Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 420

Search results for: Acoustic comfort

420 Effects of Free-Hanging Horizontal Sound Absorbers on the Cooling Performance of Thermally Activated Building Systems

Authors: L. Marcos Domínguez, Nils Rage, Ongun B. Kazanci, Bjarne W. Olesen

Abstract:

Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have proven to be an energy-efficient solution to provide buildings with an optimal indoor thermal environment. This solution uses the structure of the building to store heat, reduce the peak loads, and decrease the primary energy demand. TABS require the heated or cooled surfaces to be as exposed as possible to the indoor space, but exposing the bare concrete surfaces has a diminishing effect on the acoustic qualities of the spaces in a building. Acoustic solutions capable of providing optimal acoustic comfort and allowing the heat exchange between the TABS and the room are desirable. In this study, the effects of free-hanging units on the cooling performance of TABS and the occupants’ thermal comfort was measured in a full-scale TABS laboratory. Investigations demonstrate that the use of free-hanging sound absorbers are compatible with the performance of TABS and the occupant’s thermal comfort, but an appropriate acoustic design is needed to find the most suitable solution for each case. The results show a reduction of 11% of the cooling performance of the TABS when 43% of the ceiling area is covered with free-hanging horizontal sound absorbers, of 23% for 60% ceiling coverage ratio and of 36% for 80% coverage. Measurements in actual buildings showed an increase of the room operative temperature of 0.3 K when 50% of the ceiling surface is covered with horizontal panels and of 0.8 to 1 K for a 70% coverage ratio. According to numerical simulations using a new TRNSYS Type, the use of comfort ventilation has a considerable influence on the thermal conditions in the room; if the ventilation is removed, then the operative temperature increases by 1.8 K for a 60%-covered ceiling.

Keywords: Acoustic comfort, concrete core activation, full-scale measurements, thermally activated building systems, TRNSYS.

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419 Evaluation of the Acoustic Performance of Classrooms in Algerian Teaching Schools

Authors: Bouttout Abdelouahab, Amara Mohamed, Djakabe Saad, Remram Youcef

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an evaluation of acoustic comfort such as background noise and reverberation time in teaching rooms in Height National School of Civil Engineering, Algeria. Four teaching rooms are evaluated: conference room, two classroom and amphitheatre. The acoustic quality of the classrooms has been analyzed based on measurements of sound pressure level inside room and reverberations time. The measurement results show that impulse decays dependent on the position of the microphone inside room and the background noise is with agreement of National Official Journal of Algeria published in July 1993. Therefore there exists a discrepancy between the obtained reverberation time value and recommended reverberation time in some classrooms. Three methods have been proposed to reduce the reverberation time values in such room. We developed a program with FORTRAN 6.0 language based on the absorption acoustic values of the Technical Document Regulation (DTR C3.1.1). The important results of this paper can be used to regulate the construction and execute the acoustic rehabilitations of teaching room in Algeria, especially the classrooms of the pupils in primary and secondary schools.

Keywords: Room acoustic, reverberation time, background noise, absorptions materials.

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418 Sound Insulation between Buildings: The Impact Noise Transmission through Different Floor Configurations

Authors: Abdelouahab Bouttout, Mohamed Amara

Abstract:

The present paper examines the impact noise transmission through some floor building assemblies. The Acoubat software numerical simulation has been used to simulate the impact noise transmission through different floor configurations used in Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the available measurements. We have developed two experimental methods, i) field method, and ii) laboratory method using Brüel and Kjær equipments. The results show that the different cases of floor configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic comfort in the receiving apartment. The recommended value of the impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 dB. The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform to improve the Algerian building acoustic regulation aimed at the construction of the multi-storey residential building.

Keywords: Impact noise, building acoustic, floor insulation, resilient material.

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417 Climatic Range for Comfort Evaporative Cooling

Authors: Zahra Ghiabaklou

Abstract:

This paper presents the climatic range calculations for comfort evaporative cooling for Tehran. In this study the minimum climatic conditions required to achieve an appropriate comfort zone will be presented. Physiologically uncomfortable conditions in arid climates are mainly caused by the extreme heat and dryness. Direct evaporative cooling adds moisture to the air stream until the air stream is close to saturation. The dry bulb temperature is reduced, while the wet bulb temperature stays the same. Evaporative cooling is economical, effective, environmentally friendly, and healthy. Comfort cooling by direct evaporative cooling (passive or fan forced) in the 35. 41 N (such as Tehran) latitude requires design wet-bulb temperature not over 25.4 C. Evaporative cooling outside this limit cannot achieve the required 26.7 ET, and is recommended for relief cooling only.

