Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 163

Search results for: speed.

163 A Study on the Power Control of Wind Energy Conversion System

Authors: Mehdi Nafar, Mohammad Reza Mansouri

Abstract:

The present research presents a direct active and reactive power control (DPC) of a wind energy conversion system (WECS) for the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) based on a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) connected to electric power grid. The control strategy of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is targeted in extracting a maximum of power under fluctuating wind speed. A fuzzy logic speed controller (FLC) has been used to ensure the MPPT. The Grid Side Converter is directed in a way to ensure sinusoidal current in the grid side and a smooth DC voltage. To reduce fluctuations, rotor torque and voltage use of multilevel inverters is a good way to remove the rotor harmony.

Keywords: DFIG, power quality improvement, wind energy conversion system, WECS, fuzzy logic, RSC, GSC, inverter.

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162 Machinability Analysis in Drilling Flax Fiber-Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bio-Composite Laminates

Authors: Amirhossein Lotfi, Huaizhong Li, Dzung Viet Dao

Abstract:

Interest in natural fiber-reinforced composites (NFRC) is progressively growing both in terms of academia research and industrial applications thanks to their abundant advantages such as low cost, biodegradability, eco-friendly nature and relatively good mechanical properties. However, their widespread use is still presumed as challenging because of the specificity of their non-homogeneous structure, limited knowledge on their machinability characteristics and parameter settings, to avoid defects associated with the machining process. The present work is aimed to investigate the effect of the cutting tool geometry and material on the drilling-induced delamination, thrust force and hole quality produced when drilling a fully biodegradable flax/poly (lactic acid) composite laminate. Three drills with different geometries and material were used at different drilling conditions to evaluate the machinability of the fabricated composites. The experimental results indicated that the choice of cutting tool, in terms of material and geometry, has a noticeable influence on the cutting thrust force and subsequently drilling-induced damages. The lower value of thrust force and better hole quality was observed using high-speed steel (HSS) drill, whereas Carbide drill (with point angle of 130o) resulted in the highest value of thrust force. Carbide drill presented higher wear resistance and stability in variation of thrust force with a number of holes drilled, while HSS drill showed the lower value of thrust force during the drilling process. Finally, within the selected cutting range, the delamination damage increased noticeably with feed rate and moderately with spindle speed.

Keywords: Natural fiber-reinforced composites, machinability, thrust force, delamination.

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161 Investigation of Chip Formation Characteristics during Surface Finishing of HDPE Samples

Authors: M. S. Kaiser, S. Reaz Ahmed

Abstract:

Chip formation characteristics are investigated during surface finishing of high density polyethylene (HDPE) samples using a shaper machine. Both the cutting speed and depth of cut are varied continually to enable observations under various machining conditions. The generated chips are analyzed in terms of their shape, size, and deformation. Their physical appearances are also observed using digital camera and optical microscope. The investigation shows that continuous chips are obtained for all the cutting conditions. It is observed that cutting speed is more influential than depth of cut to cause dimensional changes of chips. Chips curl radius is also found to increase gradually with the increase of cutting speed. The length of continuous chips remains always smaller than the job length, and the corresponding discrepancies are found to be more prominent at lower cutting speed. Microstructures of the chips reveal that cracks are formed at higher cutting speeds and depth of cuts, which is not that significant at low depth of cut.

Keywords: HDPE, surface-finishing, chip formation, deformation, roughness.

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160 Effects of Humidity and Silica Sand Particles on Vibration Generation by Friction Materials of Automotive Brake System

Authors: Mostafa M. Makrahy, Nouby M. Ghazaly, G. T. Abd el-Jaber

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental study of vibration generated by friction materials of an automotive disc brake system using brake test rig. Effects of silica sand particles which are available on the road surface as an environmental condition with a size varied from 150 μm to 600 μm are evaluated. Also, the vibration of the brake disc is examined against the friction material in humidity environment conditions under variable rotational speed. The experimental results showed that the silica sand particles have significant contribution on the value of vibration amplitude which enhances with increasing the size of silica sand particles at different speed conditions. Also, it is noticed that the friction material is sensitive to humidity and the vibration magnitude increases under wet testing conditions. Moreover, it can be reported that with increasing the applied pressure and rotational speed of the braking system, the vibration amplitudes decrease for all cases.

