Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Evaporative cooling

10 Mathematical Modelling and Numerical Simulation of Maisotsenko Cycle

Authors: Rasikh Tariq, Fatima Z. Benarab

Abstract:

Evaporative coolers has a minimum potential to reach the wet-bulb temperature of intake air which is not enough to handle a large cooling load; therefore, it is not a feasible option to overcome cooling requirement of a building. The invention of Maisotsenko (M) cycle has led evaporative cooling technology to reach the sub-wet-bulb temperature of the intake air; therefore, it brings an innovation in evaporative cooling techniques. In this work, we developed a mathematical model of the Maisotsenko based air cooler by applying energy and mass balance laws on different air channels. The governing ordinary differential equations are discretized and simulated on MATLAB. The temperature and the humidity plots are shown in the simulation results. A parametric study is conducted by varying working air inlet conditions (temperature and humidity), inlet air velocity, geometric parameters and water temperature. The influence of these aforementioned parameters on the cooling effectiveness of the HMX is reported.  Results have shown that the effectiveness of the M-Cycle is increased by increasing the ambient temperature and decreasing absolute humidity. An air velocity of 0.5 m/sec and a channel height of 6-8mm is recommended.

Keywords: Renewable energy, indirect evaporative cooling, Maisotsenko cycle, HMX, mathematical model, numerical simulation.

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9 Development of Sustainable Farming Compartment with Treated Wastewater in Abu Dhabi

Authors: Jongwan Eun, Sam Helwany, Lakshyana K. C.

Abstract:

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is significantly dependent on desalinated water and groundwater resource, which is expensive and highly energy intensive. Despite the scarce water resource, stagnates only 54% of the recycled water was reused in 2012, and due to the lack of infrastructure to reuse the recycled water, the portion is expected to decrease with growing water usage. In this study, an “Oasis” complex comprised of Sustainable Farming Compartments (SFC) was proposed for reusing treated wastewater. The wastewater is used to decrease the ambient temperature of the SFC via an evaporative cooler. The SFC prototype was designed, built, and tested in an environmentally controlled laboratory and field site to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of the SFC subjected to various climatic conditions in Abu Dhabi. Based on the experimental results, the temperature drop achieved in the SFC in the laboratory and field site were5 ̊C from 22 ̊C and 7- 15 ̊C (from 33-45 ̊C to average 28 ̊C at relative humidity < 50%), respectively. An energy simulation using TRNSYS was performed to extend and validate the results obtained from the experiment. The results from the energy simulation and experiments show statistically close agreement. The total power consumption of the SFC system was approximately three and a half times lower than that of an electrical air conditioner. Therefore, by using treated wastewater, the SFC has a promising prospect to solve Abu Dhabi’s ecological concern related to desertification and wind erosion.

Keywords: Ecological farming system, energy simulation, evaporative cooling system, treated wastewater, temperature, humidity.

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8 Thermal Performance and Environmental Assessment of Evaporative Cooling Systems: Case of Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia

Authors: A. Alharbi, R. Boukhanouf, T. Habeebullah, H. Ibrahim

Abstract:

This paper presents a detailed description of evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in Mina Valley, Saudi Arabia. The thermal performance and environmental impact of the evaporative coolers were evaluated. It was found that the evaporative cooling systems used for space cooling in pilgrims’ accommodations and in the train stations could reduce energy consumption by as much as 75% and cut carbon dioxide emission by 78% compared to traditional vapour compression systems.

Keywords: Evaporative cooling, vapour compression, electricity consumption and CO2 emission.

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7 Mathematical Modeling of a Sub-Wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooling Using Porous Ceramic Materials

Authors: Meryem Kanzari, Rabah Boukhanouf, Hatem G. Ibrahim

Abstract:

Indirect Evaporative Cooling process has the advantage of supplying cool air at constant moisture content. However, such system can only supply air at temperatures above wet bulb temperature. This paper presents a mathematical model for a Sub-wet bulb temperature indirect evaporative cooling arrangement that can overcome this limitation and supply cool air at temperatures approaching dew point and without increasing its moisture content. In addition, the use of porous ceramics as wet media materials offers the advantage of integration into building elements. Results of the computer show the proposed design is capable of cooling air to temperatures lower than the ambient wet bulb temperature and achieving wet bulb effectiveness of about 1.17.

Keywords: Indirect evaporative cooling, porous ceramic, sub-wet bulb temperature.

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6 Comparison of Different Gas Turbine Inlet Air Cooling Methods

Authors: Ana Paula P. dos Santos, Claudia R. Andrade, Edson L. Zaparoli

Abstract:

Gas turbine air inlet cooling is a useful method for increasing output for regions where significant power demand and highest electricity prices occur during the warm months. Inlet air cooling increases the power output by taking advantage of the gas turbine-s feature of higher mass flow rate when the compressor inlet temperature decreases. Different methods are available for reducing gas turbine inlet temperature. There are two basic systems currently available for inlet cooling. The first and most cost-effective system is evaporative cooling. Evaporative coolers make use of the evaporation of water to reduce the gas turbine-s inlet air temperature. The second system employs various ways to chill the inlet air. In this method, the cooling medium flows through a heat exchanger located in the inlet duct to remove heat from the inlet air. However, the evaporative cooling is limited by wet-bulb temperature while the chilling can cool the inlet air to temperatures that are lower than the wet bulb temperature. In the present work, a thermodynamic model of a gas turbine is built to calculate heat rate, power output and thermal efficiency at different inlet air temperature conditions. Computational results are compared with ISO conditions herein called "base-case". Therefore, the two cooling methods are implemented and solved for different inlet conditions (inlet temperature and relative humidity). Evaporative cooler and absorption chiller systems results show that when the ambient temperature is extremely high with low relative humidity (requiring a large temperature reduction) the chiller is the more suitable cooling solution. The net increment in the power output as a function of the temperature decrease for each cooling method is also obtained.

