Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 258

Search results for: shelf life

258 Extension of Fish Shelf Life by Ozone Treatment

Authors: Behrouz Mosayebi Dehkordi, Neda Zokaie

Abstract:

The shelf life of fish was extended using disinfection properties of ozone. For this purpose, Trout specimens were exposed to ozone in the aqueous media for two hours and their microbial growth and biochemical properties were measured over time. Microbial growth of ozone treated fish was significantly slower than control sample, resulting in lower counts of bacteria. According to the biochemical tests; ozone treatment had no negative effects on fat, protein and humidity of fish. Peroxide and TVN (Total Volatile Nitrogen) measurements showed that treatment by ozone increased the trout shelf life from 4 days to 6 days. According to the sensory analysis, no changes were observed in color or flavor of the ozone treated trout.

Keywords: Fish, Ozone, Shelf life, Trout.

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257 Influence of Degradative Enzymatic Activities on the Shelf Life of Ready-to-Eat Prickly Pear Fruits

Authors: D. Scalone, R. Palmeri, F. Licciardello, G. Muratore, A. Todaro, G. Spagna

Abstract:

Prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica L. Miller) belongs to the Cactaceae family. This species is very sensitive to low storage temperatures (< 5°C) which cause damages. The fruits can be peeled, suitably packaged and successfully commercialized as a ready-to-eat product. The main limit to the extension of the shelf life is the production of off-flavors due to different factors, the growth of microorganisms and the action of endogenous enzymes. Lipoxygenase (LOX) and Pectinesterase (PE) are involved in fruit degradation. In particular, LOX pathway is directly responsible for lipid oxidation, and the subsequent production of off-flavours, while PE causes the softening of fruit during maturation. They act on the texture and shelf-life of post-harvest, packaged fruits, as a function of the the grown of microorganisms and packaging technologies used. The aim of this work is to compare the effect of different packaging technologies on the shelf life extension of ready-to-eat prickly pear fruits with regards for the enzymes activities.

Keywords: Enzymes, packaging, prickly pear, shelf life.

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256 Active Packaging Influence on the Shelf Life of Milk Pomade Sweet – Sherbet

Authors: Eva Ungure, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Vita Levkane

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to evaluate the quality of milk pomade sweet – sherbet packed in different packaging materials (Multibarrier 60, met.BOPET/PE, Aluthen), by several packaging technologies – active and modified atmosphere (MAP) (consisting of 100% CO2), and control – in air ambiance. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture. Samples were stored at the room temperature +21±1 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, hardening, colour and changes in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2) of packs were analysed before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 storage weeks.

Keywords: packaging, shelf life, sherbet with crunchy peanut chip's

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255 ASLT Method for Beer Accelerated Shelf-Life Determination

Authors: Tatjana Rakcejeva, Valentina Skorina, Daina Karklina, Liga Skudra

Abstract:

The aim of current research was to investigate ASLT method suitability for accelerated beer shelf-life determination. The research was accomplished on popular Latvian beer: light filtrated and unfiltered pasteurized beer with alcohol content 5.2%; dark filtrated pasteurized beer with alcohol content 4.2% with shelf-life five months. Bottled in dark glass bottles beer samples were storage during 20 weeks at several temperature regimes: +10±1 °C, +20±1 °C, +30±1 °C, +40±1 °C. Samples quality parameters as physically-chemical and microbiological was tested every two weeks using standard methods. It is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly during storage at +30±1 °C for filtered pasteurized light beer by 2.5 times, unfiltered pasteurized light beer by 1.4 times and for filtered pasteurized dark beer by 1.7 times. During preset experiments it was proved, that it is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly using ASLT method if beer storage temperature could be increased by +10±1 °C.

Keywords: Beer, shelf-life, ASLT method.

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254 Shelf Life Extension of Milk Pomade Sweet – Sherbet with Crunchy Peanut Chips by MAP in Various Packaging Materials

Authors: Eva Vorma, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Janis Skalbe

Abstract:

The objective of the research was to evaluate the hardness stability of milk pomade sweets packed in several packaging materials (OPP, Multibarrier 60 HFP, BIALON 65 HFP, BIALON 50 HFP, ECOLEAN) by several packaging technologies – modified atmosphere (MAP) (consisting of 30% CO2+70% N2; 30% N2+70% CO2 and 100% CO2) and control – in air ambiance. Samples were stored at the room temperature +21±1 °C. The studies of the samples were carried out before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage weeks.

