Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: M. Hamad

25 Centralized Controller for Microgrid

Authors: Adel Hamad Rafa

Abstract:

This paper, proposes a control system for use with microgrid consiste of  multiple small scale embedded generation networks (SSEG networks) connected to the 33kV distribution network. The proposed controller controls power flow in the grid-connected mode of operation, enables voltage and frequency control when the SSEG networks are islanded, and resynchronises the SSEG networks with the utility before reconnecting them. The performance of the proposed controller has been tested in simulations using PSCAD.

Keywords: Microgrid, Small scale embedded generation, island mode, resynchronisation.

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24 Enhancement of the Performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV Transmission Line Using STATCOM: A Case Study

Authors: Ali Hamad, Ibrahim Al-Drous, Saleh Al-Jufout

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of using STATCOM to enhance the performance of Al-Qatraneh 33-kV transmission line. The location of the STATCOM was identified by maintaining minimum voltage drops at the 110 load nodes. The transmission line and the 110 load nodes have been modeled by MATLAB/Simulink. The suggested STATCOM and its location will increase the transmission capability of this transmission line and overcome the overload expected in the year 2020. The annual percentage loading rise has been considered as 14.35%. A graphical representation of the line-to-line voltages and the voltage drops at different load nodes is illustrated.

Keywords: FACTS, MATLAB, STATCOM, transmission line, voltage drop.

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23 Behavior Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Rotor with Longitudinal Crack Growth

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

This study concerned the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine rotor. Before all we have studied the loads applied to the rotor, which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue, also studied the rotor with longitudinal crack in order to determine stress, strain and displacement. Firstly we compared the first six modes shapes between cracking and uncracking of HAWT rotor. Secondly we show show evolution of first six natural frequencies with longitudinal crack propagation. Finally we conclude that the residual change in the natural frequencies can be used as in shaft crack diagnosis predictive maintenance.

Keywords: Wind turbine rotor, natural frequencies, longitudinal crack growth, life time.

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22 Achieving Business and IT Alignment from Organisational Learning Perspectives

Authors: Hamad Hussain Balhareth, Kecheng Liu, Sharm Manwani

Abstract:

Business and IT alignment has continued as a top concern for business and IT executives for almost three decades. Many researchers have conducted empirical studies on the relationship between business-IT alignment and performance. Yet, these approaches, lacking a social perspective, have had little impact on sustaining performance and competitive advantage. In addition to the limited alignment literature that explores organisational learning that is represented in shared understanding, communication, cognitive maps and experiences. Hence, this paper proposes an integrated process that enables social and intellectual dimensions through the concept of organisational learning. In particular, the feedback and feedforward process which provide a value creation across dynamic multilevel of learning. This mechanism enables on-going effectiveness through development of individuals, groups and organisations, which improves the quality of business and IT strategies and drives to performance.

Keywords: business-IT alignment, social dimension, intellectual dimension, organisational learning

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21 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir

Abstract:

The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: Stress Intensity Factor (SIF), Crack orientation, Glass/Epoxy, natural Frequencies, X-FEM.

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20 Defect-Based Urgency Index for Bridge Maintenance Ranking and Prioritization

Authors: Saleh Abu Dabous, Khaled Hamad, Rami Al-Ruzouq

Abstract:

Bridge condition assessment and rating provide essential information needed for bridge management. This paper reviews bridge inspection and condition rating practices and introduces a defect-based urgency index. The index is estimated at the element-level based on the extent and severity of the different defects typical to the bridge element. The urgency index approach has the following advantages: (1) It facilitates judgment submission, i.e. instead of rating the bridge element with a specific linguistic overall expression (which can be subjective and used differently by different people), the approach is based on assessing the defects; (2) It captures multiple defects that can be present within a deteriorated element; and (3) It reflects how critical the element is through quantifying critical defects and their severity. The approach can be further developed and validated. It is expected to be useful for practical purposes as an early-warning system for critical bridge elements.

Keywords: Condition rating, deterioration, inspection, maintenance.