Keywords: Evaporative cooling, Comfort temperature, Climaticdesign, Comfort cooling

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416 An Analysis of Acoustic Function and Navier-Stokes Equations in Aerodynamic

Authors: Hnin Hnin Kyi, Khaing Khaing Aye

Abstract:

Acoustic function plays an important role in aerodynamic mechanical engineering. It can classify the kind of air-vehicle such as subsonic or supersonic. Acoustic velocity relates with velocity and Mach number. Mach number relates again acoustic stability or instability condition. Mach number plays an important role in growth or decay in energy system. Acoustic is a function of temperature and temperature is directly proportional to pressure. If we control the pressure, we can control acoustic function. To get pressure stability condition, we apply Navier-Stokes equations.

Keywords: Acoustic velocity, Irrotational, Mach number, Rotational.

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415 Architectural Acoustic Modeling for Predicting Reverberation Time in Room Acoustic Design Using Multiple Criteria Decision Making Analysis

Authors: C. Ardil

Abstract:

This paper presents architectural acoustic modeling to estimate reverberation time in room acoustic design using multiple criteria decision making analysis. First, fundamental decision criteria were determined to evaluate the reverberation time in the room acoustic design problem. Then, the proposed model was applied to a practical decision problem to evaluate and select the optimal room acoustic design model. Finally, the optimal acoustic design of the rooms was analyzed and ranked using a multiple criteria decision making analysis method.

Keywords: Architectural acoustics, room acoustics, architectural acoustic modeling, reverberation time, room acoustic design, multiple criteria decision making analysis, decision analysis, MCDMA

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414 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control

Authors: Yingyi Zhou, Tohru Kawabe

Abstract:

With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.

Keywords: Electric vehicle, speed control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system.

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413 Modeling and Simulation of Acoustic Link Using Mackenize Propagation Speed Equation

Authors: Christhu Raj M. R., Rajeev Sukumaran

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic networks have attracted great attention in the last few years because of its numerous applications. High data rate can be achieved by efficiently modeling the physical layer in the network protocol stack. In Acoustic medium, propagation speed of the acoustic waves is dependent on many parameters such as temperature, salinity, density, and depth. Acoustic propagation speed cannot be modeled using standard empirical formulas such as Urick and Thorp descriptions. In this paper, we have modeled the acoustic channel using real time data of temperature, salinity, and speed of Bay of Bengal (Indian Coastal Region). We have modeled the acoustic channel by using Mackenzie speed equation and real time data obtained from National Institute of Oceanography and Technology. It is found that acoustic propagation speed varies between 1503 m/s to 1544 m/s as temperature and depth differs. The simulation results show that temperature, salinity, depth plays major role in acoustic propagation and data rate increases with appropriate data sets substituted in the simulated model.

Keywords: Underwater Acoustics, Mackenzie Speed Equation, Temperature, Salinity.

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412 Improving Ride Comfort of a Bus Using Fuzzy Logic Controlled Suspension

Authors: Mujde Turkkan, Nurkan Yagiz

Abstract:

In this study an active controller is presented for vibration suppression of a full-bus model. The bus is modeled having seven degrees of freedom. Using the achieved model via Lagrange Equations the system equations of motion are derived. The suspensions of the bus model include air springs with two auxiliary chambers are used. Fuzzy logic controller is used to improve the ride comfort. The numerical results, verifies that the presented fuzzy logic controller improves the ride comfort.

Keywords: Ride comfort, air spring, bus, fuzzy logic controller.

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411 Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

Authors: B. T. Chew, S. N. Kazi, A. Amiri

Abstract:

This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0C, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0-34.6C. The most comfortable temperature for students in lecture hall was 25.7C.

Keywords: Hot and humid, Lecture halls, Neutral temperature, Adaptive thermal comfort model.

