Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 398

Search results for: signal approximation

398 Cooperative Sensing for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Julien Romieux, Fabio Verdicchio

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), which sense environmental data with battery-powered nodes, require multi-hop communication. This power-demanding task adds an extra workload that is unfairly distributed across the network. As a result, nodes run out of battery at different times: this requires an impractical individual node maintenance scheme. Therefore we investigate a new Cooperative Sensing approach that extends the WSN operational life and allows a more practical network maintenance scheme (where all nodes deplete their batteries almost at the same time). We propose a novel cooperative algorithm that derives a piecewise representation of the sensed signal while controlling approximation accuracy. Simulations show that our algorithm increases WSN operational life and spreads communication workload evenly. Results convey a counterintuitive conclusion: distributing workload fairly amongst nodes may not decrease the network power consumption and yet extend the WSN operational life. This is achieved as our cooperative approach decreases the workload of the most burdened cluster in the network.

Keywords: Cooperative signal processing, power management, signal representation, signal approximation, wireless sensor networks.

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397 Best Co-approximation and Best Simultaneous Co-approximation in Fuzzy Normed Spaces

Authors: J. Kavikumar, N. S. Manian, M.B.K. Moorthy

Abstract:

The main purpose of this paper is to consider the t-best co-approximation and t-best simultaneous co-approximation in fuzzy normed spaces. We develop the theory of t-best co-approximation and t-best simultaneous co-approximation in quotient spaces. This new concept is employed us to improve various characterisations of t-co-proximinal and t-co-Chebyshev sets.

Keywords: Fuzzy best co-approximation, fuzzy quotient spaces, proximinality, Chebyshevity, best simultaneous co-approximation.

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396 Improved Approximation to the Derivative of a Digital Signal Using Wavelet Transforms for Crosstalk Analysis

Authors: S. P. Kozaitis, R. L. Kriner

Abstract:

The information revealed by derivatives can help to better characterize digital near-end crosstalk signatures with the ultimate goal of identifying the specific aggressor signal. Unfortunately, derivatives tend to be very sensitive to even low levels of noise. In this work we approximated the derivatives of both quiet and noisy digital signals using a wavelet-based technique. The results are presented for Gaussian digital edges, IBIS Model digital edges, and digital edges in oscilloscope data captured from an actual printed circuit board. Tradeoffs between accuracy and noise immunity are presented. The results show that the wavelet technique can produce first derivative approximations that are accurate to within 5% or better, even under noisy conditions. The wavelet technique can be used to calculate the derivative of a digital signal edge when conventional methods fail.

Keywords: digital signals, electronics, IBIS model, printedcircuit board, wavelets

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395 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

Authors: Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate f as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

Keywords: Beta wavelets networks, RBF neural network, training algorithms, MSE, 1-D, 2D function approximation.

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394 On an Open Problem for Definable Subsets of Covering Approximation Spaces

Authors: Mei He, Ying Ge, Jingyu Qian

Abstract:

Let (U;D) be a Gr-covering approximation space (U; C) with covering lower approximation operator D and covering upper approximation operator D. For a subset X of U, this paper investigates the following three conditions: (1) X is a definable subset of (U;D); (2) X is an inner definable subset of (U;D); (3) X is an outer definable subset of (U;D). It is proved that if one of the above three conditions holds, then the others hold. These results give a positive answer of an open problem for definable subsets of covering approximation spaces.

Keywords: Covering approximation space, covering approximation operator, definable subset, inner definable subset, outer definable subset.

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393 Some Separations in Covering Approximation Spaces

Authors: Xun Ge, Jinjin Li, Ying Ge

Abstract:

Adopting Zakowski-s upper approximation operator C and lower approximation operator C, this paper investigates granularity-wise separations in covering approximation spaces. Some characterizations of granularity-wise separations are obtained by means of Pawlak rough sets and some relations among granularitywise separations are established, which makes it possible to research covering approximation spaces by logical methods and mathematical methods in computer science. Results of this paper give further applications of Pawlak rough set theory in pattern recognition and artificial intelligence.

Keywords: Rough set, covering approximation space, granularitywise separation.

