Search results for: Charge fluctuations
297 Ion- Acoustic Solitary Waves in a Self- Gravitating Dusty Plasma Having Two-Temperature Electrons
Authors: S.N.Paul, G.Pakira, B.Paul, B.Ghosh
Abstract:Nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in a selfgravitating dusty plasma consisting of warm positive ions, isothermal two-temperature electrons and negatively charged dust particles having charge fluctuations is studied using the reductive perturbation method. It is shown that the nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic waves in such plasma can be described by an uncoupled third order partial differential equation which is a modified form of the usual Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation. From this nonlinear equation, a new type of solution for the ion-acoustic wave is obtained. The effects of two-temperature electrons, gravity and dust charge fluctuations on the ion-acoustic solitary waves are discussed with possible applications.
Keywords: Charge fluctuations, gravitating dusty plasma, Ionacoustic solitary wave, Two-temperature electronsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1926
296 Fluctuations of Transfer Factor of the Mixer Based on Schottky Diode
Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Arkady V. Yakimov, Mikhail I. Ryzhkin, Andrey V. Klyuev
Abstract:Fluctuations of Schottky diode parameters in a structure of the mixer are investigated. These fluctuations are manifested in two ways. At the first, they lead to fluctuations in the transfer factor that is lead to the amplitude fluctuations in the signal of intermediate frequency. On the basis of the measurement data of 1/f noise of the diode at forward current, the estimation of a spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer is executed. Current dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer and dependence of the spectrum of relative fluctuations in transfer factor of the mixer on the amplitude of the heterodyne signal are investigated. At the second, fluctuations in parameters of the diode lead to occurrence of 1/f noise in the output signal of the mixer. This noise limits the sensitivity of the mixer to the value of received signal.
Keywords: Current-voltage characteristic, fluctuations, mixer, Schottky diode, 1/f noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1651
295 Charge-Pump with a Regulated Cascode Circuit for Reducing Current Mismatch in PLLs
Authors: Jae Hyung Noh, Hang Geun Jeong
The charge-pump circuit is an important component in a phase-locked loop (PLL). The charge-pump converts Up and Down signals from the phase/frequency detector (PFD) into current. A conventional CMOS charge-pump circuit consists of two switched current sources that pump charge into or out of the loop filter according to two logical inputs. The mismatch between the charging current and the discharging current causes phase offset and reference spurs in a PLL. We propose a new charge-pump circuit to reduce the current mismatch by using a regulated cascode circuit. The proposed charge-pump circuit is designed and simulated by spectre with TSMC 0.18-μm 1.8-V CMOS technology.
Keywords: Phase-locked loop (PLL), charge-pump, phase/frequency detector (PFD), regulated cascode.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3792
294 Understanding Charge Dynamics in Elastomers Adopting Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) Technique
Authors: R. Sarathi, M. G. Danikas, Y. Chen, T. Tanaka
Abstract:In the present work, Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) technique was adopted to understand the space charge dynamics in elastomeric material. It is observed that the polarity of the applied DC voltage voltage and its magnitude alters the space charge dynamics in insulation structure. It is also noticed that any addition of compound to the base material/processing technique have characteristic variation in the space charge injection process. It could be concluded based on the present work that the plasticizer could inject heterocharges into the insulation medium. Also it is realized that space charge magnitude is less with the addition of plasticizer. In the PEA studies, it is observed that local electric field in the insulating material can be much more than applied electric field due to space charge formation. One of the important conclusions arrived at based on PEA technique is that one could understand the safe operating electric field of an insulation material and the charge trap sites.