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410 Examination of the Effect of Air Viscosity on Narrow Acoustic Tubes Using FEM Involving Complex Effective Density and Complex Bulk Modulus

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Earphones and headphones, which are compact electro-acoustic transducers, tend to have a lot of acoustic absorption materials and porous materials known as dampers, which often have a large number of extremely small holes and narrow slits to inhibit the resonance of the vibrating system, because the air viscosity significantly affects the acoustic characteristics in such acoustic paths. In order to perform simulations using the finite element method (FEM), it is necessary to be aware of material characteristics such as the impedance and propagation constants of sound absorbing materials and porous materials. The transfer function is widely known as a measurement method for an acoustic tube with such physical properties, but literature describing the measurements at the upper limits of the audible range is yet to be found. The acoustic tube, which is a measurement instrument, must be made narrow, and the distance between the two sets of microphones must be shortened in order to take measurements of acoustic characteristics at higher frequencies. When such a tube is made narrow, however, the characteristic impedance has been observed to become lower than the impedance of air. This paper considers the cause of this phenomenon to be the effect of the air viscosity and describes an FEM analysis of an acoustic tube considering air viscosity to compare to the theoretical formula by including the effect of air viscosity in the theoretical formula for an acoustic tube.

Keywords: Acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous materials, sound absorbing materials, transfer function method.

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409 Analytical Solutions for Geodesic Acoustic Eigenmodes in Tokamak Plasmas

Authors: Victor I. Ilgisonis, Ludmila V. Konovaltseva, Vladimir P. Lakhin, Ekaterina A. Sorokina

Abstract:

The analytical solutions for geodesic acoustic eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas with circular concentric magnetic surfaces are found. In the frame of ideal magnetohydrodynamics the dispersion relation taking into account the toroidal coupling between electrostatic perturbations and electromagnetic perturbations with poloidal mode number |m| = 2 is derived. In the absence of such a coupling the dispersion relation gives the standard continuous spectrum of geodesic acoustic modes. The analysis of the existence of global eigenmodes for plasma equilibria with both off-axis and on-axis maximum of the local geodesic acoustic frequency is performed.

Keywords: Tokamak, MHD, geodesic acoustic mode, eigenmode.

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408 Improvement of Passengers Ride Comfort in Rail Vehicles Equipped with Air Springs

Authors: H. Sayyaadi, N. Shokouhi

Abstract:

In rail vehicles, air springs are very important isolating component, which guarantee good ride comfort for passengers during their trip. In the most new rail–vehicle models, developed by researchers, the thermo–dynamical effects of air springs are ignored and secondary suspension is modeled by simple springs and dampers. As the performance of suspension components have significant effects on rail–vehicle dynamics and ride comfort of passengers, a complete nonlinear thermo–dynamical air spring model, which is a combination of two different models, is introduced. Result from field test shows remarkable agreement between proposed model and experimental data. Effects of air suspension parameters on the system performances are investigated here and then these parameters are tuned to minimize Sperling ride comfort index during the trip. Results showed that by modification of air suspension parameters, passengers comfort is improved and ride comfort index is reduced about 10%.

Keywords: Air spring, Ride comfort improvement, Thermo– dynamical effects.

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407 Assessment of Thermal Comfort at Manual Car Body Assembly Workstation

Authors: A. R. Ismail, N. Jusoh, M. Z. Nuawi, B. M. Deros, N. K. Makhtar, M. N. A. Rahman

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to determine the thermal comfort among worker at Malaysian automotive industry. One critical manual assembly workstation had been chosen as a subject for the study. The human subjects for the study constitute operators at Body Assembly Station of the factory. The environment examined was the Relative Humidity (%), Airflow (m/s), Air Temperature (°C) and Radiant Temperature (°C) of the surrounding workstation area. The environmental factors were measured using Babuc apparatus, which is capable to measure simultaneously those mentioned environmental factors. The time series data of fluctuating level of factors were plotted to identify the significant changes of factors. Then thermal comfort of the workers were assessed by using ISO Standard 7730 Thermal sensation scale by using Predicted Mean Vote (PMV). Further Predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) is used to estimate the thermal comfort satisfaction of the occupant. Finally the PPD versus PMV were plotted to present the thermal comfort scenario of workers involved in related workstation. The result of PMV at the related industry is between 1.8 and 2.3, where PPD at that building is between 60% to 84%. The survey result indicated that the temperature more influenced comfort to the occupants