Keywords: packaging, shelf life, sherbet with crunchy peanutchips, hardness.

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253 Effects of Selected Plant-Derived Nutraceuticals on the Quality and Shelf-Life Stability of Frankfurter Type Sausages during Storage

Authors: Kazem Alirezalu, Javad Hesari, Zabihollah Nemati, Boukaga Farmani

Abstract:

The application of natural plant extracts which are rich in promising antioxidants and antimicrobial ingredients in the production of frankfurter-type sausages addresses consumer demands for healthier, more functional meat products. The effects of olive leaves, green tea and Urtica dioica L. extracts on physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristic of frankfurter-type sausage were investigated during 45 days of storage at 4 °C. The results revealed that pH and phenolic compounds decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all samples during storage. Sausages containing 500 ppm green tea extract (1.78 mg/kg) showed the lowest TBARS values compared to olive leaves (2.01 mg/kg), Urtica dioica L. (2.26 mg/kg) extracts and control (2.74 mg/kg). Plant extracts significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the count of total mesophilic bacteria, yeast and mold by at least 2 log cycles (CFU/g) than those of control samples. Sensory characteristics of texture showed no difference (P > 0.05) between sausage samples, but sausage containing Urtica dioica L. extract had the highest score regarding flavor, freshness odor, and overall acceptability. Based on the results, sausage containing plant extracts could have a significant impact on antimicrobial activity, antioxidant capacity, sensory score, and shelf life stability of frankfurter-type sausage.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, antioxidant, frankfurter-type sausage, green tea, olive oil, shelf life, Urtica dioica L.

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252 Influence of PLA Film Packaging on the Shelf Life of Soft Cheese Kleo

Authors: Lija Dukalska, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Irisa Murniece, Ilona Dabina-Bicka, Emils Kozlinskis, Svetlana Sarvi

Abstract:

Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU). Soft cheese Kleo produced in Latvia was packed in a biodegradable PLA without barrierproperties and VC999 BioPack lidding film PLA, coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) and in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP) the influence on the shelf life was investigated and compared with some conventional (OPP, PE/PA, PE/OPA and Multibarrier 60) polymer film impact. Modified atmosphere consisted of carbon dioxide CO2 (E 290) 30% and nitrogen N2 (E 941) 70%. The analyzable samples were stored at the temperature of +4.0±0.5 °C up to 32 days- and analyzed before packaging and in the 0, 5th, 11th, 15th, 18th, 22nd, 25th, 29th and 32nd day of storage. The shelf life was extended along to 32 days, good outside appearance and lactic acid aroma was observed.

Keywords: Soft cheese, modified atmosphere, conventional andbiodegradable PLA film, shelf life

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251 Sous Vide Packaging Technology Application for Salad with Meat in Mayonnaise Shelf Life Extension

Authors: Vita Levkane, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska

Abstract:

Experiments have been carried out at the Latvia University of Agriculture Department of Food Technology. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of sous vide packaging during the storage time of salad with meat in mayonnaise at different storage temperature. Samples were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 7, 10, 15, 18, 25, 29, 42, and 52 storage days at the storage temperature of +4±0.5 ºC and +10±0.5 ºC. Experimentally the quality of the salad with meat in mayonnaise was characterized by measuring colour, pH and microbiological properties. The sous vide packaging was effective in protecting the product from physical, chemical, and microbial quality degradation. The sous vide packaging significantly reduces microbial growth at storage temperature of +4±0.5 ºC and +10±0.5 ºC. Moreover, it is possible to extend the product shelf life to 52 days even when stored at +10±0.5 ºC.

Keywords: salad with meat in mayonnaise, shelf life, sous videpackaging.

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250 Active Packaging Influence on Shelf Life Extension of Sliced Wheat Bread

Authors: Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Irisa Murniece, Ilona Dabina-Bicka, Emils Kozlinskis, Svetlana Sarvi, Ralfs Santars, Anna Silvjane

Abstract:

The research object was wheat bread. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 60% and N2 40%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60, PP and OPP bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 100 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® was tested on the quality during the shelf of wheat bread. Samples of 40±4 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 120 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in room temperature +21.0±0.5 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture content, hardness, pH, colour, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2) in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of storage.

Keywords: Active packaging, wheat bread, shelf life.