Keywords: Pulsed electro acoustic technique, space charge, DCvoltage, elastomers, Electric field, high voltage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1311
293 Effective Charge Coupling in Low Dimensional Doped Quantum Antiferromagnets
Authors: Suraka Bhattacharjee, Ranjan Chaudhury
Abstract:The interaction between the charge degrees of freedom for itinerant antiferromagnets is investigated in terms of generalized charge stiffness constant corresponding to nearest neighbour t-J model and t1-t2-t3-J model. The low dimensional hole doped antiferromagnets are the well known systems that can be described by the t-J-like models. Accordingly, we have used these models to investigate the fermionic pairing possibilities and the coupling between the itinerant charge degrees of freedom. A detailed comparison between spin and charge couplings highlights that the charge and spin couplings show very similar behaviour in the over-doped region, whereas, they show completely different trends in the lower doping regimes. Moreover, a qualitative equivalence between generalized charge stiffness and effective Coulomb interaction is also established based on the comparisons with other theoretical and experimental results. Thus it is obvious that the enhanced possibility of fermionic pairing is inherent in the reduction of Coulomb repulsion with increase in doping concentration. However, the increased possibility can not give rise to pairing without the presence of any other pair producing mechanism outside the t-J model. Therefore, one can conclude that the t-J-like models themselves solely are not capable of producing conventional momentum-based superconducting pairing on their own.
Keywords: Generalized charge stiffness constant, charge coupling, effective Coulomb interaction, t-J-like models, momentum-space pairing.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 465
292 Wall Pressure Fluctuations in Naturally Developing Boundary Layer Flows on Axisymmetric Bodies
Authors: Chinsuk Hong
Abstract:This paper investigates the characteristics of wall pressure fluctuations in naturally developing boundary layer flows on axisymmetric bodies experimentally. The axisymmetric body has a modified ellipsoidal blunt nose. Flush-mounted microphones are used to measure the wall pressure fluctuations in the boundary layer flow over the body. The measurements are performed in a low noise wind tunnel. It is found that the correlation between the flow regime and the characteristics of the pressure fluctuations is distinct. The process from small fluctuation in laminar flow to large fluctuation in turbulent flow is investigated. Tollmien-Schlichting wave (T-S wave) is found to generate and develop in transition. Because of the T-S wave, the wall pressure fluctuations in the transition region are higher than those in the turbulent boundary layer.
Keywords: Wall Pressure Fluctuation, Boundary Layer Flow, Transition, Turbulent Flow, Axisymmetric Body, Flow Noise.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1546
291 Pressure Induced Isenthalpic Oscillations with Condensation and Evaporation in Saturated Two-Phase Fluids
Authors: Joel V. Madison, Hans E. Kimmel
Abstract:Saturated two-phase fluid flows are often subject to pressure induced oscillations. Due to compressibility the vapor bubbles act as a spring with an asymmetric non-linear characteristic. The volume of the vapor bubbles increases or decreases differently if the pressure fluctuations are compressing or expanding; consequently, compressing pressure fluctuations in a two-phase pipe flow cause less displacement in the direction of the pipe flow than expanding pressure fluctuations. The displacement depends on the ratio of liquid to vapor, the ratio of pressure fluctuations over average pressure and on the exciting frequency of the pressure fluctuations. In addition, pressure fluctuations in saturated vapor bubbles cause condensation and evaporation within the bubbles and change periodically the ratio between liquid to vapor, and influence the dynamical parameters for the oscillation. The oscillations are conforming to an isenthalpic process at constant enthalpy with no heat transfer and no exchange of work. The paper describes the governing non-linear equation for twophase fluid oscillations with condensation and evaporation, and presents steady state approximate solutions for free and for pressure induced oscillations. Resonance criteria and stability are discussed.
Keywords: condensation, evaporation, non-linear oscillations, pressure induced, two-phase flowProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1383
290 Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation of a Full Scale CANDU Reactor Moderator to Study Temperature Fluctuations
Authors: A. Sarchami, N. Ashgriz, M. Kwee
Threedimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and Transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified.Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities.