Keywords: Friction material, silica sand particles, humidity environment, vibration of brake.

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159 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, number of blades, vibration amplitude, renewable energy.

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158 Design Optimization of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Performance by Differential Evolution

Authors: Mamidi Ramakrishna Rao

Abstract:

Doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages like speed variation and four-quadrant operation, find its application in wind turbines. DFIG besides supplying power to the grid has to support reactive power (kvar) under grid voltage variations, should contribute minimum fault current during faults, have high efficiency, minimum weight, adequate rotor protection during crow-bar-operation from +20% to -20% of rated speed.  To achieve the optimum performance, a good electromagnetic design of DFIG is required. In this paper, a simple and heuristic global optimization – Differential Evolution has been used. Variables considered are lamination details such as slot dimensions, stack diameters, air gap length, and generator stator and rotor stack length. Two operating conditions have been considered - voltage and speed variations. Constraints included were reactive power supplied to the grid and limiting fault current and torque. The optimization has been executed separately for three objective functions - maximum efficiency, weight reduction, and grid fault stator currents. Subsequent calculations led to the conclusion that designs determined through differential evolution help in determining an optimum electrical design for each objective function.

Keywords: Design optimization, performance, doubly fed induction generators, DFIG, differential evolution.

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157 Design of a Satellite Solar Panel Deployment Mechanism Using the Brushed DC Motor as Rotational Speed Damper

Authors: Hossein Ramezani Ali-Akbari

Abstract:

This paper presents an innovative method to control the rotational speed of a satellite solar panel during its deployment phase. A brushed DC motor has been utilized in the passive spring driven deployment mechanism to reduce the deployment speed. In order to use the DC motor as a damper, its connector terminals have been connected with an external resistance in a closed circuit. It means that, in this approach, there is no external power supply in the circuit. The working principle of this method is based on the back electromotive force (or back EMF) of the DC motor when an external torque (here the torque produced by the torsional springs) is coupled to the DC motor’s shaft. In fact, the DC motor converts to an electric generator and the current flows into the circuit and then produces the back EMF. Based on Lenz’s law, the generated current produced a torque which acts opposite to the applied external torque, and as a result, the deployment speed of the solar panel decreases. The main advantage of this method is to set an intended damping coefficient to the system via changing the external resistance. To produce the sufficient current, a gearbox has been assembled to the DC motor which magnifies the number of turns experienced by the DC motor. The coupled electro-mechanical equations of the system have been derived and solved, then, the obtained results have been presented. A full-scale prototype of the deployment mechanism has been built and tested. The potential application of brushed DC motors as a rotational speed damper has been successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: Back electromotive force, brushed DC motor, rotational speed damper, satellite solar panel deployment mechanism.

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156 SEM-EBSD Observation for Microtubes by Using Dieless Drawing Process

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Itaru Kumisawa

Abstract:

Because die drawing requires insertion of a die, a plug, or a mandrel, higher precision and efficiency are demanded for drawing equipment for a tube having smaller diameter. Manufacturing of such tubes is also accompanied by problems such as cracking and fracture. We specifically examine dieless drawing, which is less affected by these drawing-related difficulties. This deformation process is governed by a similar principle to that of reduction in diameter when pulling a heated glass tube. We conducted dieless drawing of SUS304 stainless steel microtubes under various conditions with three factor parameters of heating temperature, area reduction, and drawing speed. We used SEM-EBSD to observe the processing condition effects on microstructural elements. As the result of this study, crystallographic orientation of microtube is clear by using SEM-EBSD analysis.

Keywords: Microtube, dieless drawing, IPF, inverse pole figure, GOS, grain orientation spread, crystallographic analysis.

