rate (fHR) and the fetal heart rate variability (fHRV) signal non-invasively using abdominal maternal electrocardiogram (mECG) recordings. The extraction is based on the fundamental frequency (Fourier-s) theorem. The fundamental frequency of the mother-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-m) is calculated directly from the abdominal signal. The heart rate of the fetus is usually higher than that of the mother; as a result, the fundamental frequency of the fetal-s electrocardiogram signal (fo-f) is higher than that of the mother-s (fo-f > fo-m). Notch filters to suppress mother-s higher harmonics were designed; then a bandpass filter to target fo-f and reject fo-m is implemented. Although the bandpass filter will pass some other frequencies (harmonics), we have shown in this study that those harmonics are actually carried on fo-f, and thus have no impact on the evaluation of the beat-to-beat changes (RR intervals). The oscillations of the time-domain extracted signal represent the RR intervals. We have also shown in this study that zero-to-zero evaluation of the periods is more accurate than the peak-to-peak evaluation. This method is evaluated both on simulated signals and on different abdominal recordings obtained at different gestational ages.

Keywords: Aabdominal ECG, fetal heart rate variability, frequency harmonics, fundamental frequency.

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604 Low Power Approach for Decimation Filter Hardware Realization

Authors: Kar Foo Chong, Pradeep K. Gopalakrishnan, T. Hui Teo

Abstract:

There are multiple ways to implement a decimator filter. This paper addresses usage of CIC (cascaded-integrator-comb) filter and HB (half band) filter as the decimator filter to reduce the frequency sample rate by factor of 64 and detail of the implementation step to realize this design in hardware. Low power design approach for CIC filter and half band filter will be discussed. The filter design is implemented through MATLAB system modeling, ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) design flow and verified using a FPGA (field programmable gate array) board and MATLAB analysis.

Keywords: CIC filter, decimation filter, half-band filter, lowpower.

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603 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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602 A Compact Via-less Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Filter by Utilizing Open-Circuit Quarter Wavelength Stubs

Authors: Muhammad Yasir Wadood, Fatemeh Babaeian

Abstract:

By developing ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, there is a high demand for UWB filters with low insertion loss, wide bandwidth, and having a planar structure which is compatible with other components of the UWB system. A microstrip interdigital filter is a great option for designing UWB filters. However, the presence of via holes in this structure creates difficulties in the fabrication procedure of the filter. Especially in the higher frequency band, any misalignment of the drilled via hole with the Microstrip stubs causes large errors in the measurement results compared to the desired results. Moreover, in this case (high-frequency designs), the line width of the stubs are very narrow, so highly precise small via holes are required to be implemented, which increases the cost of fabrication significantly. Also, in this case, there is a risk of having fabrication errors. To combat this issue, in this paper, a via-less UWB microstrip filter is proposed which is designed based on a modification of a conventional inter-digital bandpass filter. The novel approaches in this filter design are 1) replacement of each via hole with a quarter-wavelength open circuit stub to avoid the complexity of manufacturing, 2) using a bend structure to reduce the unwanted coupling effects and 3) minimising the size. Using the proposed structure, a UWB filter operating in the frequency band of 3.9-6.6 GHz (1-dB bandwidth) is designed and fabricated. The promising results of the simulation and measurement are presented in this paper. The selected substrate for these designs was Rogers RO4003 with a thickness of 20 mils. This is a common substrate in most of the industrial projects. The compact size of the proposed filter is highly beneficial for applications which require a very miniature size of hardware.

Keywords: Band-pass filters, inter-digital filter, microstrip, via-less.

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601 Active Power Filter dimensioning Using a Hysteresis Current Controller

Authors: Tarek A. Kasmieh, Hassan S. Omran

Abstract:

This paper aims to give a full study of the dynamic behavior of a mono-phase active power filter. First, the principle of the parallel active power filter will be introduced. Then, a dimensioning procedure for all its components will be explained in detail, such as the input filter, the current and voltage controllers. This active power filter is simulated using OrCAD program showing the validity of the theoretical study.

