Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1389

Search results for: concrete core activation

1389 Experimental Evaluation of Drilling Damage on the Strength of Cores Extracted from RC Buildings

Authors: A. Masi, A. Digrisolo, G. Santarsiero

Abstract:

Concrete strength evaluated from compression tests on cores is affected by several factors causing differences from the in-situ strength at the location from which the core specimen was extracted. Among the factors, there is the damage possibly occurring during the drilling phase that generally leads to underestimate the actual in-situ strength. In order to quantify this effect, in this study two wide datasets have been examined, including: (i) about 500 core specimens extracted from Reinforced Concrete existing structures, and (ii) about 600 cube specimens taken during the construction of new structures in the framework of routine acceptance control. The two experimental datasets have been compared in terms of compression strength and specific weight values, accounting for the main factors affecting a concrete property, that is type and amount of cement, aggregates' grading, type and maximum size of aggregates, water/cement ratio, placing and curing modality, concrete age. The results show that the magnitude of the strength reduction due to drilling damage is strongly affected by the actual properties of concrete, being inversely proportional to its strength. Therefore, the application of a single value of the correction coefficient, as generally suggested in the technical literature and in structural codes, appears inappropriate. A set of values of the drilling damage coefficient is suggested as a function of the strength obtained from compressive tests on cores.

Keywords: RC Buildings, Assessment, In-situ concrete strength, Core testing, Drilling damage.

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1388 Experimental Studies of Spiral-Confined HSCFST Columns under Uni-Axial Compression

Authors: Mianheng Lai, Johnny Ching Ming Ho, Hoat Joen Pam

Abstract:

Concrete-filled-steel-tube (CFST) columns are becoming increasingly popular owing to the superior behavior contributed by the composite action. However, this composite action cannot be fully developed because of different dilation properties between steel tube and concrete. During initial compression, there will be de-bonding between the constitutive materials. As a result, the strength, initial stiffness and ductility of CFST columns reduce significantly. To resolve this problem, external confinement in the form of spirals is proposed to improve the interface bonding. In this paper, a total of 14CFST columns with high-strength as well as ultra-high-strength concrete in-filled were fabricated and tested under uni-axial compression. From the experimental results, it can be concluded that the proposed spirals can improve the strength, initial stiffness, ductility and the interface bonding condition of CFST columns by restraining the lateral expansion of steel tube and core concrete. Moreover, the failure modes of confined core concrete change due to the strong confinement provided by spirals.

Keywords: Concrete-filled-steel-tube, confinement, failure mode, high-strength concrete, spirals.

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1387 Observation and Experience of Using Mechanically Activated Fly Ash in Concrete

Authors: R. Hela, L. Bodnarova

Abstract:

Paper focuses on experimental testing of possibilities of mechanical activation of fly ash and observation of influence of specific surface and granulometry on final properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Mechanical grinding prepared various fineness of fly ash, which was classed by specific surface in accordance with Blain and their granulometry was determined by means of laser granulometer. Then, sets of testing specimens were made from mix designs of identical composition with 25% or Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R replaced with fly ash with various specific surface and granulometry. Mix design with only Portland cement was used as reference. Mix designs were tested on consistency of fresh concrete and compressive strength after 7, 28, 60 and 90 days.

Keywords: Concrete, fly ash, latent hydraulicity, mechanically activated fly ash.

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1386 Experimental Investigation on Cold-Formed Steel Foamed Concrete Composite Wall under Compression

Authors: Zhifeng Xu, Zhongfan Chen

Abstract:

A series of tests on cold-formed steel foamed concrete (CSFC) composite walls subjected to axial load were proposed. The primary purpose of the experiments was to study the mechanical behavior and identify the failure modes of CSFC composite walls. Two main factors were considered in this study: 1) specimen with pouring foamed concrete or without and 2) different foamed concrete density ranks (corresponding to different foamed concrete strength). The interior space between two pieces of straw board of the specimen W-2 and W-3 were poured foamed concrete, and the specimen W-1 does not have foamed concrete core. The foamed concrete density rank of the specimen W-2 was A05 grade, and that of the specimen W-3 was A07 grade. Results showed that the failure mode of CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete was distortional buckling of cold-formed steel (CFS) column, and that poured foamed concrete includes the local crushing of foamed concrete and local buckling of CFS column, but the former prior to the later. Compared with CSFC composite wall without foamed concrete, the ultimate bearing capacity of spec imens poured A05 grade and A07 grade foamed concrete increased 1.6 times and 2.2 times respectively, and specimen poured foamed concrete had a low vertical deformation. According to these results, the simplified calculation formula for the CSFC wall subjected to axial load was proposed, and the calculated results from this formula are in very good agreement with the test results.

