Influence of Apo E Polymorphism on Coronary Artery Disease
The ε4 allele of the ε2, ε3 and ε4 protein isoform polymorphism in the gene encoding apolipoprotein E (Apo E) has previously been associated with increased cardiac artery disease (CAD); therefore to investigate the significance of this polymorphism in pathogenesis of CAD in Iranian patients with stenosis and control subjects. To investigate the association between Apo E polymorphism and coronary artery disease we performed a comparative case control study of the frequency of Apo E polymorphism in One hundred CAD patients with stenosis who underwent coronary angiography (>50% stenosis) and 100 control subjects (<10% stenosis). The Apo E alleles and genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). We observed an association between the Apo E polymorphism and CAD in this study. These data suggest that the Apo ε4 and ε2 alleles increase the risk for CAD in Iranian population (χ2 =4.26, p= 0.05, OR=2 and χ2 =0.38, p=0.53, OR=1.2). These results suggest that ε4 and ε2 alleles are risk factors for stenosis.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1084366Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1357
 Mahley RW. Apo lipoprotein E: cholesterol transport protein with expending role in cell. Science, 1988; 240: 622-630.
 Siest G, Pillot T, Regis - Bailly A, Leininger - Muller B, Steinmetz J and Galteau MM. Apolipoprotein E : An important gene and protein to follow in laboratory medicine. Clin- Chem 1995; 41: 1068-1086.
 Paik YK, Chang DJ, Reardon CA, Davies GE, Mahle RW and Tayler JM. Nucleotide sequence and structure of the human opolipoprotein E gene. Procnat, Acad Sci USA 1985; 82: 3445-3449.
 Das HK, Mcpherson J, Bruns GA, Karathasis SX and Breslow JL. Isolation characterization and mapping to chromosome 19 of the human apolipoprotein E gene. J Biol Chem 1985; 60: 6240-6247.
 Smith M, Vonder Kooij- Meijis E, Frants RR, Havekes L and Klasen EC. Apolipoprotein gene claster on chromosome 19: Defenite localization of the top C2 gene and the polymorphic Hha 1 site associated with type 1 hyperlipoproteinemia. Hum Genet. 1988; 78: 90- 93.
 Ilveskosk G , Perola N and Lethimalei J. Age dependent association of opolipoprotein E genotype with coronary and aortic atherosclerosis in middle -aged men an autopsy study. Circulation 1999; 100: 608-813.
 Utermann G, Largen beek U, Beisiegel U and weber W. Genetics of the apolipoprotein E system in men. Am J Hum Genet, 1982; 32: 339-347.
 Breslov Jl . Apolipoprotein genetic variation and human disease. Phsiol. Rev. 1988; 68: 85-98.
 Hallman DM, Boerwinkle E, Sandholzer C , Menzei HJ and Csazar A. The apolipoprotein E polymorphism; a comparison of allele frequencies and effects in nine populations . Am J Hum Genet, 1991; 49: 338-349.
 Boenwinkle E, Visvikls S, Weisn D, Steinmetz J, Hanash Sm and Sing Cf. The use of measured genotype information in the analysis of quantitative phenotypes in man: The role of the apolipoprotein E polymorphism in determining levels, variability and co- variability of cholesterol, betalipoprotein and triglycerides in a sample of unrelated individuals . Am J Med Genet , 1987; 27: 567-582.
 Davignon J. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. In. Born Gvr Schwatz Cy. (Cds). New Horizons in coronary heart disease. Curr. Sci. 1993; 5: 5.1-5.21.
 Genovefa O, Kolovou , Katherimek A and nagnostopoulou . A polipoprotein E polymorphism age and coronary heart disease. Ageing Research reviews. 2007; 6: 94-108.
 Cord EH, Sauders AM. Gene dose of apolipoprotein E type allele 4 and the risk of alzimer's disease in late onset families. 1993; 13: 261(5123) 828-829.
 Yilman M. Hemostatic markers and renal function after cardiopulmonary bypass. Asian Cardiovasc Thrac Ann 2001; 9: 86-89.
 Miller SA, Dykes DD and Polesky HF. A simple salting out procedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucleic acid Res 1988; 16: 1215-1218.
 Hixson JE and Vernier DT. Restriction isotyping of human apolipoprotein E by gene amplification and cleavage with Hha 1. J lipid Res. 1990; 51: 545-548.
 Eichner Je, Dunn T, Perveen G, Thompson DM, Stewart RE and Strochla BC. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and cardiovascular disease a huge review. AM J Epidem. 2003; 155: 487-495.
 Breslow JC. Apolypoprotein genetic variation and human disease. Physiol. Rev. 1988,; 68: 85-98.
 Ventakaramana P, Chengal RE and Ferrell RE. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in two populations of Andru Pradesh. Ind J Hum Genet 2002; 3: 1-5.
 Uterman G, Hardewing A and Zimmer F. Apolipoprotein E phenotypes in patients with myocardial infarction. Hum Genet. 1984; 65: 237-241.