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19 Hardness Variations as Affected by Bar Diameter of AISI 4140 Steel

Authors: Hamad K. Al-Khalid, Ayman M. Alaskari, Samy E. Oraby

Abstract:

Hardness of the widely used structural steel is of vital importance since it may help in the determination of many mechanical properties of a material under loading situations. In order to obtain reliable information for design, properties homogeneity should be validated. In the current study the hardness variation over the different diameters of the same AISI 4140 bar is investigated. Measurements were taken on the two faces of the stock at equally spaced eight sectors and fifteen layers. Statistical and graphical analysis are performed to asses the distribution of hardness measurements over the specified area. Hardness measurements showed some degree of dispersion with about ± 10% of its nominal value provided by manufacturer. Hardness value is found to have a slight decrease trend as the diameter is reduced. However, an opposite behavior is noticed regarding the sequence of the sector indicating a nonuniform distribution over the same area either on the same face or considering the corresponding sector on the other face (cross section) of the same material bar.

Keywords: Hardness; Hardness variation; AISI 4140 steel; Bardiameter; Statistical Analysis.

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18 Evaluation of AR-4BL-MAST with Multiple Markers Interaction Technique for Augmented Reality Based Engineering Application

Authors: Waleed Maqableh, Ahmad Al-Hamad, Manjit Sidhu

Abstract:

Augmented reality (AR) technology has the capability to provide many benefits in the field of education as a modern technology which aided learning and improved the learning experience. This paper evaluates AR based application with multiple markers interaction technique (touch-to-print) which is designed for analyzing the kinematics of 4BL mechanism in mechanical engineering. The application is termed as AR-4BL-MAST and it allows the users to touch the symbols on a paper in natural way of interaction. The evaluation of this application was performed with mechanical engineering students and human–computer interaction (HCI) experts to test its effectiveness as a tangible user interface application where the statistical results show its ability as an interaction technique, and it gives the users more freedom in interaction with the virtual mechanical objects.

Keywords: Augmented reality, engineering, four-bar linkage, Multimedia, user interface, visualization.

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17 Design of Encoding Calculator Software for Huffman and Shannon-Fano Algorithms

Authors: Wilson Chanhemo, Henry. R. Mgombelo, Omar F Hamad, T. Marwala

Abstract:

This paper presents a design of source encoding calculator software which applies the two famous algorithms in the field of information theory- the Shannon-Fano and the Huffman schemes. This design helps to easily realize the algorithms without going into a cumbersome, tedious and prone to error manual mechanism of encoding the signals during the transmission. The work describes the design of the software, how it works, comparison with related works, its efficiency, its usefulness in the field of information technology studies and the future prospects of the software to engineers, students, technicians and alike. The designed “Encodia" software has been developed, tested and found to meet the intended requirements. It is expected that this application will help students and teaching staff in their daily doing of information theory related tasks. The process is ongoing to modify this tool so that it can also be more intensely useful in research activities on source coding.

Keywords: Coding techniques, Coding algorithms, Codingefficiency, Encodia, Encoding software.

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16 Investigation of Steady State Infiltration Rate for Different Head Condition

Authors: Nour Aljafari, Mariam, S. Maani, Serter Atabay, Tarig Ali, Said Daker, Lara Daher, Hamad Bukhammas, Mohammed Abou Shakra

Abstract:

This paper aims at determining the soil characteristics that influence the irrigation process of green landscapes and deciding on the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation. The laboratory experiments were conducted using the constant head methodology to determine the soil infiltration rates. The steady state infiltration rate was reached after 10 minutes of infiltration at a rate of 200 mm/hr. The effects of different water heads on infiltration rates were also investigated, and the head of 11 cm was found to be the optimum head for the test. The experimental results showed consistent infiltration results for the range between 11 cm and 15 cm. The study also involved finding the initial moisture content, which ranged between 5% and 25%, and finding the organic content, which occupied 1% to 2% of the soil. These results will be later utilized, using the water balance approach, to estimate the optimum amount of water needed for irrigation for changing weather conditions.

Keywords: Infiltration rate, moisture content, grass type, organic content.

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15 A Semi-Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image authentication. In this particular scheme, the color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. Each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks and its each 2×2 sub-block is selected. The embedding space is created by setting the two LSBs of selected sub-block to zero, which will hold the authentication and recovery information. For verification of work authentication and parity bits denoted by 'a' & 'p' are computed for each 2×2 subblock. For recovery, intensity mean of each 2×2 sub-block is computed and encoded upto six to eight bits depending upon the channel selection. The size of sub-block is important for correct localization and fast computation. For watermark distribution 2DTorus Automorphism is implemented using a private key to have a secure mapping of blocks. The perceptibility of watermarked image is quite reasonable both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is oblivious, correctly localizes the tampering and able to recovery the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: Image Authentication, YST Color Space, Intensity Mean, LSBs, PSNR.