Keywords: Cold-formed steel, composite wall, foamed concrete, axial behavior test.

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1385 Evaluation of Corrosion by Impedance Spectroscopy of Embedded Steel in an Alternative Concrete Exposed to the Chloride Ion

Authors: Erika J. Ruíz, Jairo R. Cortes, Willian A. Aperador

Abstract:

In this article was evaluated the protective effect of the alternative concrete obtained from the binary mixture of fly ash, and iron and steel slag. After mixing the cement with aggregates, structural steel was inserted in the matrix cementitious. The study was conducted comparatively with specimens exposed to natural conditions free of chloride ion. The chloride ion effect on the specimens accelerated under controlled conditions (3.5% NaCl and 25°C temperature). The impedance data were acquired in a range of 1 mHz to 100 kHz.

Keywords: Alternative concrete, corrosion, alkaline activation.

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1384 Ultrasound-Assisted Pd Activation Process for Electroless Silver Plating

Authors: Chang-Myeon Lee, Min-Hyung Lee, Jin-Young Hur, Ho-Nyun Lee, Hong-Kee Lee

Abstract:

An ultrasound-assisted activation method for electroless silver plating is presented in this study. When the ultrasound was applied during the activation step, the amount of the Pd species adsorbed on substrate surfaces was higher than that of sample pretreated with a conventional activation process without ultrasound irradiation. With this activation method, it was also shown that the adsorbed Pd species with a size of about 5 nm were uniformly distributed on the surfaces, thus a smooth and uniform coating on the surfaces was obtained by subsequent electroless silver plating. The samples after each step were characterized by AFM, XPS, FIB, and SEM.

Keywords: Cavitation, Electroless silver, Pd activation, Ultrasonic

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1383 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: Concrete, Czech Republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards.

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1382 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: C. B. K.Rao, Rooban Kumar

Abstract:

Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and constituents when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Principal effects due to elevated temperatures are loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete. The experimental results of normal concrete and high strength concrete subjected elevated temperatures at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching on different grade of concrete are reported in this paper.

Keywords: High strength concrete, Normal strength concrete, Elevated Temperature, Loss of mass.

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1381 Waterproofing Agent in Concrete for Tensile Improvement

Authors: Muhamad Azani Yahya, Umi Nadiah Nor Ali, Mohammed Alias Yusof, Norazman Mohamad Nor, Vikneswaran Munikanan

Abstract:

In construction, concrete is one of the materials that can commonly be used as for structural elements. Concrete consists of cement, sand, aggregate and water. Concrete can be added with admixture in the wet condition to suit the design purpose such as to prolong the setting time to improve workability. For strength improvement, concrete is being added with other hybrid materials to increase strength; this is because the tensile strength of concrete is very low in comparison to the compressive strength. This paper shows the usage of a waterproofing agent in concrete to enhance the tensile strength. High tensile concrete is expensive because the concrete mix needs fiber and also high cement content to be incorporated in the mix. High tensile concrete being used for structures that are being imposed by high impact dynamic load such as blast loading that hit the structure. High tensile concrete can be defined as a concrete mix design that achieved 30%-40% tensile strength compared to its compression strength. This research evaluates the usage of a waterproofing agent in a concrete mix as an element of reinforcement to enhance the tensile strength. According to the compression and tensile test, it shows that the concrete mix with a waterproofing agent enhanced the mechanical properties of the concrete. It is also show that the composite concrete with waterproofing is a high tensile concrete; this is because of the tensile is between 30% and 40% of the compression strength. This mix is economical because it can produce high tensile concrete with low cost.