Keywords: Active power filter, Power Quality, Hysteresiscurrent controller.

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600 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas D. Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: Discrete time, linear estimation, Kalman filter, Kalman filter gain.

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599 Image Enhancement using α-Trimmed Mean ε-Filters

Authors: Mahdi Shaneh, Arash Golibagh Mahyari

Abstract:

Image enhancement is the most important challenging preprocessing for almost all applications of Image Processing. By now, various methods such as Median filter, α-trimmed mean filter, etc. have been suggested. It was proved that the α-trimmed mean filter is the modification of median and mean filters. On the other hand, ε-filters have shown excellent performance in suppressing noise. In spite of their simplicity, they achieve good results. However, conventional ε-filter is based on moving average. In this paper, we suggested a new ε-filter which utilizes α-trimmed mean. We argue that this new method gives better outcomes compared to previous ones and the experimental results confirmed this claim.

Keywords: Image enhancement, median filter, ε-filter – α-trimmed mean filter.

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598 Symbolic Analysis of Input Impedance of CMOS Floating Active Inductors with Application in Fully Differential Bandpass Amplifier

Authors: Kittipong Tripetch

Abstract:

This paper proposes a study of input impedance of 2 types of CMOS active inductors. It derives 2 input impedance formulas. The first formula is the input impedance of the grounded active inductor. The second formula is the input impedance of the floating active inductor. After that, these formulas can be used to simulate magnitude and phase response of input impedance as a function of current consumption with MATLAB. Common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of the fully differential bandpass amplifier is derived based on superposition principle. CMRR as a function of input frequency is plotted as a function of current consumption. 

Keywords: Grounded active inductor, floating active inductor, Fully differential bandpass amplifier.

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597 Robust Integrated Navigation of a Low Cost System

Authors: Saman M. Siddiqui, Fang Jiancheng

Abstract:

Robust nonlinear integrated navigation of GPS and low cost MEMS is a hot topic of research these days. A robust filter is required to cope up with the problem of unpredictable discontinuities and colored noises associated with low cost sensors. H∞ filter is previously used in Extended Kalman filter and Unscented Kalman filter frame. Unscented Kalman filter has a problem of Cholesky matrix factorization at each step which is a very unstable operation. To avoid this problem in this research H∞ filter is designed in Square root Unscented filter framework and found 50% more robust towards increased level of colored noises.

Keywords: H∞ filter, MEMS, GPS, Nonlinear system, robust system, Square root unscented filter.

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596 A Computationally Efficient Design for Prototype Filters of an M-Channel Cosine Modulated Filter Bank

Authors: Neela. R. Rayavarapu, Neelam Rup Prakash

Abstract:

The paper discusses a computationally efficient method for the design of prototype filters required for the implementation of an M-band cosine modulated filter bank. The prototype filter is formulated as an optimum interpolated FIR filter. The optimum interpolation factor requiring minimum number of multipliers is used. The model filter as well as the image suppressor will be designed using the Kaiser window. The method will seek to optimize a single parameter namely cutoff frequency to minimize the distortion in the overlapping passband.

Keywords: Cosine modulated filter bank, interpolated FIR filter, optimum interpolation factor, prototype filter.

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595 A New Version of Unscented Kalman Filter

Authors: S. A. Banani, M. A. Masnadi-Shirazi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new algorithm which yields a nonlinear state estimator called iterated unscented Kalman filter. This state estimator makes use of both statistical and analytical linearization techniques in different parts of the filtering process. It outperforms the other three nonlinear state estimators: unscented Kalman filter (UKF), extended Kalman filter (EKF) and iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) when there is severe nonlinearity in system equation and less nonlinearity in measurement equation. The algorithm performance has been verified by illustrating some simulation results.

Keywords: Extended Kalman Filter, Iterated EKF, Nonlinearstate estimator, Unscented Kalman Filter.

