Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 418

Search results for: Arterial blood vessels

418 Genetic Variants and Atherosclerosis

Authors: M. Seifi, A. Ghasemi, M. Khosravi, M. Salimi, S. Jahandideh, J. Sherizadeh, F. S. Hashemizadeh, R. Khodaei

Abstract:

Atherosclerosis is the condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low density (especially small particle) lipoproteins (plasma proteins that carry cholesterol and triglycerides) without adequate removal of fats and cholesterol from the macrophages by functional high density lipoproteins (HDL). It is commonly referred to as a hardening or furring of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.

Keywords: Arterial blood vessels, atherosclerosis, cholesterol.

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417 A Simulation for Estimation of the Blood Pressure using Arterial Pressure-volume Model

Authors: Gye-rok Jeon, Jae-hee Jung, In-cheol Kim, Ah-young Jeon, Sang-hwa Yoon, Jung-man Son, Jae-hyung Kim, Soo-young Ye, Jung-hoon Ro, Dong-hyun Kim, Chul-han Kim

Abstract:

A analysis on the conventional the blood pressure estimation method using an oscillometric sphygmomanometer was performed through a computer simulation using an arterial pressure-volume (APV) model. Traditionally, the maximum amplitude algorithm (MAP) was applied on the oscillation waveforms of the APV model to obtain the mean arterial pressure and the characteristic ratio. The estimation of mean arterial pressure and characteristic ratio was significantly affected with the shape of the blood pressure waveforms and the cutoff frequency of high-pass filter (HPL) circuitry. Experimental errors are due to these effects when estimating blood pressure. To find out an algorithm independent from the influence of waveform shapes and parameters of HPL, the volume oscillation of the APV model and the phase shift of the oscillation with fast fourier transform (FFT) were testified while increasing the cuff pressure from 1 mmHg to 200 mmHg (1 mmHg per second). The phase shift between the ranges of volume oscillation was then only observed between the systolic and the diastolic blood pressures. The same results were also obtained from the simulations performed on two different the arterial blood pressure waveforms and one hyperthermia waveform.

Keywords: Arterial blood pressure, oscillometric method

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416 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi

Abstract:

A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: Blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement.

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415 Automated Thickness Measurement of Retinal Blood Vessels for Implementation of Clinical Decision Support Systems in Diagnostic Diabetic Retinopathy

Authors: S.Jerald Jeba Kumar, M.Madheswaran

Abstract:

The structure of retinal vessels is a prominent feature, that reveals information on the state of disease that are reflected in the form of measurable abnormalities in thickness and colour. Vascular structures of retina, for implementation of clinical diabetic retinopathy decision making system is presented in this paper. Retinal Vascular structure is with thin blood vessel, whose accuracy is highly dependent upon the vessel segmentation. In this paper the blood vessel thickness is automatically detected using preprocessing techniques and vessel segmentation algorithm. First the capture image is binarized to get the blood vessel structure clearly, then it is skeletonised to get the overall structure of all the terminal and branching nodes of the blood vessels. By identifying the terminal node and the branching points automatically, the main and branching blood vessel thickness is estimated. Results are presented and compared with those provided by clinical classification on 50 vessels collected from Bejan Singh Eye hospital..

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Binarization, SegmentationClinical Decision Support Systems.

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414 A Numerical Simulation of Arterial Mass Transport in Presence of Magnetic Field-Links to Atherosclerosis

Authors: H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, K. Khajeh

Abstract:

This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake; inlet Re number and Sc number in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. Homogeneous porous layer as a arterial wall has been regarded. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 % vol. Fe3O4) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

Keywords: LDL Surface Concentration (LSC), Magnetic field, Computational fluid dynamics, Porous wall.

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413 Effect of Non-Newtonian Behaviour of Blood on Pulsatile Flows in Stenotic Arteries

Authors: Somkid Amornsamankul, Benchawan Wiwatanapataphee, Yong Hong Wu, Yongwimon Lenbury

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the pulsatile flow of blood through stenotic arteries. The inner layer of arterial walls is modeled as a porous medium and human blood is assumed as an incompressible fluid. A numerical algorithm based on the finite element method is developed to simulate the blood flow through both the lumen region and the porous wall. The algorithm is then applied to study the flow behaviour and to investigate the significance of the non-Newtonian effect.

