Search results for: Two-temperature electrons
49 Ion-Acoustic Double Layer in a Plasma with Two- Temperature Nonisothermal Electrons and Charged Dust Grains
Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sreyasi Banerjee
Using the pseudopotential technique the Sagdeev potential equation has been derived in a plasma consisting of twotemperature nonisothermal electrons, negatively charged dust grains and warm positive ions. The study shows that the presence of nonisothermal two-temperature electrons and charged dust grains have significant effects on the excitation and structure of the ionacoustic double layers in the model plasma under consideration. Only compressive type double layer is obtained in the present plasma model. The double layer solution has also been obtained by including higher order nonlinearity and nonisothermality, which is shown to modify the amplitude and deform the shape of the double layer.
Keywords: Two temperature non-isothermal electrons and charged dust grains.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2176
48 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate
Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina
Abstract:The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.
Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1433
47 Rarefactive and Compressive Solitary Waves in Warm Plasma with Positrons and Nonthermal Electrons
Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad
Abstract:Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a plasma with nonthermal electrons, thermal positrons and warm ions are investigated using Sagdeev-s pseudopotential technique. We study the effects of non-thermal electrons and ion temperature on solitons and show both negative and positive potential waves are possible.
Keywords: Ion acoustic waves, Solitons, Nonlinear phenomena, Sagdeev potentialProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 948
46 Arbitrary Amplitude Ion-Acoustic Solitary Waves in Electron-Ion-Positron Plasma with Nonthermal Electrons
Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sreyasi Banerjee
Using pseudo potential method arbitrary amplitude ion-acoustic solitary waves have been theoretically studied in a collisionless plasma consisting of warm drifting positive ions, Boltzmann positrons and nonthermal electrons. Ion-acoustic solitary wave solutions have been obtained and the dependence of the solitary wave profile on different plasma parameters has been studied numerically. Lower and higher order compressive and rarefactive solitary waves are observed in presence of positrons, nonthermal electrons, ion drift velocity and finite ion temperature. Inclusion of higher order nonlinearity is shown to have significant correction to the solitary wave profile for the same values of plasma parameters.
Keywords: Ion-acoustic waves, Nonthermal electrons, Sagdeev potential, Solitary waves.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2019
45 Effect of Pre-Plasma Potential on Laser Ion Acceleration
Authors: Djemai Bara, Mohamed Faouzi Mahboub, Djamila Bennaceur-Doumaz
Abstract:In this work, the role of the preformed plasma created on the front face of a target, irradiated by a high intensity short pulse laser, in the framework of ion acceleration process, modeled by Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, is studied. This plasma is composed of cold ions governed by fluid equations and non-thermal & trapped with densities represented by a "Cairns-Gurevich" equation. The self-similar solution of the equations shows that electronic trapping and the presence of non-thermal electrons in the pre-plasma are both responsible in ion acceleration as long as the proportion of energetic electrons is not too high. In the case where the majority of electrons are energetic, the electrons are accelerated directly by the ponderomotive force of the laser without the intermediate of an accelerating plasma wave.
Keywords: Cairns-Gurevich Equation, ion acceleration, plasma expansion, pre-plasma.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 555
44 Ion- Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Self- Gravitating Dusty Plasma Having Two-Temperature Electrons
Authors: S.N.Paul, G.Pakira, B.Paul, B.Ghosh
Abstract:Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a selfgravitating dusty plasma consisting of warm positive ions, isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust particles having charge fluctuations is studied using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in such plasma can be described by an uncoupled third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of the usual Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. From this nonlinear equation, a new type of solution for the ion-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of two-temperature electrons, gravity and dust charge fluctuations on the ion-acoustic solitary waves are discussed with possible applications.
Keywords: Charge fluctuations, gravitating dusty plasma, Ionacoustic solitary wave, Two-temperature electronsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1926
43 Radiation Effects and Defects in InAs, InP Compounds and Their Solid Solutions InPxAs1-x
Authors: N. Kekelidze, B. Kvirkvelia, E. Khutsishvili, T. Qamushadze, D. Kekelidze, R. Kobaidze, Z. Chubinishvili, N. Qobulashvili, G. Kekelidze
Abstract:On the basis of InAs, InP and their InPxAs1-x solid solutions, the technologies were developed and materials were created where the electron concentration and optical and thermoelectric properties do not change under the irradiation with Ф = 2∙1018 n/cm2 fluences of fast neutrons high-energy electrons (50 MeV, Ф = 6·1017 e/cm2) and 3 MeV electrons with fluence Ф = 3∙1018 e/cm2. The problem of obtaining such material has been solved, in which under hard irradiation the mobility of the electrons does not decrease, but increases. This material is characterized by high thermal stability up to T = 700 °C. The complex process of defects formation has been analyzed and shown that, despite of hard irradiation, the essential properties of investigated materials are mainly determined by point type defects.