Keywords: Bruce, Fluctuations, Numerical, Temperature, Thermal hydraulicsProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1816
289 The Influence of Disturbances Generated by Arc Furnaces on the Power Quality
Authors: Z. Olczykowski
The paper presents the impact of work on the electric arc furnace. Arc equipment is one of the largest receivers powered by the power system. Electric arc disturbances arising during melting process occurring in these furnaces are the cause of an abrupt change of the passive power of furnaces. Currents drawn by these devices undergo an abrupt change, which in turn cause voltage fluctuations and light flicker. The quantitative evaluation of the voltage fluctuations is now the basic criterion of assessment of an influence of unquiet receiver on the supplying net. The paper presents the method of determination of range of voltage fluctuations and light flicker at parallel operation of arc devices. The results of measurements of voltage fluctuations and light flicker indicators recorded in power supply networks of steelworks were presented, with different number of parallel arc devices. Measurements of energy quality parameters were aimed at verifying the proposed method in practice. It was also analyzed changes in other parameters of electricity: the content of higher harmonics, asymmetry, voltage dips.
Keywords: Power quality, arc furnaces, propagation of voltage fluctuations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 580
288 Design of High Gain, High Bandwidth Op-Amp for Reduction of Mismatch Currents in Charge Pump PLL in 180 nm CMOS Technology
Authors: R .H. Talwekar, S. S Limaye
Abstract:The designing of charge pump with high gain Op- Amp is a challenging task for getting faithful response .Design of high performance phase locked loop require ,a design of high performance charge pump .We have designed a operational amplifier for reducing the error caused by high speed glitch in a transistor and mismatch currents . A separate Op-Amp has designed in 180 nm CMOS technology by CADENCE VIRTUOSO tool. This paper describes the design of high performance charge pump for GHz CMOS PLL targeting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) application. A high speed low power consumption Op-Amp with more than 500 MHz bandwidth has designed for increasing the speed of charge pump in Phase locked loop.
Keywords: Charge pump (CP) Orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (OFDM), Phase locked loop (PLL), Phase frequencydetector (PFD), Voltage controlled oscillator (VCO),Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3276
287 Space Charge Distribution in 22 kV XLPE Insulated Cable by Using Pulse Electroacoustic Measurement Technique
Authors: N. Ruangkajonmathee, R. Thiamsri, B. Marungsri
This paper presents the experimental results on space charge distribution in cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) insulating material for 22 kV power distribution system cable by using pulse electroacoustic measurement technique (PEA). Numbers of XLPE insulating material ribbon having thickness 60 μm taken from unused 22 kV high voltage cable were used as specimen in this study. DC electric field stress was applied to test specimen at room temperature (25°C). Four levels of electric field stress, 25 kV/mm, 50 kV/mm, 75 kV/mm and 100 kV/mm, were used. In order to investigate space charge distribution characteristic, space charge distribution characteristics were measured after applying electric field stress 15 min, 30 min and 60 min, respectively. The results show that applied time and magnitude of dc electric field stress play an important role to the formation of space charge.
Keywords: Space charge distribution, pulsed electroacoustic(PEA) technique, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), DC electrical fields stress.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3156
286 Effect of Non Uniformity Factors and Assignment Factors on Errors in Charge Simulation Method with Point Charge Model
Authors: Gururaj S Punekar, N K Kishore Senior, H S Y Shastry
Charge Simulation Method (CSM) is one of the very widely used numerical field computation technique in High Voltage (HV) engineering. The high voltage fields of varying non uniformities are encountered in practice. CSM programs being case specific, the simulation accuracies heavily depend on the user (programmers) experience. Here is an effort to understand CSM errors and evolve some guidelines to setup accurate CSM models, relating non uniformities with assignment factors. The results are for the six-point-charge model of sphere-plane gap geometry. Using genetic algorithm (GA) as tool, optimum assignment factors at different non uniformity factors for this model have been evaluated and analyzed. It is shown that the symmetrically placed six-point-charge models can be good enough to set up CSM programs with potential errors less than 0.1% when the field non uniformity factor is greater than 2.64 (field utilization factor less than 52.76%).