Keywords: Thermal, Comfort, Temperature, PPD, PMV

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406 Optimization of Human Comfort Reaction for Suspended Cabin Tractor Semitrailer Drivers

Authors: L.A.Kumaraswamidhas, P.Velmurugan, K.Sankaranarayanasamy

Abstract:

This work has been conducted to study on comfort level of drivers of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer. Some drivers suffer from low back pain caused by vibration. The practical significance of applying suspended cabin type of tractor semi trailer was tested at different road conditions, different speed as well as different load conditions for comfortable driver seat interface (x, y, z ) and the process parameters have been prioritized using Taguchi-s L27 orthogonal array. Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the human comfort vibration of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer drivers. The practical significance of applying GA to human comfort to reaction of suspended cabin tractor semitrailer has been validated by means of computing the deviation between predicted and experimentally obtained human comfort to vibration. The optimized acceleration data indicate a little uncomfortable ride for suspended cabin tractor semitrailer.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, Ride Comfort, Taguchi Method, Tractor Semitrailer

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405 Bearing Condition Monitoring with Acoustic Emission Techniques

Authors: Faisal AlShammari, Abdulmajid Addali

Abstract:

Monitoring the conditions of rotating machinery, such as bearings, is important in order to improve the stability of work. Acoustic Emission (AE) and vibration analysis are some of the most accomplished techniques used for this purpose. Acoustic emission has the ability to detect the initial phase of component degradation. Moreover, it has been observed that vibration analysis is not as successful at low rotational speeds (below 100 rpm). This because the energy generated within this speed region is not detectable using conventional vibration. From this perspective, this paper has presented a brief review of using acoustic emission techniques for monitoring bearing conditions.

Keywords: Condition monitoring, stress wave analysis, low-speed bearings, bearing defect diagnosis.

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404 Numerical Investigation of Displacement Ventilation Effectiveness

Authors: Ramy H. Mohammed

Abstract:

Displacement ventilation of a room with an occupant is modeled using CFD. The geometry of manikin is accurately represented in CFD model to minimize potential. Indoor zero equation turbulence model is used to simulate all cases and the effect of the thermal radiation from manikin is taken into account. After validation of the code, predicted mean vote, mean age of air, and ventilation effectiveness are used to predict the thermal comfort zones and indoor air quality. The effect of the inlet velocity and temperature on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality is investigated. The results show that the inlet velocity has great effect on the thermal comfort and indoor air quality and low inlet velocity is sufficient to establish comfortable conditions inside the room. In addition, the displacement ventilation system achieves not only thermal comfort in ventilated rooms, but also energy saving of fan power.

Keywords: Displacement ventilation, Energy saving, Thermal comfort, Turbulence model.

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403 Ion- Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Self- Gravitating Dusty Plasma Having Two-Temperature Electrons

Authors: S.N.Paul, G.Pakira, B.Paul, B.Ghosh

Abstract:

Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a selfgravitating dusty plasma consisting of warm positive ions, isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust particles having charge fluctuations is studied using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in such plasma can be described by an uncoupled third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of the usual Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. From this nonlinear equation, a new type of solution for the ion-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of two-temperature electrons, gravity and dust charge fluctuations on the ion-acoustic solitary waves are discussed with possible applications.

Keywords: Charge fluctuations, gravitating dusty plasma, Ionacoustic solitary wave, Two-temperature electrons

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402 Modeling and Numerical Simulation of Sound Radiation by the Boundary Element Method

Authors: Costa, E.S., Borges, E.N.M., Afonso, M.M.

Abstract:

The modeling of sound radiation is of fundamental importance for understanding the propagation of acoustic waves and, consequently, develop mechanisms for reducing acoustic noise. The propagation of acoustic waves, are involved in various phenomena such as radiation, absorption, transmission and reflection. The radiation is studied through the linear equation of the acoustic wave that is obtained through the equation for the Conservation of Momentum, equation of State and Continuity. From these equations, is the Helmholtz differential equation that describes the problem of acoustic radiation. In this paper we obtained the solution of the Helmholtz differential equation for an infinite cylinder in a pulsating through free and homogeneous. The analytical solution is implemented and the results are compared with the literature. A numerical formulation for this problem is obtained using the Boundary Element Method (BEM). This method has great power for solving certain acoustical problems in open field, compared to differential methods. BEM reduces the size of the problem, thereby simplifying the input data to be worked and reducing the computational time used.