Keywords: High tensile concrete, waterproofing agent, concrete, rheology.

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1380 Reinforced Concrete, Problems and Solutions: A Literature Review

Authors: Omar Alhamad, Waleed Eid

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete is a concrete lined with steel so that the materials work together in the resistance forces. Reinforcement rods or mesh are used for tensile, shear, and sometimes intense pressure in a concrete structure. Reinforced concrete is subject to many natural problems or industrial errors. The result of these problems is that it reduces the efficiency of the reinforced concrete or its usefulness. Some of these problems are cracks, earthquakes, high temperatures or fires, as well as corrosion of reinforced iron inside reinforced concrete. There are also factors of ancient buildings or monuments that require some techniques to preserve them. This research presents some general information about reinforced concrete, the pros and cons of reinforced concrete, and then presents a series of literary studies of some of the late published researches on the subject of reinforced concrete and how to preserve it, propose solutions or treatments for the treatment of reinforced concrete problems, raise efficiency and quality for a longer period. These studies have provided advanced and modern methods and techniques in the field of reinforced concrete.

Keywords: Reinforced concrete, treatment, concrete, corrosion, seismic, cracks.

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1379 Wood Ashes from Electrostatic Filter as a Replacement for the Fly Ashes in Concrete

Authors: Piotr-Robert Lazik, Harald Garrecht

Abstract:

Many concrete technologists are looking for a solution to replace Fly Ashes that would be unavailable in a few years as an element that occurs as a major component of many types of concrete. The importance of such component is clear - it saves cement and reduces the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that occurs during cement production. Wood Ashes from electrostatic filter can be used as a valuable substitute in concrete. The laboratory investigations showed that the wood ash concrete had a compressive strength comparable to coal fly ash concrete. These results indicate that wood ash can be used to manufacture normal concrete.

Keywords: Wood ashes, fly ashes, electric filter, replacement, concrete technology.

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1378 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: Polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain.

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1377 Prospective Use of Rice Husk Ash to Produce Concrete in India

Authors: Kalyan Kumar Moulick

Abstract:

In this paper, the author studied the possibilities of using Rice Husk Ash (RHA) available in India; to produce concrete. Experiments conducted with RHA obtained from West Bengal, India; to replace cement partially to produce concrete of grade M10, M15, M20, M25 and M30. The concrete produced in the laboratory by replacing cement by 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% RHA. Compressive strength tests carried out to determine the strength of concrete. Cost analysis and comparison done to show the cost effectiveness of RHA Concrete. Traditional uses of Rice Husk in India pointed out and the advantages of using RHA in making concrete highlighted. Suggestion provided regarding prospective application of RHA concrete in India; which in turn will definitely reduce the cost of concrete and environmental friendly due to utilization of waste and replacement of Cement.

Keywords: Cement replacement, Concrete, Environmental friendly, Rice Husk Ash.

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1376 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: Carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete.

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1375 Design of Low-Area HEVC Core Transform Architecture

Authors: Seung-Mok Han, Woo-Jin Nam, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes and implements an core transform architecture, which is one of the major processes in HEVC video compression standard. The proposed core transform architecture is implemented with only adders and shifters instead of area-consuming multipliers. Shifters in the proposed core transform architecture are implemented in wires and multiplexers, which significantly reduces chip area. Also, it can process from 4×4 to 16×16 blocks with common hardware by reusing processing elements. Designed core transform architecture in 0.13um technology can process a 16×16 block with 2-D transform in 130 cycles, and its gate count is 101,015 gates.

Keywords: HEVC, Core transform, Low area, Shift-and-add, PE reuse

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1374 A Study on Bond Strength of Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Rama Seshu Doguparti

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental investigation on the bond behavior of geo polymer concrete. The bond behavior of geo polymer concrete cubes of grade M35 reinforced with 16 mm TMT rod is analyzed. The results indicate that the bond performance of reinforced geo polymer concrete is good and thus proves its application for construction.

Keywords: Geo polymer, Concrete, Bond Strength, Behaviour.