Keywords: Assignment factor, Charge Simulation Method, High Voltage, Numerical field computation, Non uniformity factor, Simulation errors.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1899
285 Reduction of Peak Input Currents during Charge Pump Boosting in Monolithically Integrated High-Voltage Generators
Authors: Jan Doutreloigne
Abstract:This paper describes two methods for the reduction of the peak input current during the boosting of Dickson charge pumps. Both methods are implemented in the fully integrated Dickson charge pumps of a high-voltage display driver chip for smart-card applications. Experimental results reveal good correspondence with Spice simulations and show a reduction of the peak input current by a factor of 6 during boosting.
Keywords: Bi-stable display driver, Dickson charge pump, highvoltage generator, peak current reduction, sub-pump boosting, variable frequency boosting.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1481
284 Simulation and Realization of a Battery Charge Regulator
Authors: B. Nasri, M. Bensaada
Abstract:We present a simulation and realization of a battery charge regulator (BCR) in microsatellite earth observation. The tests were performed on battery pack 12volt, capacity 24Ah and the solar array open circuit voltage of 100 volt and optimum power of about 250 watt. The battery charge is made by solar module. The principle is to adapt the output voltage of the solar module to the battery by using the technique of pulse width modulation (PWM). Among the different techniques of charge battery, we opted for the technique of the controller ON/OFF is a standard technique and simple, it-s easy to be board executed validation will be made by simulation "Proteus Isis Professional software ". The circuit and the program of this prototype are based on the PIC16F877 microcontroller, a serial interface connecting a PC is also realized, to view and save data and graphics in real time, for visualization of data and graphs we develop an interface tool “visual basic.net (VB)--.
Keywords: Battery Charge Regulator, Batteries, Buck converter, Power System, Power Conditioning, Power Distribution, Solar arrays.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3084
283 Breaking of Charge Independence of Nucleon-Nucleon Interaction Using Phase Shift Calculations
Authors: B. Rezaei, N. Amiri, N. Azizi
Using calculated phase- shift values, for pp, nn, and np elastic scattering in the energy range 1MeV to 350MeV, the charge independence breaking of nucleon-nucleon interaction is investigated. We have used Darboux transformation to calculate phase-shift for the first three values of
Keywords: Phase-shift, charge independence breaking, Darboux transformation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1415
282 Fractal Analysis on Human Colonic Pressure Activities based on the Box-counting Method
Authors: Rongguo Yan, Guozheng Yan, Banghua Yang
Abstract:The colonic tissue is a complicated dynamic system and the colonic activities it generates are composed of irregular segmental waves, which are referred to as erratic fluctuations or spikes. They are also highly irregular with subunit fractal structure. The traditional time-frequency domain statistics like the averaged amplitude, the motility index and the power spectrum, etc. are insufficient to describe such fluctuations. Thus the fractal box-counting dimension is proposed and the fractal scaling behaviors of the human colonic pressure activities under the physiological conditions are studied. It is shown that the dimension of the resting activity is smaller than that of the normal one, whereas the clipped version, which corresponds to the activity of the constipation patient, shows with higher fractal dimension. It may indicate a practical application to assess the colonic motility, which is often indicated by the colonic pressure activity.
Keywords: Colonic pressure activity, erratic fluctuations, fractal dimension and spikes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1387
281 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation
Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev
We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.
Keywords: Irradiation, Primary Defects, Interaction, Fluctuations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1606
280 A Low Voltage High Linearity CMOS Gilbert Cell Using Charge Injection Method
Authors: Raheleh Hedayati, Sanaz Haddadian, Hooman Nabovati
Abstract:A 2.4GHz (RF) down conversion Gilbert Cell mixer, implemented in a 0.18-μm CMOS technology with a 1.8V supply, is presented. Current bleeding (charge injection) technique has been used to increase the conversion gain and the linearity of the mixer. The proposed mixer provides 10.75 dB conversion gain ( C G ) with 14.3mw total power consumption. The IIP3 and 1-dB compression point of the mixer are 8dbm and -4.6dbm respectively, at 300 MHz IF frequencies. Comparing the current design against the conventional mixer design, demonstrates better performance in the conversion gain, linearity, noise figure and port-to-port isolation.