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14 A Semi-Fragile Signature based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for ownership identification and authentication using color images by deploying Cryptography and Digital Watermarking as underlaying technologies. The former is used to compute the contents based hash and the latter to embed the watermark. The host image that will claim to be the rightful owner is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking based applications. Geometrically YS ÔèÑ T and T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of color image, therefore suitable for embedding the watermark. The T channel is divided into 4×4 nonoverlapping blocks. The size of block is important for enhanced localization, security and low computation. Each block along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160, a one way hash function to compute the content based hash, which is always unique and resistant against birthday attack instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). The watermark payload varies from block to block and computed by the variance factorα . The quality of watermarked images is quite high both subjectively and objectively. Our scheme is blind, computationally fast and exactly locates the tampered region.

Keywords: Hash Collision, LSB, MD5, PSNR, SHA160.

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13 A Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Color Image Authentication

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a fragile watermarking scheme is proposed for color image specified object-s authentication. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space, suitable for watermarking the color media. The T channel corresponds to the chrominance component of a color image andYS ÔèÑ T , therefore selected for embedding the watermark. The T channel is first divided into 2×2 non-overlapping blocks and the two LSBs are set to zero. The object that is to be authenticated is also divided into 2×2 nonoverlapping blocks and each block-s intensity mean is computed followed by eight bit encoding. The generated watermark is then embedded into T channel randomly selected 2×2 block-s LSBs using 2D-Torus Automorphism. Selection of block size is paramount for exact localization and recovery of work. The proposed scheme is blind, efficient and secure with ability to detect and locate even minor tampering applied to the image with full recovery of original work. The quality of watermarked media is quite high both subjectively and objectively. The technique is suitable for class of images with format such as gif, tif or bitmap.

Keywords: Image Authentication, LSBs, PSNR, 2D-Torus Automorphism, YST Color Space.

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12 Physical and Rheological Properties of Asphalt Modified with Cellulose Date Palm Fibers

Authors: Howaidi M. Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Fibers are extensively used in civil engineering applications for many years. In this study, empty fruit bunch of date palm trees were used to produce cellulose fiber that were used as additives in the asphalt binder. Two sizes (coarse and fine) of cellulose fibers were pre-blended in PG64-22 binder with various contents of 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%, and 7.5% by weight of asphalt binder. The physical and rheological properties of fiber modified asphalt binders were tested by using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP test such as dynamic shear rheometer. The results indicated that the fiber modified asphalt binders were higher in softening point, viscosity, and complex shear modulus, and lower in penetration compared to pure asphalt. The fiber modified binders showed an improvement in rheological properties since it was possible to raise the control binder (pure asphalt) PG from 64 to 70 by adding 6% (by weight) of either fine or coarse fibers. Such improvement in stiffness of fiber modified binder is expected to improve pavement resistance to rutting.

Keywords: Cellulose date palm fiber, fiber modified asphalt, physical properties, rheological properties.

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11 The Effect of Dynamic Eccentricity on Induction Machine Stator Currents (Part A)

Authors: Saleh S. Hamad Elawgali

Abstract:

Current spectrums of a high power induction machine was calculated for the cases of full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity. The calculations involve integration of 93 electrical plus four mechanical ordinary differential equations. Electrical equations account for variable inductances affected by slotting and eccentricities. The calculations were followed by Fourier analysis of the stator currents in steady state operation. The paper presents the stator current spectrums in full symmetry, static and dynamic eccentricity cases, and demonstrates the harmonics present in each case. The effect of dynamic eccentricity is demonstrating via comparing the current spectrums related to dynamic eccentricity cases with the full symmetry one. The paper includes one case study, refers to dynamic eccentricity, to present the spectrum of the measured current and demonstrate the existence of the harmonics related to dynamic eccentricity. The zooms of current spectrums around the main slot harmonic zone are included to simplify the comparison and prove the existence of the dynamic eccentricity harmonics in both calculated and measured current spectrums.