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392 A New Method for Contour Approximation Using Basic Ramer Idea

Authors: Ali Abdrhman Ukasha

Abstract:

This paper presented two new efficient algorithms for contour approximation. The proposed algorithm is compared with Ramer (good quality), Triangle (faster) and Trapezoid (fastest) in this work; which are briefly described. Cartesian co-ordinates of an input contour are processed in such a manner that finally contours is presented by a set of selected vertices of the edge of the contour. In the paper the main idea of the analyzed procedures for contour compression is performed. For comparison, the mean square error and signal-to-noise ratio criterions are used. Computational time of analyzed methods is estimated depending on a number of numerical operations. Experimental results are obtained both in terms of image quality, compression ratios, and speed. The main advantages of the analyzed algorithm is small numbers of the arithmetic operations compared to the existing algorithms.

Keywords: Polygonal approximation, Ramer, Triangle and Trapezoid methods.

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391 Definable Subsets in Covering Approximation Spaces

Authors: Xun Ge, Zhaowen Li

Abstract:

Covering approximation spaces is a class of important generalization of approximation spaces. For a subset X of a covering approximation space (U, C), is X definable or rough? The answer of this question is uncertain, which depends on covering approximation operators endowed on (U, C). Note that there are many various covering approximation operators, which can be endowed on covering approximation spaces. This paper investigates covering approximation spaces endowed ten covering approximation operators respectively, and establishes some relations among definable subsets, inner definable subsets and outer definable subsets in covering approximation spaces, which deepens some results on definable subsets in approximation spaces.

Keywords: Covering approximation space, covering approximation operator, definable subset, inner definable subset, outer definable subset.

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390 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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389 Time Delay Estimation Using Signal Envelopes for Synchronisation of Recordings

Authors: Sergei Aleinik, Mikhail Stolbov

Abstract:

In this work, a method of time delay estimation for  dual-channel acoustic signals (speech, music, etc.) recorded under  reverberant conditions is investigated. Standard methods based on  cross-correlation of the signals show poor results in cases involving  strong reverberation, large distances between microphones and  asynchronous recordings. Under similar conditions, a method based  on cross-correlation of temporal envelopes of the signals delivers a  delay estimation of acceptable quality. This method and its properties  are described and investigated in detail, including its limits of  applicability. The method’s optimal parameter estimation and a  comparison with other known methods of time delay estimation are  also provided.

 

Keywords: Cross-correlation, delay estimation, signal envelope, signal processing.

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388 Target Signal Detection Using MUSIC Spectrum in Noise Environment

Authors: Sangjun Park, Sangbae Jeong, Moonsung Han, Minsoo hahn

Abstract:

In this paper, a target signal detection method using multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is proposed. The MUSIC algorithm is a subspace-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method. The algorithm detects the DOAs of multiple sources using the inverse of the eigenvalue-weighted eigen spectra. To apply the algorithm to target signal detection for GSC-based beamforming, we utilize its spectral response for the target DOA in noisy conditions. For evaluation of the algorithm, the performance of the proposed target signal detection method is compared with that of the normalized cross-correlation (NCC), the fixed beamforming, and the power ratio method. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm significantly outperforms the conventional ones in receiver operating characteristics(ROC) curves.

Keywords: Beamforming, direction of arrival, multiple signal classification, target signal detection.

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387 Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s Successive Approximation Register ADC on FPGA

Authors: S. Heydarzadeh, A. Kadivarian, P. Torkzadeh

Abstract:

Implemented 5-bit 125-MS/s successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) on FPGA is presented in this paper.The design and modeling of a high performance SAR analog to digital converter are based on monotonic capacitor switching procedure algorithm .Spartan 3 FPGA is chosen for implementing SAR analog to digital converter algorithm. SAR VHDL program writes in Xilinx and modelsim uses for showing results.

Keywords: Analog to digital converter, Successive approximation, Capacitor switching algorithm, FPGA

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386 Generalization Kernel for Geopotential Approximation by Harmonic Splines

Authors: Elena Kotevska

Abstract:

This paper presents a generalization kernel for gravitational potential determination by harmonic splines. It was shown in [10] that the gravitational potential can be approximated using a kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body. On the other side, the theory of geopotential approximation by harmonic splines uses spherically oriented kernels. The purpose of this paper is to show that in the spherical case both kernels have the same type of representation, which leads us to conclusion that it is possible to consider the kernel represented as a Newton integral over the real Earth body as a kind of generalization of spherically harmonic kernels to real geometries.