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155 Analysis of the Operational Performance of Three Unconventional Arterial Intersection Designs: Median U-Turn, Superstreet and Single Quadrant

Authors: Hana Naghawi, Khair Jadaan, Rabab Al-Louzi, Taqwa Hadidi

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to evaluate and compare the operational performance of three Unconventional Arterial Intersection Designs (UAIDs) including Median U-Turn, Superstreet, and Single Quadrant Intersection using real traffic data. For this purpose, the heavily congested signalized intersection of Wadi Saqra in Amman was selected. The effect of implementing each of the proposed UAIDs was not only evaluated on the isolated Wadi Saqra signalized intersection, but also on the arterial road including both surrounding intersections. The operational performance of the isolated intersection was based on the level of service (LOS) expressed in terms of control delay and volume to capacity ratio. On the other hand, the measures used to evaluate the operational performance on the arterial road included traffic progression, stopped delay per vehicle, number of stops and the travel speed. The analysis was performed using SYNCHRO 8 microscopic software. The simulation results showed that all three selected UAIDs outperformed the conventional intersection design in terms of control delay but only the Single Quadrant Intersection design improved the main intersection LOS from F to B. Also, the results indicated that the Single Quadrant Intersection design resulted in an increase in average travel speed by 52%, and a decrease in the average stopped delay by 34% on the selected corridor when compared to the corridor with conventional intersection design. On basis of these results, it can be concluded that the Median U-Turn and the Superstreet do not perform the best under heavy traffic volumes.

Keywords: Median U-turn, single quadrant, superstreet, unconventional arterial intersection design.

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154 Forecasting of Scaffolding Work Comfort Parameters Based on Data from Meteorological Stations

Authors: I. Szer, J. Szer, M. Pieńko, A. Robak, P. Jamińska-Gadomska

Abstract:

Work at height, such as construction works on scaffoldings, is associated with a considerable risk. Scaffolding workers are usually exposed to changing weather conditions what can additionally increase the risk of dangerous situations. Therefore, it is very important to foresee the risk of adverse conditions to which the worker may be exposed. The data from meteorological stations may be used to asses this risk. However, the dependency between weather conditions on a scaffolding and in the vicinity of meteorological station, should be determined. The paper presents an analysis of two selected environmental parameters which have influence on the behavior of workers – air temperature and wind speed. Measurements of these parameters were made between April and November of 2016 on ten scaffoldings located in different parts of Poland. They were compared with the results taken from the meteorological stations located closest to the studied scaffolding. The results gathered from the construction sites and meteorological stations were not the same, but statistical analyses have shown that they were correlated.

Keywords: Scaffoldings, health and safety at work, temperature, wind speed.

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153 Determination of Safety Distance Around Gas Pipelines Using Numerical Methods

Authors: Omid Adibi, Nategheh Najafpour, Bijan Farhanieh, Hossein Afshin

Abstract:

Energy transmission pipelines are one of the most vital parts of each country which several strict laws have been conducted to enhance the safety of these lines and their vicinity. One of these laws is the safety distance around high pressure gas pipelines. Safety distance refers to the minimum distance from the pipeline where people and equipment do not confront with serious damages. In the present study, safety distance around high pressure gas transmission pipelines were determined by using numerical methods. For this purpose, gas leakages from cracked pipeline and created jet fires were simulated as continuous ignition, three dimensional, unsteady and turbulent cases. Numerical simulations were based on finite volume method and turbulence of flow was considered using k-ω SST model. Also, the combustion of natural gas and air mixture was applied using the eddy dissipation method. The results show that, due to the high pressure difference between pipeline and environment, flow chocks in the cracked area and velocity of the exhausted gas reaches to sound speed. Also, analysis of the incident radiation results shows that safety distances around 42 inches high pressure natural gas pipeline based on 5 and 15 kW/m2 criteria are 205 and 272 meters, respectively.

Keywords: Gas pipelines, incident radiation, numerical simulation, safety distance.

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152 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: Aerodynamic, coefficient, cruise, improving, longitudinal, OpenVSP, solver, time.

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151 Numerical Modeling of Wave Run-Up in Shallow Water Flows Using Moving Wet/Dry Interfaces

Authors: Alia Alghosoun, Michael Herty, Mohammed Seaid

Abstract:

We present a new class of numerical techniques to solve shallow water flows over dry areas including run-up. Many recent investigations on wave run-up in coastal areas are based on the well-known shallow water equations. Numerical simulations have also performed to understand the effects of several factors on tsunami wave impact and run-up in the presence of coastal areas. In all these simulations the shallow water equations are solved in entire domain including dry areas and special treatments are used for numerical solution of singularities at these dry regions. In the present study we propose a new method to deal with these difficulties by reformulating the shallow water equations into a new system to be solved only in the wetted domain. The system is obtained by a change in the coordinates leading to a set of equations in a moving domain for which the wet/dry interface is the reconstructed using the wave speed. To solve the new system we present a finite volume method of Lax-Friedrich type along with a modified method of characteristics. The method is well-balanced and accurately resolves dam-break problems over dry areas.