Keywords: Stenotic artery, finite element, porous arterial wall, non-Newtonian model.

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412 Applying Similarity Theory and Hilbert Huang Transform for Estimating the Differences of Pig-s Blood Pressure Signals between Situations of Intestinal Artery Blocking and Unblocking

Authors: Jia-Rong Yeh, Tzu-Yu Lin, Jiann-Shing Shieh, Yun Chen

Abstract:

A mammal-s body can be seen as a blood vessel with complex tunnels. When heart pumps blood periodically, blood runs through blood vessels and rebounds from walls of blood vessels. Blood pressure signals can be measured with complex but periodic patterns. When an artery is clamped during a surgical operation, the spectrum of blood pressure signals will be different from that of normal situation. In this investigation, intestinal artery clamping operations were conducted to a pig for simulating the situation of intestinal blocking during a surgical operation. Similarity theory is a convenient and easy tool to prove that patterns of blood pressure signals of intestinal artery blocking and unblocking are surely different. And, the algorithm of Hilbert Huang Transform can be applied to extract the character parameters of blood pressure pattern. In conclusion, the patterns of blood pressure signals of two different situations, intestinal artery blocking and unblocking, can be distinguished by these character parameters defined in this paper.

Keywords: Blood pressure, spectrum, intestinal artery, similarity theory and Hilbert Huang Transform.

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411 Intervention of Sambucus Nigra Polyphenolic Extract in Experimental Arterial Hypertension

Authors: Manuela Ciocoiu, Laur Badescu, Oana Badulescu, Magda Badescu

Abstract:

The research focuses on the effects of polyphenols extracted from Sambucus nigra fruit, using an experimental arterial hypertension pattern, as well as their influence on the oxidative stress. The results reveal the normalization of the reduced glutathion concentration, as well as a considerable reduction in the malondialdehide serum concentration by the polyphenolic protection. The rat blood pressure values were recorded using a CODATM system, which uses a non-invasive blood pressure measuring method. All the measured blood pressure components revealed a biostatistically significant (p<0.05) blood pressure drop between the AHT and the AHT+P groups. The results prove that oxidative stress is considerably lower, statistically speaking, in rats with hypertension but also provided with natural polyphenolic protection from Sambucus nigra fruits than in the rats belonging to the control group. In addition to the demonstrated antioxidant effects, natural polyphenols also have other biological properties that might contribute to the cardioprotective effects.

Keywords: Arterial hypertension, Oxidative stress, Sambucus nigra

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410 A Numerical Model for Simulation of Blood Flow in Vascular Networks

Authors: Houman Tamaddon, Mehrdad Behnia, Masud Behnia

Abstract:

An accurate study of blood flow is associated with an accurate vascular pattern and geometrical properties of the organ of interest. Due to the complexity of vascular networks and poor accessibility in vivo, it is challenging to reconstruct the entire vasculature of any organ experimentally. The objective of this study is to introduce an innovative approach for the reconstruction of a full vascular tree from available morphometric data. Our method consists of implementing morphometric data on those parts of the vascular tree that are smaller than the resolution of medical imaging methods. This technique reconstructs the entire arterial tree down to the capillaries. Vessels greater than 2 mm are obtained from direct volume and surface analysis using contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT). Vessels smaller than 2mm are reconstructed from available morphometric and distensibility data and rearranged by applying Murray’s Laws. Implementation of morphometric data to reconstruct the branching pattern and applying Murray’s Laws to every vessel bifurcation simultaneously, lead to an accurate vascular tree reconstruction. The reconstruction algorithm generates full arterial tree topography down to the first capillary bifurcation. Geometry of each order of the vascular tree is generated separately to minimize the construction and simulation time. The node-to-node connectivity along with the diameter and length of every vessel segment is established and order numbers, according to the diameter-defined Strahler system, are assigned. During the simulation, we used the averaged flow rate for each order to predict the pressure drop and once the pressure drop is predicted, the flow rate is corrected to match the computed pressure drop for each vessel. The final results for 3 cardiac cycles is presented and compared to the clinical data.

Keywords: Blood flow, Morphometric data, Vascular tree, Strahler ordering system.