Keywords: Geopotential, Reproducing Kernel, Approximation, Regular Surface

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385 The Inverse Problem of Nonsymmetric Matrices with a Submatrix Constraint and its Approximation

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Hao Liu

Abstract:

In this paper, we first give the representation of the general solution of the following least-squares problem (LSP): Given matrices X ∈ Rn×p, B ∈ Rp×p and A0 ∈ Rr×r, find a matrix A ∈ Rn×n such that XT AX − B = min, s. t. A([1, r]) = A0, where A([1, r]) is the r×r leading principal submatrix of the matrix A. We then consider a best approximation problem: given an n × n matrix A˜ with A˜([1, r]) = A0, find Aˆ ∈ SE such that A˜ − Aˆ = minA∈SE A˜ − A, where SE is the solution set of LSP. We show that the best approximation solution Aˆ is unique and derive an explicit formula for it. Keyw

Keywords: Inverse problem, Least-squares solution, model updating, Singular value decomposition (SVD), Optimal approximation.

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384 A Numerical Model to Study the Rapid Buffering Approximation near an Open Ca2+ Channel for an Unsteady State Case

Authors: Leena Sharma

Abstract:

Chemical reaction and diffusion are important phenomena in quantitative neurobiology and biophysics. The knowledge of the dynamics of calcium Ca2+ is very important in cellular physiology because Ca2+ binds to many proteins and regulates their activity and interactions Calcium waves propagate inside cells due to a regenerative mechanism known as calcium-induced calcium release. Buffer-mediated calcium diffusion in the cytosol plays a crucial role in the process. A mathematical model has been developed for calcium waves by assuming the buffers are in equilibrium with calcium i.e., the rapid buffering approximation for a one dimensional unsteady state case. This model incorporates important physical and physiological parameters like dissociation rate, diffusion rate, total buffer concentration and influx. The finite difference method has been employed to predict [Ca2+] and buffer concentration time course regardless of the calcium influx. The comparative studies of the effect of the rapid buffered diffusion and kinetic parameters of the model on the concentration time course have been performed.

Keywords: Calcium Profile, Rapid Buffering Approximation, Influx, Dissociation rate constant.

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383 Reduction of Linear Time-Invariant Systems Using Routh-Approximation and PSO

Authors: S. Panda, S. K. Tomar, R. Prasad, C. Ardil

Abstract:

Order reduction of linear-time invariant systems employing two methods; one using the advantages of Routh approximation and other by an evolutionary technique is presented in this paper. In Routh approximation method the denominator of the reduced order model is obtained using Routh approximation while the numerator of the reduced order model is determined using the indirect approach of retaining the time moments and/or Markov parameters of original system. By this method the reduced order model guarantees stability if the original high order model is stable. In the second method Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is employed to reduce the higher order model. PSO method is based on the minimization of the Integral Squared Error (ISE) between the transient responses of original higher order model and the reduced order model pertaining to a unit step input. Both the methods are illustrated through numerical examples.

Keywords: Model Order Reduction, Markov Parameters, Routh Approximation, Particle Swarm Optimization, Integral Squared Error, Steady State Stability.

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382 On Diffusion Approximation of Discrete Markov Dynamical Systems

Authors: Jevgenijs Carkovs

Abstract:

The paper is devoted to stochastic analysis of finite dimensional difference equation with dependent on ergodic Markov chain increments, which are proportional to small parameter ". A point-form solution of this difference equation may be represented as vertexes of a time-dependent continuous broken line given on the segment [0,1] with "-dependent scaling of intervals between vertexes. Tending " to zero one may apply stochastic averaging and diffusion approximation procedures and construct continuous approximation of the initial stochastic iterations as an ordinary or stochastic Ito differential equation. The paper proves that for sufficiently small " these equations may be successfully applied not only to approximate finite number of iterations but also for asymptotic analysis of iterations, when number of iterations tends to infinity.

Keywords: Markov dynamical system, diffusion approximation, equilibrium stochastic stability.

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381 A Markov Chain Approximation for ATS Modeling for the Variable Sampling Interval CCC Control Charts

Authors: Y. K. Chen, K. C. Chiou, C. Y. Chen

Abstract:

The cumulative conformance count (CCC) charts are widespread in process monitoring of high-yield manufacturing. Recently, it is found the use of variable sampling interval (VSI) scheme could further enhance the efficiency of the standard CCC charts. The average time to signal (ATS) a shift in defect rate has become traditional measure of efficiency of a chart with the VSI scheme. Determining the ATS is frequently a difficult and tedious task. A simple method based on a finite Markov Chain approach for modeling the ATS is developed. In addition, numerical results are given.

Keywords: Cumulative conformance count, variable sampling interval, Markov Chain, average time to signal, control chart.