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594 Application of Hardware Efficient CIC Compensation Filter in Narrow Band Filtering

Authors: Vishal Awasthi, Krishna Raj

Abstract:

In many communication and signal processing systems, it is highly desirable to implement an efficient narrow-band filter that decimate or interpolate the incoming signals. This paper presents hardware efficient compensated CIC filter over a narrow band frequency that increases the speed of down sampling by using multiplierless decimation filters with polyphase FIR filter structure. The proposed work analyzed the performance of compensated CIC filter on the bases of the improvement of frequency response with reduced hardware complexity in terms of no. of adders and multipliers and produces the filtered results without any alterations. CIC compensator filter demonstrated that by using compensation with CIC filter improve the frequency response in passed of interest 26.57% with the reduction in hardware complexity 12.25% multiplications per input sample (MPIS) and 23.4% additions per input sample (APIS) w.r.t. FIR filter respectively.

Keywords: Multirate filtering, Narrow-band Signaling, Compensation Theory, CIC filter, Decimation, Compensation filter.

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593 Operation Parameters of Vacuum Cleaned Filters

Authors: Wilhelm Hoeflinger, Thomas Laminger, Johannes Wolfslehner

Abstract:

For vacuum cleaned dust filters there exist no calculation methods to determine design parameters (e.g. traverse velocity of the nozzle, filter area…). In this work a method to calculate the optimum traverse velocity of the nozzle of an industrial-size flat dust filter at a given mean pressure drop and filter face velocity was elaborated. Well-known equations for the design of a cleanable multi-chamber bag-house-filter were modified in order to take into account a continuously regeneration of a dust filter by a nozzle. Thereby, the specific filter medium resistance and the specific cake resistance values are needed which can be derived from filter tests under constant operation conditions.

A lab-scale filter test rig was used to derive the specific filter media resistance value and the specific cake resistance value for vacuum cleaned filter operation. Three different filter media were tested and the determined parameters were compared to each other.

Keywords: Design of dust filter, Dust removing, Filter regeneration, Operation parameters.

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592 A Low-Voltage Tunable Channel Selection Filter for WiMAX Applications

Authors: Kayvan Ahmadi, Hossein Shamsi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a low-voltage and low-power fully integrated digitally tuned continuous-time channel selection filter for WiMAX applications. A 5th-order elliptic low-pass filter is realized in a Gm-C topology. The bandwidth of the fully differential filter is reconfigurable from 2.5MHz to 20MHz (8x) for different requirements in WiMAX applications. The filter is simulated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Simulation results show the THD (@Vout =100mVpp) is less than -66dB. The in-band ripple of the filter is about 0.15dB. The filter consumes 1.5mW from a supply voltage of 0.9V.

Keywords: Common-mode feedback, continuous-time, fully differential transconductor, Gm-C topology, low-voltage

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591 Multi-stage Directional Median Filter

Authors: Zong Chen, Li Zhang

Abstract:

Median filter is widely used to remove impulse noise without blurring sharp edges. However, when noise level increased, or with thin edges, median filter may work poorly. This paper proposes a new filter, which will detect edges along four possible directions, and then replace noise corrupted pixel with estimated noise-free edge median value. Simulations show that the proposed multi-stage directional median filter can provide excellent performance of suppressing impulse noise in all situations.

Keywords: Impulse noise, Median filter, Multi-stage, Edgepreserving

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590 A New Current-mode Multifunction Filter with High Impedance Outputs Using Minimum Number of Passive Elements

Authors: Mehmet Sagbas, Kemal Fidanboylu, Mehmet C. Bayram

Abstract:

A new current-mode multifunction filter using minimum number of passive elements is proposed. The proposed filter has single-input and four high-impedance outputs. It uses four passive elements (two capacitors and two resistors) and four dual output second generation current conveyors. Each output provides a different filter response, namely, low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-reject. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out on both ideal and non-ideal filter configurations. The validity of the proposed filter is verified through PSPICE simulations.

Keywords: Active filter, Universal filter, Currentconveyors.