Keywords: Run-up waves, Shallow water equations, finite volume method, wet/dry interface, dam-break problem.

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150 Experimental Investigation of Hydrogen Addition in the Intake Air of Compressed Engines Running on Biodiesel Blend

Authors: Hendrick Maxil Zárate Rocha, Ricardo da Silva Pereira, Manoel Fernandes Martins Nogueira, Carlos R. Pereira Belchior, Maria Emilia de Lima Tostes

Abstract:

This study investigates experimentally the effects of hydrogen addition in the intake manifold of a diesel generator operating with a 7% biodiesel-diesel oil blend (B7). An experimental apparatus setup was used to conduct performance and emissions tests in a single cylinder, air cooled diesel engine. This setup consisted of a generator set connected to a wirewound resistor load bank that was used to vary engine load. In addition, a flowmeter was used to determine hydrogen volumetric flowrate and a digital anemometer coupled with an air box to measure air flowrate. Furthermore, a digital precision electronic scale was used to measure engine fuel consumption and a gas analyzer was used to determine exhaust gas composition and exhaust gas temperature. A thermopar was installed near the exhaust collection to measure cylinder temperature. In-cylinder pressure was measured using an AVL Indumicro data acquisition system with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. An AVL optical encoder was installed in the crankshaft and synchronized with in-cylinder pressure in real time. The experimental procedure consisted of injecting hydrogen into the engine intake manifold at different mass concentrations of 2,6,8 and 10% of total fuel mass (B7 + hydrogen), which represented energy fractions of 5,15, 20 and 24% of total fuel energy respectively. Due to hydrogen addition, the total amount of fuel energy introduced increased and the generators fuel injection governor prevented any increases of engine speed. Several conclusions can be stated from the test results. A reduction in specific fuel consumption as a function of hydrogen concentration increase was noted. Likewise, carbon dioxide emissions (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) decreased as hydrogen concentration increased. On the other hand, nitrogen oxides emissions (NOx) increased due to average temperatures inside the cylinder being higher. There was also an increase in peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate inside the cylinder, since the fuel ignition delay was smaller due to hydrogen content increase. All this indicates that hydrogen promotes faster combustion and higher heat release rates and can be an important additive to all kind of fuels used in diesel generators.

Keywords: Diesel engine, hydrogen, dual fuel, combustion analysis, performance, emissions.

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149 Variation of Quality of Roller-Compacted Concrete Based on Consistency

Authors: C. Chhorn, S. H. Han, S. W. Lee

Abstract:

Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) has been used for decades in many pavement applications due to its economic cost and high construction speed. However, due to the lack of deep researches and experiences, this material has not been widely employed. An RCC mixture with appropriate consistency can induce high compacted density, while high density can induce good aggregate interlock and high strength. Consistency of RCC is mainly known to define its constructability. However, it was not well specified how this property may affect other properties of a constructed RCC pavement (RCCP). This study suggested the possibility of an ideal range of consistency that may provide adequate quality of RCCP. In this research, five sections of RCCP consisted of both 13 mm and 19 mm aggregate sections were investigated. The effects of consistency on compacted depth, strength, international roughness index (IRI), skid resistance are examined. From this study, a new range of consistency is suggested for RCCP application.

Keywords: Compacted depth, consistency, international roughness index, pavement, roller-compacted concrete, skid resistance, strength.