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249 Influence of Active Packaging on the Shelf Life of Apple-Black Currant Marmalade Candies

Authors: Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Solvita Kampuse, Irisa Murniece, Martins Sabovics, IlonaDabina-Bicka, Emils Kozlinskis, Svetlana Sarvi

Abstract:

The research object was apple-black currant marmalade candies. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 100%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60 and paper bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 500 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® was tested on the quality during the shelf of marmalade. Samples of 80±5 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 110 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in room temperature +20.0±1.0 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture content, hardness, aw, pH, colour, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2) in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 1st, 3rd , 5th, 8th, 11th and 15th weeks of storage.

Keywords: Active packaging, marmalade candies, shelf life

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248 Extended Shelf Life of Chicken Meat Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coated Polypropylene Films Containing Zataria multiflora Essential Oil

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films containing Zataria multiflora (ZEO) essential oils (4%) as an antimicrobial packaging for chicken breast stored at 4 °C. To increase PP film hydrophilicity, it was treated by atmospheric cold plasma prior to coating by CMC. Then, different films including PP, PP/CMC, PP/CMC containing 4% of ZEO were used for the chicken meat packaging in vapor phase. Total viable count and pseudomonads population and oxidative (TBA) changes of the chicken breast were analyzed during shelf life. Results showed that the shelf life of chicken meat kept in films containing ZEO improved from three to nine days compared to the control sample without any direct contact with the film. Study of oxygen barrier properties of bilayer film without essential oils (0.096 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) in comparison with PP film (416 cm3 μm/m2 d kPa) shows that coating of PP with CMC significantly reduces oxygen permeation of the obtained packaging (P<0.05), which reduced aerobic bacteria growth. Chemical composition of ZEO was also evaluated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS), and this shows that thymol was the main antimicrobial and antioxidant component of the essential oil. The results revealed that PP/CMC containing ZEO has good potential for application as active food packaging in indirect contact which would also improve sensory properties of product.

Keywords: Shelf life, chicken breast, polypropylene, carboxymethyl cellulose, essential oil.

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247 Biospeckle Techniques in Quality Evaluation of Indian Fruits

Authors: MD Zaheer Ansari, A.K. Nirala

Abstract:

In this study spatial-temporal speckle correlation techniques have been applied for the quality evaluation of three different Indian fruits namely apple, pear and tomato for the first time. The method is based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. The results showed that crosscorrelation coefficients of biospeckle patterns change subject to their freshness and the storage conditions. The biospeckle activity was determined by means of the cross-correlation functions of the intensity fluctuations. Significant changes in biospeckle activity were observed during their shelf lives. From the study, it is found that the biospeckle activity decreases with the shelf-life storage time. Further it has been shown that biospeckle activity changes according to their respiration rates.

Keywords: Biospeckle, cross-correlation, respiration, shelf-life.

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246 The Study of Synbiotic Dairy Products Rheological Properties during Shelf-Life

Authors: Ilze Beitane, Inga Ciprovica

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The influence of lactulose and inulin on rheological properties of fermented milk during storage was studied.Pasteurized milk, freeze-dried starter culture Bb-12 (Bifidobacterium lactis, Chr. Hansen, Denmark), inulin – RAFTILINE®HP (ORAFI, Belgium) and syrup of lactulose (Duphalac®, the Netherlands) were used for experiments. The fermentation process was realized at 37 oC for 16 hours and the storage of products was provided at 4 oC for 7 days. Measurements were carried out by BROOKFIELD standard methods and the flow curves were described by Herschel-Bulkley model. The results of dispersion analysis have shown that both the concentration of prebiotics (p=0.04<0.05) and shelf life (p=0.003<0.05) have a significant influence on the apparent viscosity of the product.

Keywords: Apparent viscosity, B.lactis, consistency coefficient, flow behavior index, prebiotics.

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245 Damage to Strawberries Caused by Simulated Transport

Authors: G. La Scalia, M. Enea, R. Micale, O. Corona, L. Settanni

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The quality and condition of perishable products delivered to the market and their subsequent selling prices are directly affected by the care taken during harvesting and handling. Mechanical injury, in fact, occurs at all stages, from pre-harvest operations through post-harvest handling, packing and transport to the market. The main implications of this damage are the reduction of the product’s quality and economical losses related to the shelf life diminution. For most perishable products, the shelf life is relatively short and it is typically dictated by microbial growth related to the application of dynamic and static loads during transportation. This paper presents the correlation between vibration levels and microbiological growth on strawberries and woodland strawberries and detects the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in order to develop an intelligent logistic unit capable of monitoring VOCs using a specific sensor system. Fresh fruits were exposed to vibrations by means of a vibrating table in a temperature-controlled environment. Microbiological analyses were conducted on samples, taken at different positions along the column of the crates. The values obtained were compared with control samples not exposed to vibrations and the results show that different positions along the column influence the development of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi.