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589 Application of Hermite-Rodriguez Functions to Pulse Shaping Analog Filter Design

Authors: Mohd Amaluddin Yusoff

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the design of pulse shaping filter using orthogonal Hermite-Rodriguez basis functions. The pulse shaping filter design problem has been formulated and solved as a quadratic programming problem with linear inequality constraints. Compared with the existing approaches reported in the literature, the use of Hermite-Rodriguez functions offers an effective alternative to solve the constrained filter synthesis problem. This is demonstrated through a numerical example which is concerned with the design of an equalization filter for a digital transmission channel.

Keywords: channel equalization filter, Hermite-Rodriguez, pulseshaping filter, quadratic programming.

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588 UD Covariance Factorization for Unscented Kalman Filter using Sequential Measurements Update

Authors: H. Ghanbarpour Asl, S. H. Pourtakdoust

Abstract:

Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is probably the most widely used estimation algorithm for nonlinear systems. However, not only it has difficulties arising from linearization but also many times it becomes numerically unstable because of computer round off errors that occur in the process of its implementation. To overcome linearization limitations, the unscented transformation (UT) was developed as a method to propagate mean and covariance information through nonlinear transformations. Kalman filter that uses UT for calculation of the first two statistical moments is called Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF). Square-root form of UKF (SRUKF) developed by Rudolph van der Merwe and Eric Wan to achieve numerical stability and guarantee positive semi-definiteness of the Kalman filter covariances. This paper develops another implementation of SR-UKF for sequential update measurement equation, and also derives a new UD covariance factorization filter for the implementation of UKF. This filter is equivalent to UKF but is computationally more efficient.

Keywords: Unscented Kalman filter, Square-root unscentedKalman filter, UD covariance factorization, Target tracking.

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587 A new Configurable Decimation Filter using Pascal-s Triangle Theorem

Authors: A. Chahardah Cherik, E. Farshidi

Abstract:

This paper presents a new configurable decimation filter for sigma-delta modulators. The filter employs the Pascal-s triangle-s theorem for building the coefficients of non-recursive decimation filters. The filter can be connected to the back-end of various modulators with different output accuracy. In this work two methods are shown and then compared from area occupation viewpoint. First method uses the memory and the second one employs Pascal-s triangle-s method, aiming to reduce required gates. XILINX ISE v10 is used for implementation and confirmation the filter.

Keywords: Decimation filter, sigma delta, Pascal's triangle'stheorem, memory

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586 Adaptive Notch Filter for Harmonic Current Mitigation

Authors: T. Messikh, S. Mekhilef, N. A. Rahim

Abstract:

This paper presents an effective technique for harmonic current mitigation using an adaptive notch filter (ANF) to estimate current harmonics. The proposed filter consists of multiple units of ANF connected in parallel structure; each unit is governed by two ordinary differential equations. The frequency estimation is carried out based on the output of these units. The simulation and experimental results show the ability of the proposed tracking scheme to accurately estimate harmonics. The proposed filter was implemented digitally in TMS320F2808 and used in the control of hybrid active power filter (HAPF). The theoretical expectations are verified and demonstrated experimentally.

Keywords: Adaptive notch filter, Active power filter, harmonic filtering, Time varying frequency.

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585 Thermal Properties of Chitosan-Filled Empty Fruit Bunches Filter Media

Authors: Aziatul Niza Sadikin, Norasikin Othman, Mohd Ghazali Mohd Nawawi, Umi Aisah Asli, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Rafiziana Md Kasmani

Abstract:

Non-woven fibrous filter media from empty fruit bunches were fabricated by using chitosan as a binder. Chitosan powder was dissolved in a 1 wt% aqueous acetic acid, and 1 wt% to 4 wt% of chitosan solutions was prepared. Chitosan-filled empty fruit bunches filter media have been prepared via wet-layup method. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to study various thermal properties of the fibrous filter media. It was found that the fibrous filter media have undergone several decomposition stages over a range of temperatures as revealed by TGA thermo-grams, where the temperature for 10% weight loss for chitosan-filled EFB filter media and binder-less filter media was at 150oC and 300oC, respectively.

Keywords: Empty fruit bunches, chitosan, filter media, thermal property.

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