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148 Resilience Assessment for Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Berna Eren Tokgoz, Mahdi Safa, Seokyon Hwang

Abstract:

Power distribution systems are essential and crucial infrastructures for the development and maintenance of a sustainable society. These systems are extremely vulnerable to various types of natural and man-made disasters. The assessment of resilience focuses on preparedness and mitigation actions under pre-disaster conditions. It also concentrates on response and recovery actions under post-disaster situations. The aim of this study is to present a methodology to assess the resilience of electric power distribution poles against wind-related events. The proposed methodology can improve the accuracy and rapidity of the evaluation of the conditions and the assessment of the resilience of poles. The methodology provides a metric for the evaluation of the resilience of poles under pre-disaster and post-disaster conditions. The metric was developed using mathematical expressions for physical forces that involve various variables, such as physical dimensions of the pole, the inclination of the pole, and wind speed. A three-dimensional imaging technology (photogrammetry) was used to determine the inclination of poles. Based on expert opinion, the proposed metric was used to define zones to visualize resilience. Visual representation of resilience is helpful for decision makers to prioritize their resources before and after experiencing a wind-related disaster. Multiple electric poles in the City of Beaumont, TX were used in a case study to evaluate the proposed methodology.  

Keywords: Photogrammetry, power distribution systems, resilience metric, system resilience, wind-related disasters.

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147 Process Optimisation for Internal Cylindrical Rough Turning of Nickel Alloy 625 Weld Overlay

Authors: Lydia Chan, Islam Shyha, Dale Dreyer, John Hamilton, Phil Hackney

Abstract:

Nickel-based superalloys are generally known to be difficult to cut due to their strength, low thermal conductivity, and high work hardening tendency. Superalloy such as alloy 625 is often used in the oil and gas industry as a surfacing material to provide wear and corrosion resistance to components. The material is typically applied onto a metallic substrate through weld overlay cladding, an arc welding technique. Cladded surfaces are always rugged and carry a tough skin; this creates further difficulties to the machining process. The present work utilised design of experiment to optimise the internal cylindrical rough turning for weld overlay surfaces. An L27 orthogonal array was used to assess effects of the four selected key process variables: cutting insert, depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed. The optimal cutting conditions were determined based on productivity and the level of tool wear.

Keywords: Cylindrical turning, nickel superalloy, turning of overlay, weld overlay.

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146 Improvement of Ventilation and Thermal Comfort Using the Atrium Design for Traditional Folk Houses-Fujian Earthen Building

Authors: Ying-Ming Su

Abstract:

Fujian earthen building which was known as a classic for ecological buildings was listed on the world heritage in 2008 (UNESCO) in China. Its design strategy can be applied to modern architecture planning and design. This study chose two different cases (Round Atrium: Er-Yi Building, Double Round Atrium: Zhen-Chen Building) of earthen building in Fu-Jian to compare the ventilation effects of different atrium forms. We adopt field measurements and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of temperature, humidity, and wind environment to identify the relationship between external environment and atrium about comfort and to confirm the relationship about atrium H/W (height/width). Results indicate that, through the atrium convection effect, it makes the natural wind guides to each space surrounded and keeps indoor comfort. It illustrates that the smaller the ratio of the H/W which is the relationship between the height and the width of an atrium is, the greater the wind speed generated within the street valley. Moreover, the wind speed is very close to the reference wind speed. This field measurement verifies that the value of H/W has great influence of solar radiation heat and sunshine shadows. The ventilation efficiency is: Er-Yi Building (H/W =0.2778) > Zhen-Chen Building (H/W=0.3670). Comparing the cases with the same shape but with different H/W, through the different size patios, airflow revolves in the atriums and can be brought into each interior space. The atrium settings meet the need of building ventilation, and can adjust the humidity and temperature within the buildings. It also creates good ventilation effect.

Keywords: Traditional folk houses, Atrium, Earthen building, Ventilation, Building microclimate, PET.

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145 Problem Solving in Chilean Higher Education: Figurations Prior in Interpretations of Cartesian Graphs

Authors: Verónica Díaz

Abstract:

A Cartesian graph, as a mathematical object, becomes a tool for configuration of change. Its best comprehension is done through everyday life problem-solving associated with its representation. Despite this, the current educational framework favors general graphs, without consideration of their argumentation. Students are required to find the mathematical function without associating it to the development of graphical language. This research describes the use made by students of configurations made prior to Cartesian graphs with regards to an everyday life problem related to a time and distance variation phenomenon. The theoretical framework describes the function conditions of study and their modeling. This is a qualitative, descriptive study involving six undergraduate case studies that were carried out during the first term in 2016 at University of Los Lagos. The research problem concerned the graphic modeling of a real person’s movement phenomenon, and two levels of analysis were identified. The first level aims to identify local and global graph interpretations; a second level describes the iconicity and referentiality degree of an image. According to the results, students were able to draw no figures before the Cartesian graph, highlighting the need for students to represent the context and the movement of which causes the phenomenon change. From this, they managed Cartesian graphs representing changes in position, therefore, achieved an overall view of the graph. However, the local view only indicates specific events in the problem situation, using graphic and verbal expressions to represent movement. This view does not enable us to identify what happens on the graph when the movement characteristics change based on possible paths in the person’s walking speed.