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409 Arterial Stiffness Detection Depending on Neural Network Classification of the Multi- Input Parameters

Authors: Firas Salih, Luban Hameed, Afaf Kamil, Armin Bolz

Abstract:

Diagnostic and detection of the arterial stiffness is very important; which gives indication of the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. To make a cheap and easy method for general screening technique to avoid the future cardiovascular complexes , due to the rising of the arterial stiffness ; a proposed algorithm depending on photoplethysmogram to be used. The photoplethysmograph signals would be processed in MATLAB. The signal will be filtered, baseline wandering removed, peaks and valleys detected and normalization of the signals should be achieved .The area under the catacrotic phase of the photoplethysmogram pulse curve is calculated using trapezoidal algorithm ; then will used in cooperation with other parameters such as age, height, blood pressure in neural network for arterial stiffness detection. The Neural network were implemented with sensitivity of 80%, accuracy 85% and specificity of 90% were got from the patients data. It is concluded that neural network can detect the arterial STIFFNESS depending on risk factor parameters.

Keywords: Arterial stiffness, area under the catacrotic phase of the photoplethysmograph pulse, neural network

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408 Modeling of Normal and Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels using Finite Element Methods and Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: K. Kamalanand, S. Srinivasan

Abstract:

Analysis of blood vessel mechanics in normal and diseased conditions is essential for disease research, medical device design and treatment planning. In this work, 3D finite element models of normal vessel and atherosclerotic vessel with 50% plaque deposition were developed. The developed models were meshed using finite number of tetrahedral elements. The developed models were simulated using actual blood pressure signals. Based on the transient analysis performed on the developed models, the parameters such as total displacement, strain energy density and entropy per unit volume were obtained. Further, the obtained parameters were used to develop artificial neural network models for analyzing normal and atherosclerotic blood vessels. In this paper, the objectives of the study, methodology and significant observations are presented.

Keywords: Blood vessel, atherosclerosis, finite element model, artificial neural networks

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407 Development of Electrospun Membranes with Defined Polyethylene Collagen and Oxide Architectures Reinforced with Medium and High Intensity Statins

Authors: S. Jaramillo, Y. Montoya, W. Agudelo, J. Bustamante

Abstract:

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are related to affectations of the heart and blood vessels, within these are pathologies such as coronary or peripheral heart disease, caused by the narrowing of the vessel wall (atherosclerosis), which is related to the accumulation of Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL) in the arterial walls that leads to a progressive reduction of the lumen of the vessel and alterations in blood perfusion. Currently, the main therapeutic strategy for this type of alteration is drug treatment with statins, which inhibit the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), responsible for modulating the rate of cholesterol production and other isoprenoids in the mevalonate pathway. This enzyme induces the expression of LDL receptors in the liver, increasing their number on the surface of liver cells, reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol. On the other hand, when the blood vessel presents stenosis, a surgical procedure with vascular implants is indicated, which are used to restore circulation in the arterial or venous bed. Among the materials used for the development of vascular implants are Dacron® and Teflon®, which perform the function of re-waterproofing the circulatory circuit, but due to their low biocompatibility, they do not have the ability to promote remodeling and tissue regeneration processes. Based on this, the present research proposes the development of a hydrolyzed collagen and polyethylene oxide electrospun membrane reinforced with medium and high-intensity statins, so that in future research it can favor tissue remodeling processes from its microarchitecture.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, medium and high-intensity statins, microarchitecture, electrospun membrane

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406 CFD Simulation of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Arterial Stenoses with Surface Irregularities

Authors: R. Manimaran

Abstract:

CFD simulations are carried out in arterial stenoses with 48 % areal occlusion. Non-newtonian fluid model is selected for the blood flow as the same problem has been solved before with Newtonian fluid model. Studies on flow resistance with the presence of surface irregularities are carried out. Investigations are also performed on the pressure drop at various Reynolds numbers. The present study revealed that the pressure drop across a stenosed artery is practically unaffected by surface irregularities at low Reynolds numbers, while flow features are observed and discussed at higher Reynolds numbers.

Keywords: Blood flow, Roughness, Computational fluid dynamics, Bio fluid mechanics.