Keywords: Mixer, Gilbert Cell, Charge Injection, RFIC, CMOSTechnology.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4143
279 Influence of Raw Material Composition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron
Authors: Alan Vaško, Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of raw material composition on the microstructure, mechanical and fatigue properties and micromechanisms of failure of nodular cast iron. In order to evaluate the influence of charge composition, the structural analysis, mechanical and fatigue tests and microfractographic analysis were carried out on specimens of ten melts with different charge compositions. The basic charge of individual melts was formed by different ratio of pig iron and steel scrap and by different additive for regulation of chemical composition (silicon carbide or ferrosilicon). The results show differences in mechanical and fatigue properties, which are connected with the microstructure. SiC additive positively influences microstructure. Consequently, mechanical and fatigue properties of nodular cast iron are improved, especially in the melts with higher ratio of steel scrap in the charge.
Keywords: Nodular cast iron, silicon carbide, microstructure, mechanical properties.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
278 Optimum Signal-to-noise Ratio Performance of Electron Multiplying Charge Coupled Devices
Authors: Wen W. Zhang, Qian Chen
Electron multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCDs) have revolutionized the world of low light imaging by introducing on-chip multiplication gain based on the impact ionization effect in the silicon. They combine the sub-electron readout noise with high frame rates. Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) is an important performance parameter for low-light-level imaging systems. This work investigates the SNR performance of an EMCCD operated in Non-inverted Mode (NIMO) and Inverted Mode (IMO). The theory of noise characteristics and operation modes is presented. The results show that the SNR of is determined by dark current and clock induced charge at high gain level. The optimum SNR performance is provided by an EMCCD operated in NIMO in short exposure and strong cooling applications. In contrast, an IMO EMCCD is preferable.
Keywords: electron multiplying charge coupled devices, noise characteristics, operation modes, signal-to-noise ratioperformanceProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2027
277 Despiking of Turbulent Flow Data in Gravel Bed Stream
Authors: Ratul Das
The present experimental study insights the decontamination of instantaneous velocity fluctuations captured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) in gravel-bed streams to ascertain near-bed turbulence for low Reynolds number. The interference between incidental and reflected pulses produce spikes in the ADV data especially in the near-bed flow zone and therefore filtering the data are very essential. Nortek’s Vectrino four-receiver ADV probe was used to capture the instantaneous three-dimensional velocity fluctuations over a non-cohesive bed. A spike removal algorithm based on the acceleration threshold method was applied to note the bed roughness and its influence on velocity fluctuations and velocity power spectra in the carrier fluid. The velocity power spectra of despiked signals with a best combination of velocity threshold (VT) and acceleration threshold (AT) are proposed which ascertained velocity power spectra a satisfactory fit with the Kolmogorov “–5/3 scaling-law” in the inertial sub-range. Also, velocity distributions below the roughness crest level fairly follows a third-degree polynomial series.
Keywords: Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter, gravel-bed, spike removal, Reynolds shear stress, near-bed turbulence, velocity power spectra.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1035
276 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi
Abstract:Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.
Keywords: State of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1255
275 Intelligent Off-Grid Photovoltaic Supply Systems
Authors: Prashant Kumar Soori, Parthasarathy L., Masami Okano, Awet Mana
Abstract:Off-grid Photovoltaic (PV) systems are empowering technology in underdeveloped countries like Ethiopia where many people live far away from the modern world. Where there is relatively low energy consumption, providing energy from grid systems is not commercially cost-effective. As a result, significant people groups worldwide stay without access to electricity. One remote village in northern Ethiopia was selected by the United Nations for a pilot project to improve its living conditions. As part of this comprehensive project, an intelligent charge controller circuit for Off-grid PV systems was designed for the clinic in that village. In this paper, design aspects of an intelligent charge controller unit and its load driver circuits are discussed for an efficient utilization of PVbased supply systems.