Keywords: Cartesian graphs, higher education, movement modeling, problem solving.

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144 Design and Development of On-Line, On-Site, In-Situ Induction Motor Performance Analyser

Authors: G. S. Ayyappan, Srinivas Kota, Jaffer R. C. Sheriff, C. Prakash Chandra Joshua

Abstract:

In the present scenario of energy crises, energy conservation in the electrical machines is very important in the industries. In order to conserve energy, one needs to monitor the performance of an induction motor on-site and in-situ. The instruments available for this purpose are very meager and very expensive. This paper deals with the design and development of induction motor performance analyser on-line, on-site, and in-situ. The system measures only few electrical input parameters like input voltage, line current, power factor, frequency, powers, and motor shaft speed. These measured data are coupled to name plate details and compute the operating efficiency of induction motor. This system employs the method of computing motor losses with the help of equivalent circuit parameters. The equivalent circuit parameters of the concerned motor are estimated using the developed algorithm at any load conditions and stored in the system memory. The developed instrument is a reliable, accurate, compact, rugged, and cost-effective one. This portable instrument could be used as a handy tool to study the performance of both slip ring and cage induction motors. During the analysis, the data can be stored in SD Memory card and one can perform various analyses like load vs. efficiency, torque vs. speed characteristics, etc. With the help of the developed instrument, one can operate the motor around its Best Operating Point (BOP). Continuous monitoring of the motor efficiency could lead to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of motors. LCA helps in taking decisions on motor replacement or retaining or refurbishment.

Keywords: Energy conservation, equivalent circuit parameters, induction motor efficiency, life cycle assessment, motor performance analysis.

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143 An Experimental Investigation on the Amount of Drag Force of Sand on a Cone Moving at Low Uniform Speed

Authors: M. Jahanandish, Gh. Sadeghian, M. H. Daneshvar, M. H. Jahanandish

Abstract:

The amount of resistance of a particular medium like soil to the moving objects is the interest of many areas in science. These include soil mechanics, geotechnical engineering, powder mechanics etc. Knowledge of drag force is also used for estimating the amount of momentum of fired objects like bullets. This paper focuses on measurement of drag force of sand on a cone when it moves at a low constant speed. A 30-degree apex angle cone has been used for this purpose. The study consisted of both loose and dense conditions of the soil. The applied speed has been in the range of 0.1 to 10 mm/min. The results indicate that the required force is basically independent of the cone speed; but, it is very dependent on the material densification and confining stress.

Keywords: Drag force, sand, moving speed, friction angle, densification, confining stress.

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142 C-LNRD: A Cross-Layered Neighbor Route Discovery for Effective Packet Communication in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: K. Kalaikumar, E. Baburaj

Abstract:

One of the problems to be addressed in wireless sensor networks is the issues related to cross layer communication. Cross layer architecture shares the information across the layer, ensuring Quality of Services (QoS). With this shared information, MAC protocol adapts effective functionality maintenance such as route selection on changeable sensor network environment. However, time slot assignment and neighbour route selection time duration for cross layer have not been carried out. The time varying physical layer communication over cross layer causes high traffic load in the sensor network. Though, the traffic load was reduced using cross layer optimization procedure, the computational cost is high. To improve communication efficacy in the sensor network, a self-determined time slot based Cross-Layered Neighbour Route Discovery (C-LNRD) method is presented in this paper. In the presented work, the initial process is to discover the route in the sensor network using Dynamic Source Routing based Medium Access Control (MAC) sub layers. This process considers MAC layer operation with dynamic route neighbour table discovery. Then, the discovered route path for packet communication employs Broad Route Distributed Time Slot Assignment method on Cross-Layered Sensor Network system. Broad Route means time slotting on varying length of the route paths. During packet communication in this sensor network, transmission of packets is adjusted over the different time with varying ranges for controlling the traffic rate. Finally, Rayleigh fading model is developed in C-LNRD to identify the performance of the sensor network communication structure. The main task of Rayleigh Fading is to measure the power level of each communication under MAC sub layer. The minimized power level helps to easily reduce the computational cost of packet communication in the sensor network. Experiments are conducted on factors such as power factor, on packet communication, neighbour route discovery time, and information (i.e., packet) propagation speed.