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405 Automatic Segmentation of Retina Vessels by Using Zhang Method

Authors: Ehsan Saghapour, Somayeh Zandian

Abstract:

Image segmentation is an important step in image processing. Major developments in medical imaging allow physicians to use potent and non-invasive methods in order to evaluate structures, performance and to diagnose human diseases. In this study, an active contour was used to extract vessel networks from color retina images. Automatic analysis of retina vessels facilitates calculation of arterial index which is required to diagnose some certain retinopathies.

Keywords: Active contour, retinal vessel segmentation, image processing.

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404 The Method of Evaluation Artery Diameter from Ultrasound Video

Authors: U. Rubins, Z. Marcinkevics, K.Volceka

Abstract:

The cardiovascular system has become the most important subject of clinical research, particularly measurement of arterial blood flow. Therefore correct determination of arterial diameter is crucial. We propose a novel, semi-automatic method for artery lumen detection. The method is based on Gaussian probability function. Usability of our proposed method was assessed by analyzing ultrasound B-mode CFA video sequences acquired from eleven healthy volunteers. The correlation coefficient between the manual and semi-automatic measurement of arterial diameter was 0.996. Our proposed method for detecting artery boundary is novel and accurate enough for the measurement of artery diameter.

Keywords: Ultrasound, boundary detection, artery diameter, curve fitting.

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403 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes

Abstract:

In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: Mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference.

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402 Hemodynamic Characteristics in the Human Carotid Artery Model Induced by Blood-Arterial Wall Interactions

Authors: Taewon Seo

Abstract:

The characteristics of physiological blood flow in human carotid arterial bifurcation model have been numerically studied using a fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. This computational model with the fluid-structure interaction is constructed to investigate the flow characteristics and wall shear stress in the carotid artery. As the flow begins to decelerate after the peak flow, a large recirculation zone develops at the non-divider wall of both internal carotid artery (ICA) and external carotid artery (ECA) in FSI model due to the elastic energy stored in the expanding compliant wall. The calculated difference in wall shear stress (WSS) in both Non-FSI and FSI models is a range of between 5 and 11% at the mean WSS. The low WSS corresponds to regions of carotid artery that are more susceptible to atherosclerosis.

Keywords: Carotid artery, Fluid-structure interaction, Hemodynamics, Wall shear stress.

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401 An Improvement of Flow Forming Process for Pressure Vessels by Four Rollers Machine

Authors: P. Sawitri, S. Cdr. Sittha, T. Kritsana

Abstract:

Flow forming is widely used in many industries, especially in defence technology industries. Pressure vessels requirements are high precision, light weight, seamless and optimum strength. For large pressure vessels, flow forming by 3 rollers machine were used. In case of long range rocket motor case flow forming and welding of pressure vessels have been used for manufacturing. Due to complication of welding process, researchers had developed 4 meters length pressure vessels without weldment by 4 rollers flow forming machine. Design and preparation of preform work pieces are performed. The optimization of flow forming parameter such as feed rate, spindle speed and depth of cut will be discussed. The experimental result shown relation of flow forming parameters to quality of flow formed tube and prototype pressure vessels have been made.

Keywords: Flow forming, Pressure vessel, four rollers, feed rate, spindle speed, cold work.

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400 Influence of Apo E Polymorphism on Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: S. Fallah, M. Seifi, M. Firoozrai, T. Godarzi, M. Jafarzadeh, L. H. Ghohari

Abstract:

The ε4 allele of the ε2, ε3 and ε4 protein isoform polymorphism in the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (Apo E) has previously been associated with increased cardiac artery disease (CAD); therefore to investigate the significance of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of CAD in Iranian patients with stenosis and control subjects. To investigate the association between  Apo E polymorphism and coronary artery disease we performed a comparative case control study of the frequency of Apo E  polymorphism in One hundred CAD patients with stenosis who underwent coronary angiography (>50% stenosis) and 100 control subjects (<10% stenosis). The Apo E alleles and genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We observed an association between the Apo E polymorphism and CAD in this study. These data suggest that the Apo ε4 and ε2 alleles increase the risk for CAD in Iranian population (χ2 =4.26, p= 0.05, OR=2 and χ2 =0.38, p=0.53, OR=1.2). These results suggest that ε4 and ε2 alleles are risk factors for stenosis.