Keywords: InAs, InP, solid solutions, irradiation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 793
42 Rarefactive and Compressive Solitons in Warm Dusty Plasma with Electrons and Nonthermal Ions
Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad
Abstract:Dust acoustic solitary waves are studied in warm dusty plasma containing negatively charged dusts, nonthermal ions and Boltzmann distributed electrons. Sagdeev pseudopotential method is used in order to investigate solitary wave solutions in the plasmas. The existence of compressive and rarefractive solitons is studied.
Keywords: Nonthermal, Soliton, Dust, Sagdeev potentialProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1351
41 Nuclear Data Evaluation for 217Po
Authors: Sherif S. Nafee, Amir K. Al-Ramady, Salem S. Shaheen
Evaluated nuclear decay data for the 217Po nuclide is presented in the present work. These data include recommended values for the half-life T1/2, α-, β-- and γ-ray emission energies and probabilities. Decay data from 221Rn α and 217Bi β—decays are presented. Q(α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012. In addition, the logft values were calculated using the Logft program from the ENSDF evaluation package. Moreover, the total internal conversion electrons and the K-shell to L-shell and L-shell to M-shell and to N-shell conversion electrons ratios K/L, L/M and L/N have been calculated using Bricc program. Meanwhile, recommendation values or the multi-polarities have been assigned based on recently measurement yield a better intensity balance at the 254 keV and 264 keV gamma transitions.
Keywords: Atomic Mass Evaluation, Nuclear Data Evaluation, Total Electron Conversion Electrons.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2004
40 The Light-Effect in Cylindrical Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential for the Case of Electrons: Optical Phonon Scattering
Authors: Hoang Van Ngoc, Nguyen Vu Nhan, Nguyen Quang Bau
The light-effect in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons, optical phonon scattering, is studied based on the quantum kinetic equation. The density of the direct current in a cylindrical quantum wire by a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, a DC electric field, and an intense laser field is calculated. Analytic expressions for the density of the direct current are studied as a function of the frequency of the laser radiation field, the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave, the temperature of system, and the size of quantum wire. The density of the direct current in cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential for the case of electrons – optical phonon scattering is nonlinearly dependent on the frequency of the linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The analytic expressions are numerically evaluated and plotted for a specific quantum wire, GaAs/GaAsAl.
Keywords: The light-effect, cylindrical quantum wire with an infinite potential, the density of the direct current, electrons - optical phonon scattering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 775
39 Effects of Double Delta Doping on Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Wave Response of Two-Dimensional Hot Electrons in GaAs Nanostructures
Authors: N. Basanta Singh, Sanjoy Deb, G. P Mishra, Subir Kumar Sarkar
Abstract:Carrier mobility has become the most important characteristic of high speed low dimensional devices. Due to development of very fast switching semiconductor devices, speed of computer and communication equipment has been increasing day by day and will continue to do so in future. As the response of any device depends on the carrier motion within the devices, extensive studies of carrier mobility in the devices has been established essential for the growth in the field of low dimensional devices. Small-signal ac transport of degenerate two-dimensional hot electrons in GaAs quantum wells is studied here incorporating deformation potential acoustic, polar optic and ionized impurity scattering in the framework of heated drifted Fermi-Dirac carrier distribution. Delta doping is considered in the calculations to investigate the effects of double delta doping on millimeter and submillimeter wave response of two dimensional hot electrons in GaAs nanostructures. The inclusion of delta doping is found to enhance considerably the two dimensional electron density which in turn improves the carrier mobility (both ac and dc) values in the GaAs quantum wells thereby providing scope of getting higher speed devices in future.
Keywords: Carrier mobility, Delta doping, Hot carriers, Quantum wells.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1537
38 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge
Authors: Ioan Rusu
Abstract:Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation, photons respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photons absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that radiation, photons respectively, have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.