Keywords: Acoustic radiation, boundary element

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401 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron

Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad

Abstract:

Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.

Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmas

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400 An Overview of Energy Efficient Routing Protocols for Acoustic Sensor Network

Authors: V. P. Dhivya, R. Arthi

Abstract:

Underwater acoustic network is one of the rapidly growing areas of research and finds different applications for monitoring and collecting various data for environmental studies. The communication among dynamic nodes and high error probability in an acoustic medium forced to maximize energy consumption in Underwater Sensor Networks (USN) than in traditional sensor networks. Developing energy-efficient routing protocol is the fundamental and a curb challenge because all the sensor nodes are powered by batteries, and they cannot be easily replaced in UWSNs. This paper surveys the various recent routing techniques that mainly focus on energy efficiency.

Keywords: Acoustic channels, Energy efficiency, Routing in sensor networks, Underwater Sensor Network.

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399 Nonplanar Ion-acoustic Waves in a Relativistically Degenerate Quantum Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Sibarjun Das, Agniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, Apratim Jash

Abstract:

Using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model the nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in are lativistically degenerate quantum plasma is investigated by deriving a nonlinear Spherical Kadomtsev–Petviashvili (SKP) equation using the standard reductive perturbation method equation. It was found that the electron degeneracy parameter significantly affects the linear and nonlinear properties of ion-acoustic waves in quantum plasma.

Keywords: Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation, Ion-acoustic Waves, Relativistic Degeneracy, Quantum Plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamic Model.

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398 Comparison of Fricative Vocal Tract Transfer Functions Derived using Two Different Segmentation Techniques

Authors: K. S. Subari, C. H. Shadle, A. Barney, R. I. Damper

Abstract:

The acoustic and articulatory properties of fricative speech sounds are being studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and acoustic recordings from a single subject. Area functions were derived from a complete set of axial and coronal MR slices using two different methods: the Mermelstein technique and the Blum transform. Area functions derived from the two techniques were shown to differ significantly in some cases. Such differences will lead to different acoustic predictions and it is important to know which is the more accurate. The vocal tract acoustic transfer function (VTTF) was derived from these area functions for each fricative and compared with measured speech signals for the same fricative and same subject. The VTTFs for /f/ in two vowel contexts and the corresponding acoustic spectra are derived here; the Blum transform appears to show a better match between prediction and measurement than the Mermelstein technique.

Keywords: Area functions, fricatives, vocal tract transferfunction, MRI, speech.

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397 Ant System with Acoustic Communication

Authors: S. Bougrine, S. Ouchraa, B. Ahiod, A. A. El Imrani

Abstract:

Ant colony optimization is an ant algorithm framework that took inspiration from foraging behavior of ant colonies. Indeed, ACO algorithms use a chemical communication, represented by pheromone trails, to build good solutions. However, ants involve different communication channels to interact. Thus, this paper introduces the acoustic communication between ants while they are foraging. This process allows fine and local exploration of search space and permits optimal solution to be improved.

Keywords: Acoustic Communication, Ant Colony Optimization, Local Search, Traveling Salesman Problem.

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396 Diagnostics of Fatigue Damage of Gas Turbine Engine Blades by Acoustic Emission Method

Authors: A.Urbach, M. Banov, V. Turko, Y.Feshchuk

Abstract:

the work contains the results of complex investigation related to the evaluation of condition of working blades of gas turbine engines during fatigue tests by applying the acoustic emission method. It demonstrates the possibility of estimating the fatigue damage of blades in the process of factory tests. The acoustic emission criteria for detecting and testing the kinetics of fatigue crack distribution were detected. It also shows the high effectiveness of the method for non-destructive testing of condition of solid and cooled working blades for high-temperature gas turbine engines.