Keywords: Microbiological analysis, shelf life, transport damage, volatile organic compounds.

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244 Effects of Some Natural Antioxidants Mixtures on Margarine Stability

Authors: Maryam Azizkhani, Parvin Zandi

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Application of synthetic antioxidants such as tertbutylhydroquinon (TBHQ), in spite of their efficiency, is questioned because of their possible carcinogenic effect. The purpose of this study was application of mixtures of natural antioxidants that provide the best oxidative stability for margarine. Antioxidant treatments included 10 various mixtures (F1- F10) containing 100-500ppm tocopherol mixture (Toc), 100-200ppm ascorbyl palmitate (AP), 100- 200ppm rosemary extract (Ros) and 1000ppm lecithin(Lec) along with a control or F0 (with no antioxidant) and F11 with 120ppm TBHQ. The effect of antioxidant mixtures on the stability of margarine samples during oven test (60°C), rancimat test at 110°C and storage at 4°C was evaluated. Final ranking of natural antioxidant mixtures was as follows: F2,F10>F5,F9>F8>F1,F3,F4>F6, F7. Considering the results of this research and ranking criteria, F2(200ppmAp + 200ppmRos) and F10(200ppmRos + 200ppmToc +1000ppmLec) were recommended as substitutes for TBHQ to maintain the quality and increase the shelf-life of margarine.

Keywords: Margarine, Natural antioxidant, Oxidative stability, Shelf-life.

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243 Electronic Nose Based On Metal Oxide Semiconductor Sensors as an Alternative Technique for the Spoilage Classification of Oat Milk

Authors: A. Deswal, N. S. Deora, H. N. Mishra

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid method for electronic nose for online quality control of oat milk. Analysis by electronic nose and bacteriological measurements were performed to analyze spoilage kinetics of oat milk samples stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions for up to 15 days. Principal component analysis (PCA), Discriminant Factorial Analysis (DFA) and Soft Independent Modelling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification techniques were used to differentiate the samples of oat milk at different days. The total plate count (bacteriological method) was selected as the reference method to consistently train the electronic nose system. The e-nose was able to differentiate between the oat milk samples of varying microbial load. The results obtained by the bacteria total viable countsshowed that the shelf-life of oat milk stored at room temperature and refrigerated conditions were 20hrs and 13 days, respectively. The models built classified oat milk samples based on the total microbial population into “unspoiled” and “spoiled”.

Keywords: Electronic-nose, bacteriological, shelf-life, classification.

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242 Psyllium (Plantago) Gum as an Effective Edible Coating to Improve Quality and Shelf Life of Fresh-cut Papaya (Carica papaya)

Authors: Basharat Yousuf, Abhaya K. Srivastava

Abstract:

Psyllium gum alone and in combination with sunflower oil was investigated as a possible alternative edible coating for improvement of quality and shelf life of fresh-cut papaya. Different concentrations including 0.5, 1 and 1.5 percent of psyllium gum were used for coating of fresh-cut papaya. In some samples, refined sunflower oil was used as a lipid component to increase the effectiveness of coating in terms of water barrier properties. Soya lecithin was used as an emulsifier in coatings containing oil. Pretreatment with 1% calcium chloride was given to maintain the firmness of fresh-cut papaya cubes. 1% psyllium gum coating was found to yield better results. Further, addition of oil helped to maintain the quality and acted as a barrier to water vapour, therefore, minimizing the weight loss.

Keywords: Coating, fresh-cut, gum, papaya, psylllium.

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241 Quality Evaluation of Ready to Eat Potatoes’ Produce in Flexible Packaging

Authors: Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Aija Ruzaike, Lija Dukalska, Ilze Stokmane, Liene Strauta

Abstract:

Experiments have been carried out at the Latvia University of Agriculture Department of Food Technology. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of thermal treatment in flexible retort pouch packaging on the quality of potatoes’ produce during the storage time. Samples were evaluated immediately after retort thermal treatment; and following 1; 2; 3 and 4 storage months at the ambient temperature of +18±2ºC in vacuum packaging from polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) and aluminum/polyethylene (Al/PE) film pouches with barrier properties. Experimentally the quality of the potatoes’ produce in dry butter and mushroom dressings was characterized by measuring pH, hardness, color, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation. The sterilization was effective in protecting the produce from physical, chemical, and microbial quality degradation. According to the study of obtained data, it can be argued that the selected product processing technology and packaging materials could be applied to provide the safety and security during four-month storage period.