Keywords: Electrostatic, electron, proton, photon, radiation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2144
37 Hall Coefficient in the Presence of Strong Electromagnetic Waves Caused by Confined Electrons and Phonons in a Rectangular Quantum Wire
Authors: Nguyen Quang Bau, Nguyen Thu Huong, Dang Thi Thanh Thuy
Abstract:The analytic expression for the Hall Coefficient (HC) caused by the confined electrons in the presence of a strong electromagnetic wave (EMW) including the effect of phonon confinement in rectangular quantum wires (RQWs) is calculated by using the quantum kinetic equation for electrons in the case of electron - optical phonon scattering. It is because the expression of the HC for the confined phonon case contains indexes m, m’ which are specific to the phonon confinement. The expression in a RQW is different from that for the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW or in 2D. The results are numerically calculated and discussed for a GaAs/GaAsAl RQW. The numerical results show that HC in a RQW can have both negative and positive values. This is different from the case of the absence of EMW and the case presence of EMW including the effect of phonon unconfinement in a RQW. These results are also compared with those in the case of unconfined phonons in a RQW and confined phonons in a quantum well. The conductivity in the case of confined phonon has more resonance peaks compared with that in case of unconfined phonons in a RQW. This new property is the same in quantum well. All results are compared with the case of unconfined phonons to see differences.
Keywords: Hall coefficient, rectangular quantum wires, electron-optical phonon interaction, quantum kinetic equation, confined phonons.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 853
36 Molecular and Electronic Structure of Chromium (III) Cyclopentadienyl Complexes
Authors: Salem El-tohami Ashoor
Abstract:Here, we have shown the reaction of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2Cl2] (1) where (Ar = 2,6-Pri 2C6H3) and in presence of NaCp (2) (Cp= C5H5 = cyclopentadien), with a center coordination η5 interaction between Cp as co-ligand and chromium metal center, for optimization we used density functional theory (DFT), under methods, explicitly including electrons correlations, for the final calculations as MB3LYP (Becke) (Lee–Yang–Parr) level of theory we used to obtain more exact results. This complex was calculated as electronic energy for molecular system, because the calculation accounting all electrons correlations interactions. The optimised of [Cr(ArN(CH2)3NAr)2(η5-Cp)] (Ar = 2,6-Pri2C6H3 and Cp = C5H5) was found to be thermally stable. By using Dewar-Chatt-Duncanson model, as a basis of the molecular orbital (MO) analysis and showed the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest occupied molecular orbital LUMO.
Keywords: Chromium (III) cyclopentadienyl complexes, DFT, MO, HOMO, LUMO.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1163
35 Full Potential Study of Electronic and Optical Properties of NdF3
Authors: Sapan Mohan Saini
Abstract:We report the electronic structure and optical properties of NdF3 compound. Our calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method with the inclusion of spin orbit coupling. We employed the local spin density approximation (LSDA) and Coulomb-corrected local spin density approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. We find that the standard LSDA approach is incapable of correctly describing the electronic properties of such materials since it positions the f-bands incorrectly resulting in an incorrect metallic ground state. On the other hand, LSDA + U approximation, known for treating the highly correlated 4f electrons properly, is able to reproduce the correct insulating ground state. Interestingly, however, we do not find any significant differences in the optical properties calculated using LSDA, and LSDA + U suggesting that the 4f electrons do not play a decisive role in the optical properties of these compounds. The reflectivity for NdF3 compound stays low till 7 eV which is consistent with their large energy gaps. The calculated energy gaps are in good agreement with experiments. Our calculated reflectivity compares well with the experimental data and the results are analyzed in the light of band to band transitions.