Keywords: Absorption chiller, evaporative cooling, gas turbine, turbine inlet cooling.

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5 Using Hybrid System of Ground Heat Exchanger and Evaporative Cooler in Arid Weather Condition

Authors: Vahid Khalajzadeh, Ghassem Heidarinejad

Abstract:

In this paper, the feasibility study of using a hybrid system of ground heat exchangers (GHE) and direct evaporative cooling system in arid weather condition has been performed. The model is applied for Yazd and Kerman, two cities with arid weather condition in Iran. The system composed of three sections: Ground- Coupled-Circuit (GCC), Direct Evaporative Cooler (DEC) and Cooling Coil Unite (CCU). The GCC provides the necessary precooling for DEC. The GCC includes four vertical GHE which are designed in series configuration. Simulation results show that hybridization of GCC and DEC could provide comfort condition whereas DEC alone did not. Based on the results the cooling effectiveness of a hybrid system is more than unity. Thus, this novel hybrid system could decrease the air temperature below the ambient wet-bulb temperature. This environmentally clean and energy efficient system can be considered as an alternative to the mechanical vapor compression systems.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Cooling CoilUnit (CCU), Direct Evaporative Cooling (DEC), Ground CoupledCircuit (GCC)

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4 Wet Strength Improvement of Pineapple Leaf Paper for Evaporative Cooling Pad

Authors: T. Khampan, N. Thavarungkul, J. Tiansuwan, S. Kamthai

Abstract:

This research aimed to modify pineapple leaf paper (PALP) for using as wet media in the evaporation cooling system by improving wet mechanical property (tensile strength) without compromising water absorption property. Polyamideamineepichorohydrin resin (PAE) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) were used to strengthen the paper, and the PAE and CMC ratio of 80:20 showed the optimum wet and dry tensile index values, which were higher than those of the commercial cooling pad (CCP). Compared with CCP, PALP itself and all the PAE/CMC modified PALP possessed better water absorption. The PAE/CMC modified PALP had potential to become a new type of wet media.

Keywords: wet strength, evaporative cooling, pineapple leaves, polyamideamine-epichorohydrin, carboxymethylcellulose.

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3 Methods for Analyzing the Energy Efficiencyand Cost Effectiveness of Evaporative Cooling Air Conditioning

Authors: A Fouda, Z. Melikyan

Abstract:

Air conditioning systems of houses consume large quantity of electricity. To reducing energy consumption for air conditioning purposes it is becoming attractive the use of evaporative cooling air conditioning which is less energy consuming compared to air chillers. But, it is obvious that higher energy efficiency of evaporative cooling is not enough to judge whether evaporative cooling economically is competitive with other types of cooling systems. To proving the higher energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of the evaporative cooling competitive analysis of various types of cooling system should be accomplished. For noted purpose optimization mathematical model for each system should be composed based on system approach analysis. In this paper different types of evaporative cooling-heating systems are discussed and methods for increasing their energy efficiency and as well as determining of their design parameters are developed. The optimization mathematical models for each of them are composed with help of which least specific costs for each of them are reviled. The comparison of specific costs proved that the most efficient and cost effective is considered the “direct evaporating" system if it is applicable for given climatic conditions. Next more universal and applicable for many climatic conditions system providing least cost of heating and cooling is considered the “direct evaporating" system.

Keywords: air, conditioning, system, evaporative cooling, mathematical model, optimization, thermoeconomic.

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2 Climatic Range for Comfort Evaporative Cooling

Authors: Zahra Ghiabaklou

Abstract:

This paper presents the climatic range calculations for comfort evaporative cooling for Tehran. In this study the minimum climatic conditions required to achieve an appropriate comfort zone will be presented. Physiologically uncomfortable conditions in arid climates are mainly caused by the extreme heat and dryness. Direct evaporative cooling adds moisture to the air stream until the air stream is close to saturation. The dry bulb temperature is reduced, while the wet bulb temperature stays the same. Evaporative cooling is economical, effective, environmentally friendly, and healthy. Comfort cooling by direct evaporative cooling (passive or fan forced) in the 35. 41 N (such as Tehran) latitude requires design wet-bulb temperature not over 25.4 C. Evaporative cooling outside this limit cannot achieve the required 26.7 ET, and is recommended for relief cooling only.

Keywords: Evaporative cooling, Comfort temperature, Climaticdesign, Comfort cooling

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1 Detection of Salmonella in Egg Shell and Egg Content from Different Housing Systems for Laying Hens

Authors: Wiriya Loongyai, Kiettisak Promphet, Nilubol Kangsukul, Ratchawat Noppha

Abstract:

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and conventional microbiological methods were used to detect bacterial contamination of egg shells and egg content in different commercial housing systems, open house system and evaporative cooling system. A PCR assay was developed for direct detection using a set of primers specific for the invasion by A gene (invA) of Salmonella spp. PCR detected the presence of Salmonella in 2 samples of shell egg from the evaporative cooling system, while conventional cultural methods detected no Salmonella from the same samples.

Keywords: egg content, egg shell, invA gene, PCR, Salmonellaspp.

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