Keywords: Arterial blood vessels, atherosclerosis, cholesterol.

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399 Antiangiogenic Potential of Phellodendron amurense Bark Extract Observed on Chorioallantoic Membrane

Authors: Ľudmila Ballová, Slavomír Kurhajec, Eva Petrovová, Jarmila Eftimová

Abstract:

Angiogenesis, a formation of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature, plays an important role in pathologic processes such as the growth and metastasis of tumours. Tumours cannot grow beyond a few millimetres without blood supply from the newly formed blood vessels from the host tissue, a process called tumour-induced angiogenesis. The successful research of antiangiogenic treatment of cancer has focused on nutraceuticals with angiogenesis-modulating properties. Berberine, as a major active component of the bark of Phellodendron amurense Rupr., has shown antitumour activity by intervening into different steps of carcinogenesis. The influence of ethanolic extract of Phellodendron amurese bark on the angiogenesis was tested in vivo on chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The irritancy of the CAM after the application of the crude bark extract dissolved in normal saline (10 mg/mL) was investigated on embryonic day 7. No significant signs of the irritancy, such as vasoconstriction, hyperaemia, haemorrhage or coagulation were observed which indicates the harmless character of the extract. A significant reduction in vessel sprouting and higher percentage of avascular zone was observed in the case of CAM treated with the extract in comparison with non-treated CAM (control), which is a proof of the antiangiogenic potential of the extract. These results could contribute to the development of novel drugs for the treatment of cancer or other diseases, in which angiogenesis plays a significant role.

Keywords: Angiogenesis, berberine, chorioallantoic membrane, Phellodendron amurense.

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398 Snails and Fish as Pollution Biomarkers in Lake Manzala and Laboratory B: Lake Manzala Fish

Authors: Hanaa M. M. El-Khayat, Hanan S. Gaber, Hoda Abdel-Hamid, Kadria M. A. Mahmoud, Hoda M. A. Abu Taleb

Abstract:

This work aimed to examine Oreochromis niloticus fish from Lake Manzala in Port Said, Dakahlya and Damietta governorates, Egypt, as a bio-indicator for the lake water pollution through recording alterations in their hematological, physiological, and histopathological parameters. All fish samples showed a significant increase in levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine and glutathione-S-transferase (GST); only Dakahlya samples showed a significant increase (p<0.01) in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level and most Dakahlya and Damietta samples showed reversed albumin and globulin ratio and a significant increase in γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level. Port-Said and Damietta samples showed a significant decrease of hemoglobin (Hb) while Dakahlya samples showed a significant decrease in white blood cell (WBC) count. Histopathological investigation for different fish organs showed that Port-Said and Dakahlya samples were more altered than Damietta. The muscle and gill followed by intestine were the most affected organs. The muscle sections showed severe edema, neoplasia, necrotic change, fat vacuoles and splitting of muscle fiber. The gill sections showed dilated blood vessels of the filaments, curling of gill lamellae, severe hyperplasia, edema and blood vessels congestion of filaments. The intestine sections revealed degeneration, atrophy, dilation in blood vessels and necrotic changes in sub-mucosa and mucosa with edema in between. The recorded significant alterations, in most of the physiological and histological parameters in O. niloticus samples from Lake Manzala, were alarming for water pollution impacts on lake fish community, which constitutes the main diet and the main source of income for the people inhabiting these areas, and were threatening their public health and economy. Also, results evaluate the use of O. niloticus fish as important bio-indicator for their habitat stressors.

Keywords: Lake Manzala, Oreochromis niloticus fish, water pollution, physiological, hematological and histopathological parameters.

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397 Fung’s Model Constants for Intracranial Blood Vessel of Human Using Biaxial Tensile Test Results

Authors: Mohammad Shafigh, Nasser Fatouraee, Amirsaied Seddighi

Abstract:

Mechanical properties of cerebral arteries are, due to their relationship with cerebrovascular diseases, of clinical worth. To acquire these properties, eight samples were obtained from middle cerebral arteries of human cadavers, whose death were not due to injuries or diseases of cerebral vessels, and tested within twelve hours after resection, by a precise biaxial tensile test device specially developed for the present study considering the dimensions, sensitivity and anisotropic nature of samples. The resulting stress-stretch curve was plotted and subsequently fitted to a hyperelastic three-parameter Fung model. It was found that the arteries were noticeably stiffer in circumferential than in axial direction. It was also demonstrated that the use of multi-parameter hyperelastic constitutive models is useful for mathematical description of behavior of cerebral vessel tissue. The reported material properties are a proper reference for numerical modeling of cerebral arteries and computational analysis of healthy or diseased intracranial arteries.