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380 Accurate And Efficient Global Approximation using Adaptive Polynomial RSM for Complex Mechanical and Vehicular Performance Models

Authors: Y. Z. Wu, Z. Dong, S. K. You

Abstract:

Global approximation using metamodel for complex mathematical function or computer model over a large variable domain is often needed in sensibility analysis, computer simulation, optimal control, and global design optimization of complex, multiphysics systems. To overcome the limitations of the existing response surface (RS), surrogate or metamodel modeling methods for complex models over large variable domain, a new adaptive and regressive RS modeling method using quadratic functions and local area model improvement schemes is introduced. The method applies an iterative and Latin hypercube sampling based RS update process, divides the entire domain of design variables into multiple cells, identifies rougher cells with large modeling error, and further divides these cells along the roughest dimension direction. A small number of additional sampling points from the original, expensive model are added over the small and isolated rough cells to improve the RS model locally until the model accuracy criteria are satisfied. The method then combines local RS cells to regenerate the global RS model with satisfactory accuracy. An effective RS cells sorting algorithm is also introduced to improve the efficiency of model evaluation. Benchmark tests are presented and use of the new metamodeling method to replace complex hybrid electrical vehicle powertrain performance model in vehicle design optimization and optimal control are discussed.

Keywords: Global approximation, polynomial response surface, domain decomposition, domain combination, multiphysics modeling, hybrid powertrain optimization

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379 A Model to Study the Effect of Na+ ions on Ca2+diffusion under Rapid Buffering Approximation

Authors: Vikas Tewari, K.R. Pardasani

Abstract:

Calcium is very important for communication among the neurons. It is vital in a number of cell processes such as secretion, cell movement, cell differentiation. To reduce the system of reactiondiffusion equations of [Ca2+] into a single equation, two theories have been proposed one is excess buffer approximation (EBA) other is rapid buffer approximation (RBA). The RBA is more realistic than the EBA as it considers both the mobile and stationary endogenous buffers. It is valid near the mouth of the channel. In this work we have studied the effects of different types of buffers on calcium diffusion under RBA. The novel thing studied is the effect of sodium ions on calcium diffusion. The model has been made realistic by considering factors such as variable [Ca2+], [Na+] sources, sodium-calcium exchange protein(NCX), Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump. The proposed mathematical leads to a system of partial differential equations which has been solved numerically to study the relationships between different parameters such as buffer concentration, buffer disassociation rate, calcium permeability. We have used Forward Time Centred Space (FTCS) approach to solve the system of partial differential equations.

Keywords: rapid buffer approximation, sodium-calcium exchangeprotein, Sarcolemmal Calcium ATPase pump, buffer disassociationrate, forward time centred space.

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378 EMD-Based Signal Noise Reduction

Authors: A.O. Boudraa, J.C. Cexus, Z. Saidi

Abstract:

This paper introduces a new signal denoising based on the Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) framework. The method is a fully data driven approach. Noisy signal is decomposed adaptively into oscillatory components called Intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by means of a process called sifting. The EMD denoising involves filtering or thresholding each IMF and reconstructs the estimated signal using the processed IMFs. The EMD can be combined with a filtering approach or with nonlinear transformation. In this work the Savitzky-Golay filter and shoftthresholding are investigated. For thresholding, IMF samples are shrinked or scaled below a threshold value. The standard deviation of the noise is estimated for every IMF. The threshold is derived for the Gaussian white noise. The method is tested on simulated and real data and compared with averaging, median and wavelet approaches.

Keywords: Empirical mode decomposition, Signal denoisingnonstationary process.

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377 GPS Signal Correction to Improve Vehicle Location during Experimental Campaign

Authors: L. Della Ragione, G. Meccariello

Abstract:

In recent years in Italy the progress of the automobile industry, in the field of reduction of emissions values, is very remarkable. Nevertheless their evaluation and reduction is a key problem, especially in the cities, that account for more than 50% of world population. In this paper we dealt with the problem of describing a quantitatively approach for the reconstruction of GPS coordinates and altitude, in the context of correlation study between driving cycles / emission / geographical location, during an experimental campaign realized with some instrumented cars.

Keywords: Air pollution, Driving cycles, GPS signal.

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376 Algorithm of Measurement of Noise Signal Power in the Presence of Narrowband Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and narrowband interference is considered using functional transformations of the input mix in the postdetection processing channel. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference-to-signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: Noise signal, continuous narrowband interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection.