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1373 Repair of Concrete Structures with SCC

Authors: F. Kharchi, M. Benhadji, O. Bouksani

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to study the influence of the properties of the substrate on the retrofit (thin repair) of damaged concrete elements, with the SCC. Fluidity, principal characteristic of the SCC, would enable it to cover and adhere to the concrete to be repaired. Two aspects of repair are considered, the bond (Adhesion) and the tensile strength and the cracking. The investigation is experimental; It was conducted over test specimens made up of ordinary concrete prepared and hardened in advance (the material to be repaired) over which a self compacting concrete layer is cast. Three alternatives of SC concrete and one ordinary concrete (comparison) were tested. It appears that the self-compacting concrete constitutes a good material for repairing. It follows perfectly the surfaces- forms to be repaired and allows a perfect bond. Fracture tests made on specimens of self-compacting concrete show a brittle behaviour. However when a small percentage of fibres is added, the resistance to cracking is very much improve.

Keywords: Adhesion, concrete, experimental, repair, self-compacting.

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1372 A Review on Concrete Structures in Fire

Authors: S. Iffat, B. Bose

Abstract:

Concrete as a construction material is versatile because it displays high degree of fire-resistance. Concrete’s inherent ability to combat one of the most devastating disaster that a structure can endure in its lifetime, can be attributed to its constituent materials which make it inert and have relatively poor thermal conductivity. However, concrete structures must be designed for fire effects. Structural components should be able to withstand dead and live loads without undergoing collapse. The properties of high-strength concrete must be weighed against concerns about its fire resistance and susceptibility to spalling at elevated temperatures. In this paper, the causes, effects and some remedy of deterioration in concrete due to fire hazard will be discussed. Some cost effective solutions to produce a fire resistant concrete will be conversed through this paper.

Keywords: Concrete, fire, spalling, temperature, compressive strength, density.

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1371 Local Buckling of Web-Core and Foam-Core Sandwich Panels

Authors: Ali N. Suri, Ahmad A. Al-Makhlufi

Abstract:

Sandwich construction is widely accepted as a method of construction especially in the aircraft industry. It is a type of stressed skin construction formed by bonding two thin faces to a thick core, the faces resist all of the applied edge loads and provide all or nearly all of the required rigidities, the core spaces the faces to increase cross section moment of inertia about common neutral axis and transmit shear between them provides a perfect bond between core and faces is made.

Material for face sheets can be of metal or reinforced plastics laminates, core material can be metallic cores of thin sheets forming corrugation or honeycomb, or non metallic core of Balsa wood, plastic foams, or honeycomb made of reinforced plastics.

For in plane axial loading web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels can fail by local buckling of plates forming the cross section with buckling wave length of the order of length of spacing between webs.

In this study local buckling of web core and web-foam core Sandwich panels is carried out for given materials of facing and core, and given panel overall dimension for different combinations of cross section geometries.

The Finite Strip Method is used for the analysis, and Fortran based computer program is developed and used.

Keywords: Local Buckling, Finite Strip, Sandwich panels, Web and foam core.

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1370 Substitution of Natural Aggregates by Crushed Concrete Waste in Concrete Products Manufacturing

Authors: Jozef Junak, Nadezda Stevulova

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to the use of different types of industrial wastes in concrete production. From examined waste (crushed concrete waste) our tested concrete samples with dimension 150 mm were prepared. In these samples, fractions 4/8 mm and 8/16 mm by recycled concrete aggregate with a range of variation from 0 to 100% were replaced. Experiment samples were tested for compressive strength after 2, 7, 14 and 28 days of hardening. From obtained results it is evident that all samples prepared with washed recycled concrete aggregates met the requirement of standard for compressive strength of 20 MPa already after 14 days of hardening. Sample prepared with recycled concrete aggregates (4/8 mm: 100% and 8/16 mm: 60%) reached 101% of compressive strength value (34.7 MPa) after 28 days of hardening in comparison with the reference sample (34.4 MPa). The lowest strength after 28 days of hardening (27.42 MPa) was obtained for sample consisting of recycled concrete in proportion of 40% for 4/8 fraction and 100% for 8/16 fraction of recycled concrete.