Keywords: Anisotropic Tissue, Cerebral Blood Vessels, Fung Model, Nonlinear Material, Plain Stress.

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396 Kalman Filter Based Adaptive Reduction of Motion Artifact from Photoplethysmographic Signal

Authors: S. Seyedtabaii, L. Seyedtabaii

Abstract:

Artifact free photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals are necessary for non-invasive estimation of oxygen saturation (SpO2) in arterial blood. Movement of a patient corrupts the PPGs with motion artifacts, resulting in large errors in the computation of Sp02. This paper presents a study on using Kalman Filter in an innovative way by modeling both the Artillery Blood Pressure (ABP) and the unwanted signal, additive motion artifact, to reduce motion artifacts from corrupted PPG signals. Simulation results show acceptable performance regarding LMS and variable step LMS, thus establishing the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: Kalman filter, Motion artifact, PPG, Photoplethysmography.

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395 Mixed Traffic Speed–Flow Behavior under Influence of Road Side Friction and Non-Motorized Vehicles: A Comparative Study of Arterial Roads in India

Authors: Chetan R. Patel, G. J. Joshi

Abstract:

Present study is carried out on six lane divided urban arterial road in Patna and Pune city of India. Both the road having distinct differences in terms of the vehicle composition and the road side parking. Arterial road in Patan city has 33% of non-motorized mode, whereas Pune arterial road dominated by 65% of Two wheeler. Also road side parking is observed in Patna city. The field studies using videography techniques are carried out for traffic data collection. Data are extracted for one minute duration for vehicle composition, speed variation and flow rate on selected arterial road of the two cities. Speed flow relationship is developed and capacity is determine. Equivalency factor in terms of dynamic car unit is determine to represent the vehicle is single unit. The variation in the capacity due to side friction, presence of non motorized traffic and effective utilization of lane width is compared at concluding remarks.

Keywords: Arterial Road, Capacity, Dynamic Equivalency Factor, Effect of Non motorized mode, Side friction.

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394 Infrared Face Recognition Using Distance Transforms

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi, Abdelhakim Bendada

Abstract:

In this work we present an efficient approach for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the proposed approach physiological features are extracted from thermal images in order to build a unique thermal faceprint. Then, a distance transform is used to get an invariant representation for face recognition. The obtained physiological features are related to the distribution of blood vessels under the face skin. This blood network is unique to each individual and can be used in infrared face recognition. The obtained results are promising and show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Face recognition, biometrics, infrared imaging.

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393 Determination of a Fair Price for Blood Transportation by Applying the Vehicle Routing Problem: A Case for National Blood Center, Thailand

Authors: S. Pathomsiri, P. Sukaboon

Abstract:

The National Blood Center, Thai Red Cross Society is responsible for providing blood to hospitals all over the country. When any hospital needs blood, it will have to send the vehicle to pick up at the NBC. There are a lot of vehicles to pick up blood at the NBC every day. Each vehicle is usually empty for inbound trip and a little loaded for outbound. The NBC realized such waste or loss and there have been the third party offered to distribute blood and charge for fee. This paper proposes to apply the vehicle routing problem (VRP) for estimating the fair price. The idea is tested with the real data during seven-day period of 6 – 12 July 2010 to estimate the fair price for transporting blood in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.

Keywords: Blood Supply Chain, Vehicle Routing Problem, Heuristic, Saving Algorithm, Fair Price.