Keywords: acoustic emission, blades for gas turbine engines, fatigue damage, diagnostics

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395 Theoretical Analysis of Damping Due to Air Viscosity in Narrow Acoustic Tubes

Authors: M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, M. Sasajima, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Headphones and earphones have many extremely small holes or narrow slits; they use sound-absorbing or porous material (i.e., dampers) to suppress vibratory system resonance. The air viscosity in these acoustic paths greatly affects the acoustic properties. Simulation analyses such as the finite element method (FEM) therefore require knowledge of the material properties of sound-absorbing or porous materials, such as the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. The transfer function method using acoustic tubes is a widely known measuring method, but there is no literature on taking measurements up to the audible range. To measure the acoustic properties at high-range frequencies, the acoustic tubes that form the measuring device need to be narrowed, and the distance between the two microphones needs to be reduced. However, when the tubes are narrowed, the characteristic impedance drops below the air impedance. In this study, we considered the effect of air viscosity in an acoustical tube, introduced a theoretical formula for this effect in the form of complex density and complex sonic velocity, and verified the theoretical formula. We also conducted an experiment and observed the effect from air viscosity in the actual measurements.

Keywords: acoustic tube, air viscosity, earphones, FEM, porous material, sound-absorbing material, transfer function method

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394 Effects of LED Lighting on Visual Comfort with Respect to the Reading Task

Authors: Ayşe Nihan Avcı, İpek Memikoğlu

Abstract:

Lighting systems in interior architecture need to be designed according to the function of the space, the type of task within the space, user comfort and needs. Desired and comfortable lighting levels increase task efficiency. When natural lighting is inadequate in a space, artificial lighting is additionally used to support the level of light. With the technological developments, the characteristics of light are being researched comprehensively and several business segments have focused on its qualitative and quantitative characteristics. These studies have increased awareness and usage of artificial lighting systems and researchers have investigated the effects of lighting on physical and psychological aspects of human in various ways. The aim of this study is to research the effects of illuminance levels of LED lighting on user visual comfort. Eighty participants from the Department of Interior Architecture of Çankaya University participated in three lighting scenarios consisting of 200 lux, 500 lux and 800 lux that are created with LED lighting. Each lighting scenario is evaluated according to six visual comfort criteria in which a reading task is performed. The results of the study indicated that LED lighting with three different illuminance levels affect visual comfort in different ways. The results are limited to the participants and questions that are attended and used in this study.

Keywords: Illuminance levels, LED lighting, reading task, visual comfort criteria.

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393 Propagation of Electron-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Weakly Relativistically Degenerate Fermi Plasma

Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh, S. N. Paul

Abstract:

Using one dimensional Quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model Korteweg de Vries (KdV) solitary excitations of electron-acoustic waves (EAWs) have been examined in twoelectron- populated relativistically degenerate super dense plasma. It is found that relativistic degeneracy parameter influences the conditions of formation and properties of solitary structures.

Keywords: Relativistic Degeneracy, Electron-Acoustic Waves, Quantum Plasma, KdV Equation.

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392 Finite Element and Subspace Identification Approaches to Model Development of a Smart Acoustic Box with Experimental Verification

Authors: Tamara Nestorović, Jean Lefèvre, Stefan Ringwelski, Ulrich Gabbert

Abstract:

Two approaches for model development of a smart acoustic box are suggested in this paper: the finite element (FE) approach and the subspace identification. Both approaches result in a state-space model, which can be used for obtaining the frequency responses and for the controller design. In order to validate the developed FE model and to perform the subspace identification, an experimental set-up with the acoustic box and dSPACE system was used. Experimentally obtained frequency responses show good agreement with the frequency responses obtained from the FE model and from the identified model.

Keywords: Acoustic box, experimental verification, finite element model, subspace identification.

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391 Experimental Observation on Air-Conditioning Using Radiant Chilled Ceiling in Hot Humid Climate

Authors: Ashmin Aryal, Pipat Chaiwiwatworakul, Surapong Chirarattananon

Abstract:

Radiant chilled ceiling (RCC) has been perceived to save more energy and provide better thermal comfort than the traditional air conditioning system. However, its application has been rather limited by some reasons e.g., the scarce information about the thermal characteristic in the radiant room and the local climate influence on the system performance, etc. To bridge such gap, an office-like experiment room with a RCC was constructed in the hot and humid climate of Thailand. This paper presents exemplarily results from the RCC experiments to give an insight into the thermal environment in a radiant room and the cooling load associated to maintain the room's comfort condition. It gave a demonstration of the RCC system operation for its application to achieve thermal comfort in offices in a hot humid climate, as well.

Keywords: Radiant chilled ceiling, thermal comfort, cooling load, outdoor air unit.

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