Keywords: FPLAPW Method, optical properties, rare earthtrifluorides LSDA+UProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1526
34 Collective Oscillations in a Magnetized Plasma Subjected to a Radiation Field
Authors: Daniel Santos, Bruno Ribeiro, Marco Amato, Antonio Fonseca
In this paper we discuss the behaviour of the longitudinal modes of a magnetized non collisional plasma subjected to an external electromagnetic field. We apply a semiclassical formalism, with the electrons being studied in a quantum mechanical viewpoint whereas the electromagnetic field in the classical context. We calculate the dielectric function in order to obtains the modes and found that, unlike the Bernstein modes, the presence of radiation induces oscillations around the cyclotron harmonics, which are smoothed as the energy stored in the radiation field becomes small compared to the thermal energy of the electrons. We analyze the influence of the number of photon involved in the electronic transitions between the Landau levels and how the parameters such as the external fields strength, plasma density and temperature affect the dispersion relation
Keywords: Collective oscillations, External fields, Dispersion relation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1247
33 Two-Photon Ionization of Silver Clusters
Authors: V. Paployan, K. Madoyan, A. Melikyan, H. Minassian
In this paper, we calculate the two-photon ionization (TPI) cross-section for pump-probe scheme in Ag neutral cluster. The pump photon energy is assumed to be close to the surface plasmon (SP) energy of cluster in dielectric media. Due to this choice, the pump wave excites collective oscillations of electrons-SP and the probe wave causes ionization of the cluster. Since the interband transition energy in Ag exceeds the SP resonance energy, the main contribution into the TPI comes from the latter. The advantage of Ag clusters as compared to the other noble metals is that the SP resonance in silver cluster is much sharper because of peculiarities of its dielectric function. The calculations are performed by separating the coordinates of electrons corresponding to the collective oscillations and the individual motion that allows taking into account the resonance contribution of excited SP oscillations. It is shown that the ionization cross section increases by two orders of magnitude if the energy of the pump photon matches the surface plasmon energy in the cluster.
Keywords: Resonance enhancement, silver clusters, surface plasmon, two-photon ionization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1374
32 Influence of an External Magnetic Field on the Acoustomagnetoelectric Field in a Rectangular Quantum Wire with an Infinite Potential by Using a Quantum Kinetic Equation
Authors: N. Q. Bau, N. V. Nghia
The acoustomagnetoelectric (AME) field in a rectangular quantum wire with an infinite potential (RQWIP) is calculated in the presence of an external magnetic field (EMF) by using the quantum kinetic equation for the distribution function of electrons system interacting with external phonons and electrons scattering with internal acoustic phonon in a RQWIP. We obtained ananalytic expression for the AME field in the RQWIP in the presence of the EMF. The dependence of AME field on the frequency of external acoustic wave, the temperature T of system, the cyclotron frequency of the EMF and the intensity of the EMF is obtained. Theoretical results for the AME field are numerically evaluated, plotted and discussed for a specific RQWIP GaAs/GaAsAl. This result has shown that the dependence of the AME field on intensity of the EMF is nonlinearly and it is many distinct maxima in the quantized magnetic region. We also compared received fields with those for normal bulk semiconductors, quantum well and quantum wire to show the difference. The influence of an EMF on AME field in a RQWIP is newly developed.
Keywords: Rectangular quantum wire, acoustomagnetoelectric field, electron-phonon interaction, kinetic equation method.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1233
31 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane
Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah
Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.
Keywords: Bioelectricity, chemical oxygen demand, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starch.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1130
30 A Modern Review of the Spintronic Technology: Fundamentals, Materials, Devices, Circuits, Challenges, and Current Research Trends
Authors: Muhibul Haque Bhuyan
Spintronic, also termed spin electronics or spin transport electronics, is a kind of new technology, which exploits the two fundamental degrees of freedom- spin-state and charge-state of electrons to enhance the operational speed for the data storage and transfer efficiency of the device. Thus, it seems an encouraging technology to combat most of the prevailing complications in orthodox electron-based devices. This novel technology possesses the capacity to mix the semiconductor microelectronics and magnetic devices’ functionalities into one integrated circuit. Traditional semiconductor microelectronic devices use only the electronic charge to process the information based on binary numbers, 0 and 1. Due to the incessant shrinking of the transistor size, we are reaching the final limit of 1 nm or so. At this stage, the fabrication and other device operational processes will become challenging as the quantum effect comes into play. In this situation, we should find an alternative future technology, and spintronic may be such technology to transfer and store information. This review article provides a detailed discussion of the spintronic technology: fundamentals, materials, devices, circuits, challenges, and current research trends. At first, the fundamentals of spintronics technology are discussed. Then types, properties, and other issues of the spintronic materials are presented. After that, fabrication and working principles, as well as application areas and advantages/disadvantages of spintronic devices and circuits, are explained. Finally, the current challenges, current research areas, and prospects of spintronic technology are highlighted. This is a new paradigm of electronic cum magnetic devices built on the charge and spin of the electrons. Modern engineering and technological advances in search of new materials for this technology give us hope that this would be a very optimistic technology in the upcoming days.