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375 Approximation Algorithm for the Shortest Approximate Common Superstring Problem

Authors: A.S. Rebaï, M. Elloumi

Abstract:

The Shortest Approximate Common Superstring (SACS) problem is : Given a set of strings f={w1, w2, ... , wn}, where no wi is an approximate substring of wj, i ≠ j, find a shortest string Sa, such that, every string of f is an approximate substring of Sa. When the number of the strings n>2, the SACS problem becomes NP-complete. In this paper, we present a greedy approximation SACS algorithm. Our algorithm is a 1/2-approximation for the SACS problem. It is of complexity O(n2*(l2+log(n))) in computing time, where n is the number of the strings and l is the length of a string. Our SACS algorithm is based on computation of the Length of the Approximate Longest Overlap (LALO).

Keywords: Shortest approximate common superstring, approximation algorithms, strings overlaps, complexities.

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374 A Study on the Least Squares Reduced Parameter Approximation of FIR Digital Filters

Authors: S. Seyedtabaii, E. Seyedtabaii

Abstract:

Rounding of coefficients is a common practice in hardware implementation of digital filters. Where some coefficients are very close to zero or one, as assumed in this paper, this rounding action also leads to some computation reduction. Furthermore, if the discarded coefficient is of high order, a reduced order filter is obtained, otherwise the order does not change but computation is reduced. In this paper, the Least Squares approximation to rounded (or discarded) coefficient FIR filter is investigated. The result also succinctly extended to general type of FIR filters.

Keywords: Digital filter, filter approximation, least squares, model order reduction.

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373 An Approximation of Daily Rainfall by Using a Pixel Value Data Approach

Authors: Sarisa Pinkham, Kanyarat Bussaban

Abstract:

The research aims to approximate the amount of daily rainfall by using a pixel value data approach. The daily rainfall maps from the Thailand Meteorological Department in period of time from January to December 2013 were the data used in this study. The results showed that this approach can approximate the amount of daily rainfall with RMSE=3.343.

Keywords: Daily rainfall, Image processing, Approximation, Pixel value data.

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372 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference-to-signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: Noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection.

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371 An Empirical Validation of the Linear- Hyperbolic Approximation of the I-V Characteristic of a Solar Cell Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

An empirical linearly-hyperbolic approximation of the I - V characteristic of a solar cell is presented. This approximation is based on hyperbolic dependence of a current of p-n junctions on voltage for large currents. Such empirical approximation is compared with the early proposed formal linearly-hyperbolic approximation of a solar cell. The expressions defining laws of change of parameters of formal approximation at change of a photo current of family of characteristics are received. It allows simplifying a finding of parameters of approximation on actual curves, to specify their values. Analytical calculation of load regime for linearly - hyperbolic model leads to quadratic equation. Also, this model allows to define soundly a deviation from the maximum power regime and to compare efficiency of regimes of solar cells with different parameters.

Keywords: a solar cell generator, I − V characteristic, p − n junction, approximation

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370 Optimal Data Compression and Filtering: The Case of Infinite Signal Sets

Authors: Anatoli Torokhti, Phil Howlett

Abstract:

We present a theory for optimal filtering of infinite sets of random signals. There are several new distinctive features of the proposed approach. First, we provide a single optimal filter for processing any signal from a given infinite signal set. Second, the filter is presented in the special form of a sum with p terms where each term is represented as a combination of three operations. Each operation is a special stage of the filtering aimed at facilitating the associated numerical work. Third, an iterative scheme is implemented into the filter structure to provide an improvement in the filter performance at each step of the scheme. The final step of the concerns signal compression and decompression. This step is based on the solution of a new rank-constrained matrix approximation problem. The solution to the matrix problem is described in this paper. A rigorous error analysis is given for the new filter.

Keywords: stochastic signals, optimization problems in signal processing.

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369 Reliability Approximation through the Discretization of Random Variables using Reversed Hazard Rate Function

Authors: Tirthankar Ghosh, Dilip Roy, Nimai Kumar Chandra

Abstract:

Sometime it is difficult to determine the exact reliability for complex systems in analytical procedures. Approximate solution of this problem can be provided through discretization of random variables. In this paper we describe the usefulness of discretization of a random variable using the reversed hazard rate function of its continuous version. Discretization of the exponential distribution has been demonstrated. Applications of this approach have also been cited. Numerical calculations indicate that the proposed approach gives very good approximation of reliability of complex systems under stress-strength set-up. The performance of the proposed approach is better than the existing discrete concentration method of discretization. This approach is conceptually simple, handles analytic intractability and reduces computational time. The approach can be applied in manufacturing industries for producing high-reliable items.

Keywords: Discretization, Reversed Hazard Rate, Exponential distribution, reliability approximation, engineering item.

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