Keywords: Potatoes’ produce, shelf life, retort thermal treatment and packaging.

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240 Aging Evaluation of Ammonium Perchlorate/Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene-Based Solid Rocket Engine by Reactive Molecular Dynamics Simulation and Thermal Analysis

Authors: R. F. B. Gonçalves, E. N. Iwama, J. A. F. F. Rocco, K. Iha

Abstract:

Propellants based on Hydroxyl Terminated Polybutadiene/Ammonium Perchlorate (HTPB/AP) are the most commonly used in most of the rocket engines used by the Brazilian Armed Forces. This work aimed at the possibility of extending its useful life (currently in 10 years) by performing kinetic-chemical analyzes of its energetic material via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and also performing computer simulation of aging process using the software Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS). Thermal analysis via DSC was performed in triplicates and in three heating ratios (5 ºC, 10 ºC, and 15 ºC) of rocket motor with 11 years shelf-life, using the Arrhenius equation to obtain its activation energy, using Ozawa and Kissinger kinetic methods, allowing comparison with manufacturing period data (standard motor). In addition, the kinetic parameters of internal pressure of the combustion chamber in 08 rocket engines with 11 years of shelf-life were also acquired, for comparison purposes with the engine start-up data.

Keywords: Shelf-life, thermal analysis, Ozawa method, Kissinger method, LAMMPS software, thrust.

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239 Investigating the Demand for Short-shelf Life Food Products for SME Wholesalers

Authors: Yamini Raju, Parminder S. Kang, Adam Moroz, Ross Clement, Ashley Hopwell, Alistair Duffy

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Accurate forecasting of fresh produce demand is one the challenges faced by Small Medium Enterprise (SME) wholesalers. This paper is an attempt to understand the cause for the high level of variability such as weather, holidays etc., in demand of SME wholesalers. Therefore, understanding the significance of unidentified factors may improve the forecasting accuracy. This paper presents the current literature on the factors used to predict demand and the existing forecasting techniques of short shelf life products. It then investigates a variety of internal and external possible factors, some of which is not used by other researchers in the demand prediction process. The results presented in this paper are further analysed using a number of techniques to minimize noise in the data. For the analysis past sales data (January 2009 to May 2014) from a UK based SME wholesaler is used and the results presented are limited to product ‘Milk’ focused on café’s in derby. The correlation analysis is done to check the dependencies of variability factor on the actual demand. Further PCA analysis is done to understand the significance of factors identified using correlation. The PCA results suggest that the cloud cover, weather summary and temperature are the most significant factors that can be used in forecasting the demand. The correlation of the above three factors increased relative to monthly and becomes more stable compared to the weekly and daily demand.

Keywords: Demand Forecasting, Deteriorating Products, Food Wholesalers, Principal Component Analysis and Variability Factors.

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238 Influence of Active Packaging on the Quality of Pumpkin - Rowanberry Marmalade Candies

Authors: Solvita Kampuse, Elga Berna, Sandra Muizniece-Brasava, Lija Dukalska, Irisa Murniece, Martins Sabovics, Zanda Kruma, Karina Ruse, Svetlana Sarvi, Kaspars Kampuss

Abstract:

Experiments with pumpkin-rowanberry marmalade candies were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the quality changes of pumpkin-rowanberry marmalade candies packed in different packaging materials during the storage of 15 weeks, and to find the most suitable packaging material for prolongation of low sugar marmalade candies shelf-life. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 100%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60 and paper bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 500 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® on the marmalade candies’ quality was tested during shelf life. Samples of 80±5 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 110 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in a room temperature +21±0.5 °C. The physiochemical properties –moisture content, hardness, aw, pH, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2), ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenols in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 1st, 3rd , 5th, 8th, 11th and 15th weeks of storage.