Keywords: Spintronic technology, spin, charge, magnetic devices, spintronic devices, spintronic materials.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 438
29 Quantum Ion Acoustic Solitary and Shock Waves in Dissipative Warm Plasma with Fermi Electron and Positron
Authors: Hamid Reza Pakzad
Abstract:Ion-acoustic solitary and shock waves in dense quantum plasmas whose constituents are electrons, positrons, and positive ions are investigated. We assume that ion velocity is weakly relativistic and also the effects of kinematic viscosity among the plasma constituents is considered. By using the reductive perturbation method, the Korteweg–deVries–Burger (KdV-B) equation is derived.
Keywords: Ion acoustic shock waves; Quantum plasmasProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1614
28 Source Optimisation of Laser-Plasma Bremmstrahlung for Applications in Engineering Imaging
Authors: R.J. Clarke, D. Neely, S. Blake, D.C. Carroll, J.S. Green, R. Heathcote, M. Notley
Abstract:High Power Lasers produce an intense burst of Bremmstrahlung radiation which has potential applications in broadband x-ray radiography. Since the radiation produced is through the interaction of accelerated electrons with the remaining laser target, these bursts are extremely short – in the region of a few ps. As a result, the laser-produced x-rays are capable of imaging complex dynamic objects with zero motion blur.
Keywords: Bremmstrahlung, Imaging, Laser, Plasma, Radiography, x-ray.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1580
27 Preparation and Characterization of CuFe2O4/TiO2 Photocatalyst for the Conversion of CO2 into Methanol under Visible Light
Authors: Md. Maksudur Rahman Khan, M. Rahim Uddin, Hamidah Abdullah, Kaykobad Md. Rezaul Karim, Abu Yousuf, Chin Kui Cheng, Huei Ruey Ong
A systematic study was conducted to explore the photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into methanol on TiO2 loaded copper ferrite (CuFe2O4) photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. The phases and crystallite size of the photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and it indicates CuFe2O4 as tetragonal phase incorporation with anatase TiO2 in CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The XRD results confirmed the formation of spinel type tetragonal CuFe2O4 phases along with predominantly anatase phase of TiO2 in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. UV-Vis absorption spectrum suggested the formation of the hetero-junction with relatively lower band gap than that of TiO2. Photoluminescence (PL) technique was used to study the electron–hole (e−/h+) recombination process. PL spectra analysis confirmed the slow-down of the recombination of electron–hole (e−/h+) pairs in the CuFe2O4/TiO2 hetero-structure. The photocatalytic performance of CuFe2O4/TiO2 was evaluated based on the methanol yield with varying amount of TiO2 over CuFe2O4 (0.5:1, 1:1, and 2:1) and changing light intensity. The mechanism of the photocatalysis was proposed based on the fact that the predominant species of CO2 in aqueous phase were dissolved CO2 and HCO3- at pH ~5.9. It was evident that the CuFe2O4 could harvest the electrons under visible light irradiation, which could further be injected to the conduction band of TiO2 to increase the life time of the electron and facilitating the reactions of CO2 to methanol. The developed catalyst showed good recycle ability up to four cycles where the loss of activity was ~25%. Methanol was observed as the main product over CuFe2O4, but loading with TiO2 remarkably increased the methanol yield. Methanol yield over CuFe2O4/TiO2 was found to be about three times higher (651 μmol/gcat L) than that of CuFe2O4 photocatalyst. This occurs because the energy of the band excited electrons lies above the redox potentials of the reaction products CO2/CH3OH.
Keywords: Photocatalysis, CuFe2O4/TiO2, band-gap energy, methanol.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1922
26 Solar Cell Degradation by Electron Irradiation Effect of Irradiation Fluence
Authors: H. Mazouz, A. Belghachi, F. Hadjaj
Solar cells used in orbit are exposed to radiation environment mainly protons and high energy electrons. These particles degrade the output parameters of the solar cell. The aim of this work is to characterize the effects of electron irradiation fluence on the J (V) characteristic and output parameters of GaAs solar cell by numerical simulation. The results obtained demonstrate that the electron irradiation-induced degradation of performances of the cells concerns mainly the short circuit current
Keywords: GaAs solar cell, 1MeV electron irradiation, irradiation fluence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3634
25 Instability of Electron Plasma Waves in an Electron-Hole Bounded Quantum Dusty Plasma
Authors: Basudev Ghosh, Sailendranath Paul, Sreyasi Banerjee
Using quantum hydrodynamical (QHD) model the linear dispersion relation for the electron plasma waves propagating in a cylindrical waveguide filled with a dense plasma containing streaming electron, hole and stationary charged dust particles has been derived. It is shown that the effect of finite boundary and stream velocity of electrons and holes make some of the possible modes of propagation linearly unstable. The growth rate of this instability is shown to depend significantly on different plasma parameters.