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392 Image Clustering Framework for BAVM Segmentation in 3DRA Images: Performance Analysis

Authors: FH. Sarieddeen, R. El Berbari, S. Imad, J. Abdel Baki, M. Hamad, R. Blanc, A. Nakib, Y.Chenoune

Abstract:

Brain ArterioVenous Malformation (BAVM) is an abnormal tangle of brain blood vessels where arteries shunt directly into veins with no intervening capillary bed which causes high pressure and hemorrhage risk. The success of treatment by embolization in interventional neuroradiology is highly dependent on the accuracy of the vessels visualization. In this paper the performance of clustering techniques on vessel segmentation from 3- D rotational angiography (3DRA) images is investigated and a new technique of segmentation is proposed. This method consists in: preprocessing step of image enhancement, then K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering are used to separate vessel pixels from background and artery pixels from vein pixels when possible. A post processing step of removing false-alarm components is applied before constructing a three-dimensional volume of the vessels. The proposed method was tested on six datasets along with a medical assessment of an expert. Obtained results showed encouraging segmentations.

Keywords: Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM), 3-D rotational angiography (3DRA), K-Means (KM) clustering, Fuzzy CMeans (FCM) clustering, Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering, volume rendering.

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391 Fire Spread Simulation Tool for Cruise Vessels

Authors: Erik Hedin, Lars Strandén, Johannes Lundsten

Abstract:

In 2002 an amendment to SOLAS opened for lightweight material constructions in vessels if the same fire safety as in steel constructions could be obtained. FISPAT (FIreSPread Analysis Tool) is a computer application that simulates fire spread and fault injection in cruise vessels and identifies fire sensitive areas. It was developed to analyze cruise vessel designs and provides a method to evaluate network layout and safety of cruise vessels. It allows fast, reliable and deterministic exhaustive simulations and presents the result in a graphical vessel model. By performing the analysis iteratively while altering the cruise vessel design it can be used along with fire chamber experiments to show that the lightweight design can be as safe as a steel construction and that SOLAS regulations are fulfilled.

Keywords: Fire spread, network, safety, simulation.

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390 White Blood Cells Identification and Counting from Microscopic Blood Image

Authors: Lorenzo Putzu, Cecilia Di Ruberto

Abstract:

The counting and analysis of blood cells allows the evaluation and diagnosis of a vast number of diseases. In particular, the analysis of white blood cells (WBCs) is a topic of great interest to hematologists. Nowadays the morphological analysis of blood cells is performed manually by skilled operators. This involves numerous drawbacks, such as slowness of the analysis and a nonstandard accuracy, dependent on the operator skills. In literature there are only few examples of automated systems in order to analyze the white blood cells, most of which only partial. This paper presents a complete and fully automatic method for white blood cells identification from microscopic images. The proposed method firstly individuates white blood cells from which, subsequently, nucleus and cytoplasm are extracted. The whole work has been developed using MATLAB environment, in particular the Image Processing Toolbox.

Keywords: Automatic detection, Biomedical image processing, Segmentation, White blood cell analysis.

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389 On the Design of Shape Memory Alloy Locking Mechanism: A Novel Solution for Laparoscopic Ligation Process

Authors: Reza Yousefian, Michael A. Kia, Mehrdad Hosseini Zadeh

Abstract:

The blood ducts must be occluded to avoid loss of blood from vessels in laparoscopic surgeries. This paper presents a locking mechanism to be used in a ligation laparoscopic procedure (LigLAP I), as an alternative solution for a stapling procedure. Currently, stapling devices are being used to occlude vessels. Using these devices may result in some problems, including injury of bile duct, taking up a great deal of space behind the vessel, and bile leak. In this new procedure, a two-layer suture occludes a vessel. A locking mechanism is also required to hold the suture. Since there is a limited space at the device tip, a Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator is used in this mechanism. Suitability for cleanroom applications, small size, and silent performance are among the advantages of SMA actuators in biomedical applications. An experimental study is conducted to examine the function of the locking mechanism. To set up the experiment, a prototype of a locking mechanism is built using nitinol, which is a nickel-titanium shape memory alloy. The locking mechanism successfully locks a polymer suture for all runs of the experiment. In addition, the effects of various surface materials on the applied pulling forces are studied. Various materials are mounted at the mechanism tip to compare the maximum pulling forces applied to the suture for each material. The results show that the various surface materials on the device tip provide large differences in the applied pulling forces.

Keywords: Laparoscopic surgery, ligation process, locking mechanism, Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuator.

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