Keywords: Active packaging, marmalade candies, shelf life

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237 The Use of Electronic Shelf Labels in the Retail Food Sector

Authors: Brent McKenzie, Victoria Taylor

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The use of QR (Quick Response Codes) codes for customer scanning with mobile phones is a rapidly growing trend. The QR code can provide the consumer with product information, user guides, product use, competitive pricing, etc. One sector for QR use has been in retail, through the use of Electronic Shelf Labeling (henceforth, ESL). In Europe, the use of ESL for pricing has been in practice for a number of years but continues to lag in acceptance in North America. Stated concerns include costs as a key constraint, but there is also evidence that consumer acceptance represents a limitation as well. The purpose of this study is to present the findings of a consumer based study to gage the impact on their use in the retail food sector.

Keywords: Electronic shelf labels (ESL), consumer insights, retail food sector.

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236 Microbiological Assessment of Yoghurt Enriched with Flakes from Barley Grain and Malt Extract during Shelf-Life

Authors: Ilze Beitane, Dace Klava

Abstract:

The effect of flakes from biologically activated hullless barley grain and malt extract on microbiological safety of yoghurt was studied. Pasteurized milk, freeze-dried yoghurt culture YF-L811 (Chr. Hansen, Denmark), flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain (Latvia) and malt extract (Ilgezeem, Latvia) were used for experiments. Yoghurt samples with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract were analyzed for total plate count of mesophylic aerobic and facultative anaerobic microorganisms, as well yeasts and moulds population during shelflife. Results showed that the changes of pH and titratable acidity affected the concentration of added malt extract. The lowest pH and the highest titratable acidity were determined in samples YFBG5% ME4% and YFBG5% ME6% on the 14th day. The total plate count decreased in all yoghurt samples except sample YFBG5% ME6%, where was determined the increase of microorganisms from 7th till 14th day. The adding of flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain in yoghurt samples caused the higher initial content of yeasts and moulds comparing with control. The growth of yeasts and moulds during shelf-life provided the added malt extract in yoghurt samples. Yoghurt enriched with flakes from biologically activated hull-less barley grain and malt extract from a microbiological perspective is safe product.

Keywords: Microbiological assessment, yeasts, moulds, barley grain, malt extract, yoghurt.

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235 Experimental and Theoretical Investigation on Notched Specimens Life Under Bending Loading

Authors: Nasim Daemi, Gholam Hossein Majzoobi

Abstract:

In this work, bending fatigue life of notched specimens with various notch geometries and dimensions is investigated by experiment and Manson-Caffin theoretical method. In this theoretical method, fatigue life of notched specimens is calculated using the fatigue life obtained from the experiments for plain specimens (without notch). Three notch geometries including ∪-shape, ∨-shape and C -shape notches are considered in this investigation. The experiments are conducted on a rotary bending Moore machine. The specimens are made of a low carbon steel alloy, which has wide application in industry. The stress- life curves are captured for all notched specimen by experiment. The results indicate that Manson-Caffin analytical method cannot adequately predict the fatigue life of notched specimen. However, it seems that the difference between the experiments and Manson-Caffin predictions can be compensated by a proportional factor.

Keywords: fatigue life, Mason-Caffin method, notchedspecimen, stress-life curve.

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234 A Combined Approach of a Sequential Life Testing and an Accelerated Life Testing Applied to a Low-Alloy High Strength Steel Component

Authors: D. I. De Souza, D. R. Fonseca, G. P. Azevedo

Abstract:

Sometimes the amount of time available for testing could be considerably less than the expected lifetime of the component. To overcome such a problem, there is the accelerated life-testing alternative aimed at forcing components to fail by testing them at much higher-than-intended application conditions. These models are known as acceleration models. One possible way to translate test results obtained under accelerated conditions to normal using conditions could be through the application of the “Maxwell Distribution Law.” In this paper we will apply a combined approach of a sequential life testing and an accelerated life testing to a low alloy high-strength steel component used in the construction of overpasses in Brazil. The underlying sampling distribution will be three-parameter Inverse Weibull model. To estimate the three parameters of the Inverse Weibull model we will use a maximum likelihood approach for censored failure data. We will be assuming a linear acceleration condition. To evaluate the accuracy (significance) of the parameter values obtained under normal conditions for the underlying Inverse Weibull model we will apply to the expected normal failure times a sequential life testing using a truncation mechanism. An example will illustrate the application of this procedure.

Keywords: Sequential Life Testing, Accelerated Life Testing, Underlying Three-Parameter Weibull Model, Maximum Likelihood Approach, Hypothesis Testing.