Keywords: Current spectrum, diagnostics, harmonics, Induction machine

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10 Comparison of Rheological Properties for Polymer Modified Asphalt Produced in Riyadh

Authors: Ali M. Babalghaith, Hamad A. Alsoliman, Abdulrahman S. Al-Suhaibani

Abstract:

Flexible pavement made with neat asphalt binder is not enough to resist heavy traffic loads as well as harsh environmental condition found in Riyadh region. Therefore, there is a need to modify asphalt binder with polymers to satisfy such conditions. There are several types of polymers that are used to modify asphalt binder. The objective of this paper is to compare the rheological properties of six polymer modified asphalt binders (Lucolast7010, Anglomak2144, Paveflex140, SBS KTR401, EE-2 and Crumb rubber) obtained from asphalt manufacturer plants. The rheological properties of polymer modified asphalt binders were tested using conventional tests such as penetration, softening point and viscosity; and SHRP tests such as dynamic shear rheometer and bending beam rheometer. The results have indicated that the polymer modified asphalt binders have lower penetration and higher softening point than neat asphalt indicating an improvement in stiffness of asphalt binder, and as a result, more resistant to rutting. Moreover, the dynamic shear rheometer results have shown that all modifiers used in this study improved the binder properties and satisfied the Superpave specifications except SBS KTR401 which failed to satisfy the rutting parameter (G*/sinδ).

Keywords: Polymer modified asphalt, rheological properties, SBS, crumb rubber, EE-2.

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9 Image Clustering Framework for BAVM Segmentation in 3DRA Images: Performance Analysis

Authors: FH. Sarieddeen, R. El Berbari, S. Imad, J. Abdel Baki, M. Hamad, R. Blanc, A. Nakib, Y.Chenoune

Abstract:

Brain ArterioVenous Malformation (BAVM) is an abnormal tangle of brain blood vessels where arteries shunt directly into veins with no intervening capillary bed which causes high pressure and hemorrhage risk. The success of treatment by embolization in interventional neuroradiology is highly dependent on the accuracy of the vessels visualization. In this paper the performance of clustering techniques on vessel segmentation from 3- D rotational angiography (3DRA) images is investigated and a new technique of segmentation is proposed. This method consists in: preprocessing step of image enhancement, then K-Means (KM), Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) and Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering are used to separate vessel pixels from background and artery pixels from vein pixels when possible. A post processing step of removing false-alarm components is applied before constructing a three-dimensional volume of the vessels. The proposed method was tested on six datasets along with a medical assessment of an expert. Obtained results showed encouraging segmentations.

Keywords: Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM), 3-D rotational angiography (3DRA), K-Means (KM) clustering, Fuzzy CMeans (FCM) clustering, Expectation Maximization (EM) clustering, volume rendering.

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8 Heat Transfer from a Cylinder in Cross-Flow of Single and Multiphase Flows

Authors: F. A. Hamad, S. He

Abstract:

In this paper, the average heat transfer characteristics for a cross flow cylinder of 16 mm diameter in a vertical pipe has been studied for single-phase flow (water/oil) and multicomponent (non-boiling) flow (water-air, water-oil, oil-air and water-oil-air). The cylinder is uniformly heated by electrical heater placed at the centre of the element. The results show that the values of average heat transfer coefficients for water are around four times the values for oil flow. Introducing air as a second phase with water has very little effect on heat transfer rate, while the heat transfer increased by 70% in case of oil. For water–oil flow, the heat transfer coefficient values are reflecting the percentage of water up to 50%, but increasing the water more than 50% leads to a sharp increase in the heat transfer coefficients to become close to the values of pure water. The enhancement of heat transfer by mixing two phases may be attributed to the changes in flow structure near to cylinder surface which lead to thinner boundary layer and higher turbulence. For three-phase flow, the heat transfer coefficients for all cases fall within the limit of single-phase flow of water and oil and are very close to pure water values. The net effect of the turbulence augmentation due to the introduction of air and the attenuation due to the introduction of oil leads to a thinner boundary layer of oil over the cylinder surface covered by a mixture of water and air bubbles.

Keywords: Circular cylinder, cross-flow, heat transfer, multicomponent multiphase flow.