Keywords: Recycled concrete aggregate, re-use, workability, compressive strength.

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1369 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek

Abstract:

In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: Vibrations and noise, transformer, vibration measurements, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic.

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1368 Possibilities of Utilization Zeolite in Concrete

Authors: M. Sedlmajer, J. Zach, J. Hroudová, P. Rovnaníková

Abstract:

There are several possibilities of reducing the required amount of cement in concrete production. Natural zeolite is one of the raw materials which can partly substitute Portland cement. The effort to reduce the amount of Portland cement used in concrete production is brings both economical as well as ecological benefits. The paper presents the properties of concrete containing natural zeolite as an active admixture in the concrete which partly substitutes Portland cement. The properties discussed here bring information about the basic mechanical properties and frost resistance of concrete containing zeolite. The properties of concretes with the admixture of zeolite are compared with a reference concrete with no content of zeolite. The properties of the individual concretes are observed for 360 days.

Keywords: Concrete, zeolite, compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, durability.

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1367 Modelling of Composite Steel and Concrete Beam with the Lightweight Concrete Slab

Authors: V. Přivřelová

Abstract:

Well-designed composite steel and concrete structures highlight the good material properties and lower the deficiencies of steel and concrete, in particular they make use of high tensile strength of steel and high stiffness of concrete. The most common composite steel and concrete structure is a simply supported beam, which concrete slab transferring the slab load to a beam is connected to the steel cross-section. The aim of this paper is to find the most adequate numerical model of a simply supported composite beam with the cross-sectional and material parameters based on the results of a processed parametric study and numerical analysis. The paper also evaluates the suitability of using compact concrete with the lightweight aggregates for composite steel and concrete beams. The most adequate numerical model will be used in the resent future to compare the results of laboratory tests.

Keywords: Composite beams, high-performance concrete, highstrength steel, lightweight concrete slab, modeling.

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1366 Using Waste Marbles in Self Compacting Lightweight Concrete

Authors: Z. Funda Türkmenoğlu, Mehmet Türkmenoglu, Demet Yavuz,

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of waste marbles as aggregate material on workability and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concrete are investigated. For this purpose, self compacting light weight concrete are produced by waste marble aggregates are replaced with fine aggregate at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% ratios. Fresh concrete properties, slump flow, T50 time, V funnel, compressive strength and ultrasonic pulse velocity of self compacting lightweight concrete are determined. It is concluded from the test results that using waste marbles as aggregate material by replacement with fine aggregate slightly affects fresh and hardened concrete characteristics of self compacting lightweight concretes.

Keywords: Hardened concrete characteristics, self compacting lightweight concrete, waste marble, workability.

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1365 Strength of Fine Concrete Used in Textile Reinforced Concrete by Changing Water-Binder Ratio

Authors: Taekyun Kim, Jongho Park, Jinwoong Choi, Sun-Kyu Park

Abstract:

Recently, the abnormal climate phenomenon has enlarged due to the global warming. As a result, temperature variation is increasing and the term is being prolonged, frequency of high and low temperature is increasing by heat wave and severe cold. Especially for reinforced concrete structure, the corrosion of reinforcement has occurred by concrete crack due to temperature change and the durability of the structure that has decreased by concrete crack. Accordingly, the textile reinforced concrete (TRC) which does not corrode due to using textile is getting the interest and the investigation of TRC is proceeding. The study of TRC structure behavior has proceeded, but the characteristic study of the concrete used in TRC is insufficient. Therefore, characteristic of the concrete by changing mixing ratio is studied in this paper. As a result, mixing ratio with different water-binder ratio has influenced to the strength of concrete. Also, as the water-binder ratio has decreased, strength of concrete has increased.

Keywords: Concrete, mixing ratio, textile, TRC.