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233 Estimating the Life-Distribution Parameters of Weibull-Life PV Systems Utilizing Non-Parametric Analysis

Authors: Saleem Z. Ramadan

Abstract:

In this paper, a model is proposed to determine the life distribution parameters of the useful life region for the PV system utilizing a combination of non-parametric and linear regression analysis for the failure data of these systems. Results showed that this method is dependable for analyzing failure time data for such reliable systems when the data is scarce.

Keywords: Masking, Bathtub model, reliability, non-parametric analysis, useful life.

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232 An Evaluation Method of Accelerated Storage Life Test for Typical Mechanical and Electronic Products

Authors: Jinyong Yao, Hongzhi Li, Chao Du, Jiao Li

Abstract:

Reliability of long-term storage products is related to the availability of the whole system, and the evaluation of storage life is of great necessity. These products are usually highly reliable and little failure information can be collected. In this paper, an analytical method based on data from accelerated storage life test is proposed to evaluate the reliability index of the long-term storage products. Firstly, singularities are eliminated by data normalization and residual analysis. Secondly, with the preprocessed data, the degradation path model is built to obtain the pseudo life values. Then by life distribution hypothesis, we can get the estimator of parameters in high stress levels and verify failure mechanism consistency. Finally, the life distribution under the normal stress level is extrapolated via the acceleration model and evaluation of the actual average life is available. An application example with the camera stabilization device is provided to illustrate the methodology we proposed.

Keywords: Accelerated storage life test, failure mechanism consistency, life distribution, reliability.

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231 Romanian Single-parent Families: Quality of Life

Authors: Bertha Sânduleasa, Aniela Matei, Mihaela Ghenţa, Nicolina Racoceanu

Abstract:

The increasing divorce and fertility rates outside of marriage, the changing values in the last decades have led to a high prevalence of single parent families. Currently, worldwide, singleparent families represent about a quarter of all families. Recent changes occurring in the structure of single-parent families and also the multitude of factors that influence the quality of life of these families require the development of new research tools in order to provide foundations for social policies addressed to this type of family. The purpose of this paper is to present an analysis concerning the quality of life for single parent families in Romania, based on data collected through a research methodology developed by the authors within a scientific research project funded by a national grant called Partnerships in priority areas.

Keywords: Family policies, quality of life, single-parent families, work-life balance.

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230 Quality of Life: Expectations and Achievements of Middle Class in Kazakhstan

Authors: Nazym Shedenova, Aigul Beimisheva

Abstract:

The improvement of quality of life is the main visible integrated indicator of state well-being. More and more states pay attention to define and to achieve social standards of quality of life as social-economic strategy of development. These standards are determinate by state features, complex of needs and interests of individual, family and society. It still remains in open question: “What is middle class" in contemporary Kazakhstan. Appearance of new social standards of quality of life is important indicator of its successful establishment. The middle class as agent of social, politic and economic reforms promotes to improve the quality of life of the country. But if consider a low and a middle stratums of middle class, we can see that high social expectations and real achievements are still significantly different. The article relies on the sociological data, collected during of search of household-s standards of living in Almaty city and Almaty region, and case-study of cottage city “Jana Kuat".

Keywords: the quality of life, the social standards of life, the middle class of Kazakhstan, the economic behavior of households.

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229 Application of Pearson Parametric Distribution Model in Fatigue Life Reliability Evaluation

Authors: E. A. Azrulhisham, Y. M. Asri, A. W. Dzuraidah, A. H. Hairul Fahmi

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to introduce a parametric distribution model in fatigue life reliability analysis dealing with variation in material properties. Service loads in terms of responsetime history signal of Belgian pave were replicated on a multi-axial spindle coupled road simulator and stress-life method was used to estimate the fatigue life of automotive stub axle. A PSN curve was obtained by monotonic tension test and two-parameter Weibull distribution function was used to acquire the mean life of the component. A Pearson system was developed to evaluate the fatigue life reliability by considering stress range intercept and slope of the PSN curve as random variables. Considering normal distribution of fatigue strength, it is found that the fatigue life of the stub axle to have the highest reliability between 10000 – 15000 cycles. Taking into account the variation of material properties associated with the size effect, machining and manufacturing conditions, the method described in this study can be effectively applied in determination of probability of failure of mass-produced parts.

Keywords: Stub axle, Fatigue life reliability, Stress-life, PSN curve, Weibull distribution, Pearson system

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