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7 Methane Production from Biomedical Waste (Blood)

Authors: Fatima M. Kabbashi, Abdalla M. Abdalla, Hussam K. Hamad, Elias S. Hassan

Abstract:

This study investigates the production of renewable energy (biogas) from biomedical hazard waste (blood) and eco-friendly disposal. Biogas is produced by the bacterial anaerobic digestion of biomaterial (blood). During digestion process bacterial feeding result in breaking down chemical bonds of the biomaterial and changing its features, by the end of the digestion (biogas production) the remains become manure as known. That has led to the economic and eco-friendly disposal of hazard biomedical waste (blood). The samples (Whole blood, Red blood cells 'RBCs', Blood platelet and Fresh Frozen Plasma ‘FFP’) are collected and measured in terms of carbon to nitrogen C/N ratio and total solid, then filled in connected flasks (three flasks) using water displacement method. The results of trails showed that the platelet and FFP failed to produce flammable gas, but via a gas analyzer, it showed the presence of the following gases: CO, HC, CO₂, and NOX. Otherwise, the blood and RBCs produced flammable gases: Methane-nitrous CH₃NO (99.45%), which has a blue color flame and carbon dioxide CO₂ (0.55%), which has red/yellow color flame. Methane-nitrous is sometimes used as fuel for rockets, some aircraft and racing cars.

Keywords: Renewable energy, biogas, biomedical waste, blood, anaerobic digestion, eco-friendly disposal.

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6 Embedded Semi-Fragile Signature Based Scheme for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication with Recovery

Authors: M. Hamad Hassan, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed for Ownership Identification and Color Image Authentication by deploying Cryptography & Digital Watermarking. The color image is first transformed from RGB to YST color space exclusively designed for watermarking. Followed by color space transformation, each channel is divided into 4×4 non-overlapping blocks with selection of central 2×2 sub-blocks. Depending upon the channel selected two to three LSBs of each central 2×2 sub-block are set to zero to hold the ownership, authentication and recovery information. The size & position of sub-block is important for correct localization, enhanced security & fast computation. As YS ÔèÑ T so it is suitable to embed the recovery information apart from the ownership and authentication information, therefore 4×4 block of T channel along with ownership information is then deployed by SHA160 to compute the content based hash that is unique and invulnerable to birthday attack or hash collision instead of using MD5 that may raise the condition i.e. H(m)=H(m'). For recovery, intensity mean of 4x4 block of each channel is computed and encoded upto eight bits. For watermark embedding, key based mapping of blocks is performed using 2DTorus Automorphism. Our scheme is oblivious, generates highly imperceptible images with correct localization of tampering within reasonable time and has the ability to recover the original work with probability of near one.

Keywords: Hash Collision, LSB, MD5, PSNR, SHA160

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5 Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Aljabryn Dalal Hamad

Abstract:

The present explanatory study concerns with the relation between Diabetes Mellitus and Food Balance in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010, using published data. Results illustrated that Saudi citizen daily protein consumption (DPC) during 2005-2007 (g/capita/day) is higher than the average global consumption level of protein with 15.27%, daily fat consumption (DFC) with 24.56% and daily energy consumption (DEC) with 16.93% and increases than recommended level by International Nutrition Organizations (INO) with 56% for protein, 60.49% for fat and 27.37% for energy. On the other hand, DPC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 88.3 to 82.36 gram/ day. Moreover, DFC per capita in Saudi Arabia decreased during the period 2008-2010 from 3247.90 to 3176.43 Cal/capita/ day, and daily energy consumption (DEC) of Saudi citizen increases than world consumption with 16.93%, whereas increases with 27.37% than INO. Despite this, DPC, DFC and DEC per capita in Saudi Arabia still higher than world mean. On the other side, results illustrated that the number of diabetic patients in Saudi Arabia during the same period (2005-2010). The curve of diabetic patient’s number in Saudi Arabia during 2005-2010 is regular ascending with increasing level ranged between 7.10% in 2005 and 12.44% in 2010. It is essential to devise Saudi National programs to educate the public about the relation of food balances and diabetes so it could be avoided, and provide citizens with healthy dietary balances tables.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Food Balance, Energy, Fat, Protein, Saudi Arabia.

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4 Overview Studies of High Strength Self-Consolidating Concrete

Authors: Raya Harkouss, Bilal Hamad

Abstract:

Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC) is considered as a relatively new technology created as an effective solution to problems associated with low quality consolidation. A SCC mix is defined as successful if it flows freely and cohesively without the intervention of mechanical compaction. The construction industry is showing high tendency to use SCC in many contemporary projects to benefit from the various advantages offered by this technology.

At this point, a main question is raised regarding the effect of enhanced fluidity of SCC on the structural behavior of high strength self-consolidating reinforced concrete.