Keywords: Electron Plasma wave, Quantum plasma, Quantum Hydrodynamical model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1558
24 Nonlinear Solitary Structures of Electron Plasma Waves in a Finite Temperature Quantum Plasma
Authors: Swarniv Chandra, Basudev Ghosh
Abstract:Nonlinear solitary structures of electron plasma waves have been investigated by using nonlinear quantum fluid equations for electrons with an arbitrary temperature. It is shown that the electron degeneracy parameter has significant effects on the linear and nonlinear properties of electron plasma waves. Depending on its value both compressive and rarefactive solitons can be excited in the model plasma under consideration.
Keywords: Electron Plasma Waves, Finite Temperature Model, Modulational Instability, Quantum Plasma, Solitary structureProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1527
23 Introduction to Electron Spectroscopy for Surfaces Characterization
Authors: Abdelkader Benzian
Spectroscopy is the study of the spectrum produced by the radiation-matter interaction which requires the study of electromagnetic radiation (or electrons) emitted, absorbed, or scattered by matter. Thus, the spectral analysis is using spectrometers which enables us to obtain curves that express the distribution of the energy emitted (spectrum). Analysis of emission spectra can therefore constitute several methods depending on the range of radiation energy. The most common methods used are Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and Electron Energy Losses Spectroscopy (EELS), which allow the determination of the atomic structure on the surface. This paper focalized essentially on the Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy.
Keywords: Dielectric, plasmon, mean free path, spectroscopy of electron energy losses.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 531
22 Eigenvalues of Particle Bound in Single and Double Delta Function Potentials through Numerical Analysis
Authors: Edward Aris D. Fajardo, Hamdi Muhyuddin D. Barra
Abstract:This study employs the use of the fourth order Numerov scheme to determine the eigenstates and eigenvalues of particles, electrons in particular, in single and double delta function potentials. For the single delta potential, it is found that the eigenstates could only be attained by using specific potential depths. The depth of the delta potential well has a value that varies depending on the delta strength. These depths are used for each well on the double delta function potential and the eigenvalues are determined. There are two bound states found in the computation, one with a symmetric eigenstate and another one which is antisymmetric.
Keywords: Double Delta Potential, Eigenstates, Eigenvalue, Numerov Method, Single Delta PotentialProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2936
21 Vertical Micromirror Fabrication by X-ray Lithography for Single Mode Optical Fiber Switching Applications
Authors: R. Chimchang, R. Tongta, R. Phatthanakun
Abstract:Inthis paper, design and fabrication of vertical micromirror for optical switching applications of single mode optical fibers are proposed. The structure of micromirror will be created from negative photoresist (SU-8) on X-ray lithography using X-ray from synchrotron light source. The properties of X-ray from synchrotron light source are high-energy electrons which can construct materials that have a high aspect ratio. In addition, the technique of gold coating of reflective material has been used for change direction of light between two pairs of optical fibers. At a wavelength of 1310 nm with minimum average loss of 5.305 dB is obtained.
Keywords: vertical micromirror, negative photoresist, X-ray lithographyProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1497
20 Electrophysical and Thermoelectric Properties of Nano-scaled In2O3:Sn, Zn, Ga-Based Thin Films: Achievements and Limitations for Thermoelectric Applications
Authors: G. Korotcenkov, V. Brinzari, B. K. Cho
Abstract:The thermoelectric properties of nano-scaled In2O3:Sn films deposited by spray pyrolysis are considered in the present report. It is shown that multicomponent In2O3:Sn-based films are promising material for the application in thermoelectric devices. It is established that the increase in the efficiency of thermoelectric conversion at CSn~5% occurred due to nano-scaled structure of the films studied and the effect of the grain boundary filtering of the low energy electrons. There are also analyzed the limitations that may appear during such material using in devices developed for the market of thermoelectric generators and refrigerators. Studies showed that the stability of nano-scaled film’s parameters is the main problem which can limit the application of these materials in high temperature thermoelectric converters.
Keywords: Energy conversion technologies, thermoelectricity, In2O3-based films, power factor, nanocomposites, stability.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1217