Keywords: Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL), FluorescentLamp, Intelligent Charge Controller Unit (ICCU), Light EmittingDiode (LED), Photovoltaic (PV).Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1872
274 DNA Nanowires: A Charge Transfer Approach
Authors: S. Behnia, S. Fathizadeh
Abstract:Conductivity properties of DNA molecule is investigated in a simple, but chemically specific approach that is intimately related to the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. This model is a tight-binding linear nanoscale chain. We have tried to study the electrical current flowing in DNA and investigated the characteristic I-V diagram. As a result, It is shown that there are the (quasi-) ohmic areas in I-V diagram. On the other hand, the regions with a negative differential resistance (NDR) are detectable in diagram.
Keywords: Charge transfer in DNA, Chaos theory, Molecular electronics, Negative Differential resistance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1687
273 Operation Stability Enhancement in Once-Through Micro Evaporators
Authors: Cor M. Rops, Giaco C. Oosterbaan, Cees W.M. v/d Geld
Equipment miniaturisation offers several opportunities such as an increased surface-to-volume ratio and higher heat transfer coefficients. However, moving towards small-diameter channels demands extra attention to fouling, reliability and stable operation of the system. The present investigation explores possibilities to enhance the stability of the once-through micro evaporator by reducing its flow boiling induced pressure fluctuations. Experimental comparison shows that the measured reduction factor approaches a theoretically derived value. Pressure fluctuations are reduced by a factor of ten in the solid conical channel and a factor of 15 in the porous conical channel. This presumably leads to less backflow and therefore to a better flow control.
Keywords: Flow boiling, Operation stability, Microfluidics, Microchannels.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1521
272 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Loaded Gel, Sponge Collagen to Enhance the Delivery Ability to Skin
Authors: Yi-Ping Fang, Hsien-Ting Cheng
Abstract:Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an alternative therapy for treating superficial cancer, especially for skin or oral cancer. ALA, a precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is present as zwitterions and hydrophilic property which make the low permeability through the cell membrane. Collagen is a traditional carrier; its molecular composed various amino acids which bear positive charge and negative charge. In order to utilize the ion-pairs with ALA and collagen, the study employed various pH values adjusting the net charge. The aim of this study was to compare a series collagen form, including solution, gel and sponge to investigate the topical delivery behavior of ALA. The in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study demonstrated that PpIX generation ability was different pattern after apply for 6 h. Gel type could generate high PpIX, and archived more deep of skin depth.
Keywords: 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), Collagen, Ion-pairs, Penetration behaviorProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1630
271 Sorptive Storage of Natural Gas on Molecular Sieves: Dynamic Investigation
Authors: S. Al-Asheh, K. Al-Emadi
Abstract:In recent years, there have been attempts to store natural gas in adsorptive form. This is called adsorptive natural gas, or ANG. The problem with this technology is the low sorption capacity. The purpose is to achieve compressed natural gas (CNG) capacity of 230 V/V. Further research is required to achieve such target. Several research studies have been performed with this target; through either the modification or development of new sorbents or the optimization of the operation sorption process itself. In this work, storage of methane on molecular sieves 5A and 13X was studied on dry basis, and on wet basis to certain extent. The temperature and the pressure dynamics were investigated. The results indicated that regardless of the charge pressure, the time for the peak temperature during the methane charge process is always the same. This can be used as a characteristic of the adsorbent. The total achieved deliveries using molecular sieves were much lower than that of activated carbons; 53.0 V/V for the case of 13X molecular sieves and 43 V/V for the case of 5A molecular sieves, both at 2oC and 4 MPa (580 psi). Investigation of charge pressure dynamic using wet molecular sieves at 2oC and a mass ratio of 0.5, revealed slowness of the process and unexpected behavior.