A three phase research program was conducted at the American University of Beirut (AUB) to address this concern. The first two phases consisted of comparative studies conducted on concrete and mortar mixes prepared with second generation Sulphonated Naphtalene-based superplasticizer (SNF) or third generation Polycarboxylate Ethers-based superplasticizer (PCE). The third phase of the research program investigates and compares the structural performance of high strength reinforced concrete beam specimens prepared with two different generations of superplasticizers that formed the unique variable between the concrete mixes. The beams were designed to test and exhibit flexure, shear, or bond splitting failure.

The outcomes of the experimental work revealed comparable resistance of beam specimens cast using self-compacting concrete and conventional vibrated concrete. The dissimilarities in the experimental values between the SCC and the control VC beams were minimal, leading to a conclusion, that the high consistency of SCC has little effect on the flexural, shear and bond strengths of concrete members.

Keywords: Self-consolidating concrete (SCC), high-strength concrete, concrete admixtures, mechanical properties of hardened SCC, structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams.

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3 Methane and Other Hydrocarbon Gas Emissions Resulting from Flaring in Kuwait Oilfields

Authors: Khaireyah Kh. Al-Hamad, V. Nassehi, A. R. Khan

Abstract:

Air pollution is a major environmental health problem, affecting developed and developing countries around the world. Increasing amounts of potentially harmful gases and particulate matter are being emitted into the atmosphere on a global scale, resulting in damage to human health and the environment. Petroleum-related air pollutants can have a wide variety of adverse environmental impacts. In the crude oil production sectors, there is a strong need for a thorough knowledge of gaseous emissions resulting from the flaring of associated gas of known composition on daily basis through combustion activities under several operating conditions. This can help in the control of gaseous emission from flares and thus in the protection of their immediate and distant surrounding against environmental degradation. The impacts of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons emissions from flaring activities at oil production facilities at Kuwait Oilfields have been assessed through a screening study using records of flaring operations taken at the gas and oil production sites, and by analyzing available meteorological and air quality data measured at stations located near anthropogenic sources. In the present study the Industrial Source Complex (ISCST3) Dispersion Model is used to calculate the ground level concentrations of methane and nonmethane hydrocarbons emitted due to flaring in all over Kuwait Oilfields. The simulation of real hourly air quality in and around oil production facilities in the State of Kuwait for the year 2006, inserting the respective source emission data into the ISCST3 software indicates that the levels of non-methane hydrocarbons from the flaring activities exceed the allowable ambient air standard set by Kuwait EPA. So, there is a strong need to address this acute problem to minimize the impact of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons released from flaring activities over the urban area of Kuwait.

Keywords: Kuwait Oilfields, ISCST3 model, flaring, Airpollution, Methane and Non-methane.

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2 Preparing Data for Calibration of Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide in Central Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulraaof H. Alqaili, Hamad A. Alsoliman

Abstract:

Through progress in pavement design developments, a pavement design method was developed, which is titled the Mechanistic Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). Nowadays, the evolution in roads network and highways is observed in Saudi Arabia as a result of increasing in traffic volume. Therefore, the MEPDG currently is implemented for flexible pavement design by the Saudi Ministry of Transportation. Implementation of MEPDG for local pavement design requires the calibration of distress models under the local conditions (traffic, climate, and materials). This paper aims to prepare data for calibration of MEPDG in Central Saudi Arabia. Thus, the first goal is data collection for the design of flexible pavement from the local conditions of the Riyadh region. Since, the modifying of collected data to input data is needed; the main goal of this paper is the analysis of collected data. The data analysis in this paper includes processing each: Trucks Classification, Traffic Growth Factor, Annual Average Daily Truck Traffic (AADTT), Monthly Adjustment Factors (MAFi), Vehicle Class Distribution (VCD), Truck Hourly Distribution Factors, Axle Load Distribution Factors (ALDF), Number of axle types (single, tandem, and tridem) per truck class, cloud cover percent, and road sections selected for the local calibration. Detailed descriptions of input parameters are explained in this paper, which leads to providing of an approach for successful implementation of MEPDG. Local calibration of MEPDG to the conditions of Riyadh region can be performed based on the findings in this paper.

Keywords: Mechanistic-empirical pavement design guide, traffic characteristics, materials properties, climate, Riyadh.

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1 Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios

Authors: Omar F. Hamad, T. Marwala

Abstract:

With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.

Keywords: Overlay multicast, Available bandwidth, Max-heapform overlay, Induced packet loss, Bandwidth-latency product, Node Gain Score (NGS).

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