Keywords: Medium access control, neighbour route discovery, wireless sensor network, Rayleigh fading, distributed time slot assignment

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141 Fabrication, Testing and Machinability Evaluation of Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

Authors: S. S. Panda, Arkesh Chouhan, Yogesh Deshpande

Abstract:

The present paper deals with designing and fabricating an apparatus for the speedy and accurate manufacturing of fiber reinforced composite lamina of different orientation, thickness and stacking sequences for testing. Properties derived through an analytical approach are verified through measuring the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile strength, flexural modulus and flexural strength of the samples. The 00 orientation ply looks stiffer compared to the 900 ply. Similarly, the flexural strength of 00 ply is higher than to the 900 ply. Sample machinability has been studied by conducting numbers of drilling based on Taguchi Design experiments. Multi Responses (Delamination and Damage grading) is obtained using the desirability approach and optimum cutting condition (spindle speed, feed and drill diameter), at which responses are minimized is obtained thereafter. Delamination increases nonlinearly with the increase in spindle speed. Similarly, the influence of the drill diameter on delamination is higher than the spindle speed and feed rate.

Keywords: Delamination, FRP composite, multi response optimization, Taguchi design.

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140 High Performance of Direct Torque and Flux Control of a Double Stator Induction Motor Drive with a Fuzzy Stator Resistance Estimator

Authors: K. Kouzi

Abstract:

In order to have stable and high performance of direct torque and flux control (DTFC) of double star induction motor drive (DSIM), proper on-line adaptation of the stator resistance is very important. This is inevitably due to the variation of the stator resistance during operating conditions, which introduces error in estimated flux position and the magnitude of the stator flux. Error in the estimated stator flux deteriorates the performance of the DTFC drive. Also, the effect of error in estimation is very important especially at low speed. Due to this, our aim is to overcome the sensitivity of the DTFC to the stator resistance variation by proposing on-line fuzzy estimation stator resistance. The fuzzy estimation method is based on an on-line stator resistance correction through the variations of the stator current estimation error and its variations. The fuzzy logic controller gives the future stator resistance increment at the output. The main advantage of the suggested algorithm control is to avoid the drive instability that may occur in certain situations and ensure the tracking of the actual stator resistance. The validity of the technique and the improvement of the whole system performance are proved by the results.

Keywords: Direct torque control, dual stator induction motor, fuzzy logic estimation, stator resistance adaptation.

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139 Degree of Hydrolysis of Proteinaceous Components of Porang Flour Using Papain

Authors: Fadilah Fadilah, Rochmadi Rochmadi, Siti Syamsiah, Djagal W. Marseno

Abstract:

Glucomannan can be found in the tuber of porang together with starch and proteinaceous components which were regarded as impurities. An enzymatic process for obtaining higher glucomannan content from Porang flour have been conducted. Papain was used for hydrolysing proteinaceous components in Porang flour which was conducted after a simultaneous extraction of glucomannan and enzymatic starch hydrolysis. Three variables affecting the rate were studied, i.e. temperature, the amount of enzyme and the stirring speed. The ninhydrin method was used to determine degree of protein hydrolysis. Results showed that the rising of degree of hydrolysis were fast in the first ten minutes of the reaction and then proceeded slowly afterward. The optimum temperature for hydrolysis was 60 oC. Increasing the amount of enzyme showed a remarkable effect to degree of hydrolysis, but the stirring speed had no significant effect. This indicated that the reaction controlled the rate of hydrolysis.

Keywords: Degree of hydrolysis, ninhydrin, papain, porang flour, proteinaceous components.