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1364 An Analytical Study of FRP-Concrete Bridge Superstructures

Authors: Wael I. Alnahhal

Abstract:

It is a major challenge to build a bridge superstructure that has long-term durability and low maintenance requirements. A solution to this challenge may be to use new materials or to implement new structural systems. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites have continued to play an important role in solving some of persistent problems in infrastructure applications because of its high specific strength, light weight, and durability. In this study, the concept of the hybrid FRP-concrete structural systems is applied to a bridge superstructure. The hybrid FRP-concrete bridge superstructure is intended to have durable, structurally sound, and cost effective hybrid system that will take full advantage of the inherent properties of both FRP materials and concrete. In this study, two hybrid FRP-concrete bridge systems were investigated. The first system consists of trapezoidal cell units forming a bridge superstructure. The second one is formed by arch cells. The two systems rely on using cellular components to form the core of the bridge superstructure, and an outer shell to warp around those cells to form the integral unit of the bridge. Both systems were investigated analytically by using finite element (FE) analysis. From the rigorous FE studies, it was concluded that first system is more efficient than the second.

Keywords: Bridge superstructure, hybrid system, fiber reinforced polymer, finite element analysis.

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1363 Use of Recycled Aggregates in Current Concretes

Authors: K. Krizova, R. Hela

Abstract:

The paper a summary of the results of concretes with partial substitution of natural aggregates with recycled concrete is solved. Design formulas of the concretes were characterised with 20, 40 and 60% substitution of natural 8-16mm fraction aggregates with a selected recycled concrete of analogous coarse fractions. With the product samples an evaluation of coarse fraction aggregates influence on fresh concrete consistency and concrete strength in time was carried out. The results of concretes with aggregates substitution will be compared to reference formula containing only the fractions of natural aggregates.

Keywords: Recycled concrete, natural aggregates, fresh concrete, properties of concrete.

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1362 Shrinkage of High Strength Concrete

Authors: S.M. Gupta, V.K. Sehgal, S.K. Kaushik

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the shrinkage of High Strength Concrete. High Strength Concrete is made by partially replacement of cement by flyash and silica fume. The shrinkage of High Strength Concrete has been studied using the different types of coarse and fine aggregates i.e. Sandstone and Granite of 12.5 mm size and Yamuna and Badarpur Sand. The Mix proportion of concrete is 1:0.8:2.2 with water cement ratio as 0.30. Superplasticizer dose @ of 2% by weight of cement is added to achieve the required degree of workability in terms of compaction factor. From the test results of the above investigation it can be concluded that the shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete increases with age. The shrinkage strain of concrete with replacement of cement by 10% of Flyash and Silica fume respectively at various ages are more (6 to 10%) than the shrinkage strain of concrete without Flyash and Silica fume. The shrinkage strain of concrete with Badarpur sand as Fine aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (10%) than that of concrete with Yamuna Sand. Further, the shrinkage strain of concrete with Granite as Coarse aggregate at 90 days is slightly less (6 to 7%) than that of concrete with Sand stone as aggregate of same size. The shrinkage strain of High Strength Concrete is also compared with that of normal strength concrete. Test results show that the shrinkage strain of high strength concrete is less than that of normal strength concrete.

Keywords: Shrinkage high strength concrete, fly ash, silica fume& superplastizers.

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1361 High Performance Computing Using Out-of- Core Sparse Direct Solvers

Authors: Mandhapati P. Raju, Siddhartha Khaitan

Abstract:

In-core memory requirement is a bottleneck in solving large three dimensional Navier-Stokes finite element problem formulations using sparse direct solvers. Out-of-core solution strategy is a viable alternative to reduce the in-core memory requirements while solving large scale problems. This study evaluates the performance of various out-of-core sequential solvers based on multifrontal or supernodal techniques in the context of finite element formulations for three dimensional problems on a Windows platform. Here three different solvers, HSL_MA78, MUMPS and PARDISO are compared. The performance of these solvers is evaluated on a 64-bit machine with 16GB RAM for finite element formulation of flow through a rectangular channel. It is observed that using out-of-core PARDISO solver, relatively large problems can be solved. The implementation of Newton and modified Newton's iteration is also discussed.

Keywords: Out-of-core, PARDISO, MUMPS, Newton.

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1360 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen

Abstract:

The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures for grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increase and decrease with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increase in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increase in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: Nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume.

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