Keywords: Methane, Molecular sieves, Adsorption, Delivery, Storage.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1874
270 Exploring the Potential of Phase Change Memories as an Alternative to DRAM Technology
Authors: Venkataraman Krishnaswami, Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan
Abstract:Scalability poses a severe threat to the existing DRAM technology. The capacitors that are used for storing and sensing charge in DRAM are generally not scaled beyond 42nm. This is because; the capacitors must be sufficiently large for reliable sensing and charge storage mechanism. This leaves DRAM memory scaling in jeopardy, as charge sensing and storage mechanisms become extremely difficult. In this paper we provide an overview of the potential and the possibilities of using Phase Change Memory (PCM) as an alternative for the existing DRAM technology. The main challenges that we encounter in using PCM are, the limited endurance, high access latencies, and higher dynamic energy consumption than that of the conventional DRAM. We then provide an overview of various methods, which can be employed to overcome these drawbacks. Hybrid memories involving both PCM and DRAM can be used, to achieve good tradeoffs in access latency and storage density. We conclude by presenting, the results of these methods that makes PCM a potential replacement for the current DRAM technology.
Keywords: DRAM, Phase Change Memory.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1870
269 Modeling and Analysis of DFIG Based Wind Power System Using Instantaneous Power Components
Authors: Jaimala Gambhir, Tilak Thakur, Puneet Chawla
Abstract:As per the statistical data, the Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind turbine with variable speed and variable pitch control is the most common wind turbine in the growing wind market. This machine is usually used on the grid connected wind energy conversion system to satisfy grid code requirements such as grid stability, Fault Ride Through (FRT), power quality improvement, grid synchronization and power control etc. Though the requirements are not fulfilled directly by the machine, the control strategy is used in both the stator as well as rotor side along with power electronic converters to fulfil the requirements stated above. To satisfy the grid code requirements of wind turbine, usually grid side converter is playing a major role. So in order to improve the operation capacity of wind turbine under critical situation, the intensive study of both machine side converter control and grid side converter control is necessary In this paper DFIG is modeled using power components as variables and the performance of the DFIG system is analysed under grid voltage fluctuations. The voltage fluctuations are made by lowering and raising the voltage values in the utility grid intentionally for the purpose of simulation keeping in view of different grid disturbances.
Keywords: DFIG, dynamic modeling, DPC, sag, swell, voltage fluctuations, FRT.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2171
268 Investigations on the Influence of Optimized Charge Air Cooling for a Diesel Passenger Car
Authors: Christian Doppler, Gernot Hirschl, Gerhard Zsiga
Starting in 2020, an EU-wide CO2-limitation of 95 g/km is scheduled for the average of an OEMs passenger car fleet. Taking that into consideration additional improvement measures of the Diesel cycle are necessary in order to reduce fuel consumption and emissions while boosting, or at the least, keeping performance values at the same time. The present article deals with the possibilities of an optimized air/water charge air cooler, also called iCAC (indirect Charge Air Cooler) for a Diesel passenger car amongst extreme-boundary conditions. In this context, the precise objective was to show the impact of improved intercooling with reference to the engine working process (fuel consumption and NOx-emissions). Several extremeboundaries - e.g. varying ambient temperatures or mountainous routes - that will become very important in the near future regarding RDE (Real Driving emissions) were subject of the investigation. With the introduction of RDE in 2017 (EU6c measure), the controversial NEDC (New European Driving Cycle) will belong to the past and the OEMs will have to avoid harmful emissions in any conceivable real life situation. This is certainly going to lead to optimization-measurements at the powertrain, which again is going to make the implementation of iCACs, presently solely used for the premium class, more and more attractive for compact class cars. The investigations showed a benefit in FC between 1 and 3% for the iCAC in real world conditions.
Keywords: Air/Water-Charge Air Cooler, Co-Simulation, Diesel Working Process, EURO VI Fuel Consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2789