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138 Reading Literacy and Methods of Improving Reading

Authors: Iva Košek Bartošová, Andrea Jokešová, Eva Kozlová, Helena Matějová

Abstract:

The paper presents results of a research team from Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové in the Czech Republic. It introduces with the most reading methods used in the 1st classes of a primary school and presents results of a pilot research focused on mastering reading techniques and the quality of reading comprehension of pupils in the first half of a school year during training in teaching reading by an analytic-synthetic method and by a genetic method. These methods of practicing reading skills are the most used ones in the Czech Republic. During the school year 2015/16 there has been a measurement made of two groups of pupils of the 1st year and monitoring of quantitative and qualitative parameters of reading pupils’ outputs by several methods. Both of these methods are based on different theoretical basis and each of them has a specific educational and methodical procedure. This contribution represents results during a piloting project and draws pilot conclusions which will be verified in the subsequent broader research at the end of the school year of the first class of primary school.

Keywords: Analytic-synthetic method of reading, genetic method of reading, reading comprehension, reading literacy, reading methods, reading speed.

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137 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Djebali, S. Larbi, A. Bilek

Abstract:

The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: Friction coefficients, mass loss, wear rate, bronze, polyester, graphite.

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136 Finite Element Analysis of Connecting Rod

Authors: Mohammed Mohsin Ali H., Mohamed Haneef

Abstract:

The connecting rod transmits the piston load to the crank causing the latter to turn, thus converting the reciprocating motion of the piston into a rotary motion of the crankshaft. Connecting rods are subjected to forces generated by mass and fuel combustion. This study investigates and compares the fatigue behavior of forged steel, powder forged and ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched connecting rods. The objective is to suggest for a new material with reduced weight and cost with the increased fatigue life. This has entailed performing a detailed load analysis. Therefore, this study has dealt with two subjects: first, dynamic load and stress analysis of the connecting rod, and second, optimization for material, weight and cost. In the first part of the study, the loads acting on the connecting rod as a function of time were obtained. Based on the observations of the dynamic FEA, static FEA, and the load analysis results, the load for the optimization study was selected. It is the conclusion of this study that the connecting rod can be designed and optimized under a load range comprising tensile load and compressive load. Tensile load corresponds to 360o crank angle at the maximum engine speed. The compressive load is corresponding to the peak gas pressure. Furthermore, the existing connecting rod can be replaced with a new connecting rod made of ASTM a 514 steel cold quenched that is 12% lighter and 28% cheaper.

Keywords: Connecting rod, ASTM a514 cold quenched steel, static analysis, fatigue analysis, stress life approach.

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135 Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank

Authors: S. Chikh, S. Boulifa

Abstract:

The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.

Keywords: Evaporation, liquid ammonia, storage tank, numerical simulation.

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134 Effects of Different Meteorological Variables on Reference Evapotranspiration Modeling: Application of Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Akinola Ikudayisi, Josiah Adeyemo

Abstract:

The correct estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ETₒ) is required for effective irrigation water resources planning and management. However, there are some variables that must be considered while estimating and modeling ETₒ. This study therefore determines the multivariate analysis of correlated variables involved in the estimation and modeling of ETₒ at Vaalharts irrigation scheme (VIS) in South Africa using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique. Weather and meteorological data between 1994 and 2014 were obtained both from South African Weather Service (SAWS) and Agricultural Research Council (ARC) in South Africa for this study. Average monthly data of minimum and maximum temperature (°C), rainfall (mm), relative humidity (%), and wind speed (m/s) were the inputs to the PCA-based model, while ETₒ is the output. PCA technique was adopted to extract the most important information from the dataset and also to analyze the relationship between the five variables and ETₒ. This is to determine the most significant variables affecting ETₒ estimation at VIS. From the model performances, two principal components with a variance of 82.7% were retained after the eigenvector extraction. The results of the two principal components were compared and the model output shows that minimum temperature, maximum temperature and windspeed are the most important variables in ETₒ estimation and modeling at VIS. In order words, ETₒ increases with temperature and windspeed. Other variables such as rainfall and relative humidity are less important and cannot be used to provide enough information about ETₒ estimation at VIS. The outcome of this study has helped to reduce input variable dimensionality from five to the three most significant variables in ETₒ modelling at VIS, South Africa.

Keywords: Irrigation, principal component analysis, reference evapotranspiration, Vaalharts.

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