 Lehtinens Lehtimalci T, Sisto, Salenius TP, Mikkila M and Jakela H. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism, serum lipid, myocardial infarction and severity of angiographically verified coronary datery disease in men and women . Atheroscelorosis; 1995; 114: 83-91.
 Dembinska Kiee A, Kawecka- Jaszez K, Kwasniak M, Gaevaro I, Pankiewicz J and Maiczewsiea Maleec M. Apo E isoforms , insulin out put and plasma lipid levels in essential by hypertension . Eur J Clin Invest, 1998; 28: 95-99.
 Yilmas H, Isbir J, Agachan B and Aydin M. Is epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E associated with more severe end stage in essential hypertension? Cell Biochem. Funct 2001; 19: 191-195.
 Li X, Duy, DUY and Huang X. Association of apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism with essential hypertension and its complication. Clin Exp Med. 2003; 2: 175-179.
 Couderc R, Mahleumof, Bailleu S, Fencon G, Mary R, Fermahken J. Prevalence of apolipoprotein E phenotypes in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Stroke 1993; 24: 661-664.
 Yiaqing S, Meir J, Stampher . Apolipoprotein E Genotypes Coronary Heart Disease. Annals of Internal Medicine 2004; 141: 137-147.
 Bharani AB, Sastry KB, Krishna Reddy N and Padma T. Lipid profile and apolipoprotein E polymorphism in essential hypertension. Indian Heart J 2005; 57: 1115-11117.
 Hubacok JA, Adamakovu V and Skodova I. Phisol Res. 2005; 54: 573- 582.
 Merho Shin, Hce Nsm Kim, Lian- Hua Coul Sun- Song, Kwoon, Kjaooag- Soopark, Heam-Heo, Churg, Jin-Sn . J Korean Med Sci 2003, 20: 361-366.
 Dallongeville J, lussier Caean S and Darignon J. Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apo E phenotype: a meta analysis. J lipid Res. 1992; 33: 447-454.
 Simopoulo AP. Genetic variation and nutrition. Word Rev Nutr Diet. 1999; 84: 118-140.
 Knijff P, Havefes LM. Apolipoprotein E as a risk factor for coronary heart disease: a genetic and molecular biology approach Curr Opin Lipid 1996; 7: 59-63.
 Luss, W, Bolduc A , Auigness M, Niyonsengu T and Sing CF. Effect of alcohol in take of lipid metabolism depends on ......... Tmunb Ratc Fial 2002; 22: 1824-1831.
 Nucklus BJ, Ferrull Re, Bunjaul LB, Berumun DM and Dennis KE Gold- bery AP. Effect of apolipoprotein E genotype on dietary- induced changes in high density lipoprotein cholesterol in obese postmenopause women. Metabolism 2002; 51: 853-858.
 Reznik Y, Merallo R, Poosse P, Mahoudeau J and Fradins. The effect of age body mass index and fasting triglceride level on postprandial lipemia is dependet on opolipoprotein E polymorphism in subjects with noninsulin dependent diabetes. Metabolism 2002; 51: 1088-1092.
 Andrade DE, Thandi M, Brown S, Gaho A, Patsch W and Boerwinke E. Relationship of the apolipoprotein E gene and early carotide atherosclerosis defined by ultrasonography in asymptomatic adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 9: 91-97.
 Lusis A, Mar Rand J and Pajakanta P. Genetics of atherosclerosis. Anna Rev. Genomics Hum. Genet. 2004; 5: 184-218.
 Dallongevill J, Lussier-Cacan S and Davignon J. Modulation of plasma triglyceride levels by apo E phenotype: a meta -analysis. J Lipid Res. 1992; 33: 447-454.
 Davignon J, Cohn JS, Mabile L and Bernier L. Apolipoprotein E and atherosclerosis : insight from animal and human studies. Clin Chim Acta 1999; 286- 115-43.
 Davignon J, Gregg RE and Sing CF. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism and atherosclerosis. Arteriosclerosis 1988; 8: 1-21.
 Zerba KE, Ferrell Rm and Sing CF. Genotype-environment interaction: apolipoprotein E gene effects and gene as an index of time and spatial context in humans. Genetics 1996; 143: 463-478.
 Reilly S, Ferrell R, Kottke B and Sing CF. The gender- specific apolipoprotein E genotype influence on the distribution of lipids and apolipoproteins in the population of Rochester, MN. 11. Regression relationships with concomitants. Am J Hum Genet 1992; 51: 1311-1324.
 Reilly S, Ferrell R and Sing CF. The gender -specific apolipoprotein E genotype influence on the distribution of lipids and apolipoproteins in the population of Rochester, MN. 111. Correlations and covariances. Am J Hum Genet 1994; 55: 1001-1018.
 Coats AJ. Ethical authorship and publishing. Int J Cardiol 2009; 131: 149-50.