Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 347

Search results for: Apparent viscosity

347 Potential of Exopolysaccharides in Yoghurt Production

Authors: Jana Feldmane, Pavels Semjonovs, Inga Ciprovica

Abstract:

Consumer demand for products with low fat or sugar content and low levels of food additives, as well as cost factors, make exopolysaccharides (EPS) a viable alternative. EPS remain an interesting tool to modulate the sensory properties of yoghurt. This study was designed to evaluate EPS production potential of commercial yoghurt starter cultures (Yo-Flex starters: Harmony 1.0, TWIST 1.0 and YF-L902, Chr.Hansen, Denmark) and their influence on an apparent viscosity of yoghurt samples. The production of intracellularly synthesized EPS by different commercial yoghurt starters varies roughly from 144,08 to 440,81 mg/l. Analysing starters’ producing EPS, they showed large variations in concentration and supposedly composition. TWIST 1.0 had produced greater amounts of EPS in MRS medium and in yoghurt samples but there wasn’t determined significant contribution to development of texture as well as an apparent viscosity of the final product. YF-L902 and Harmony 1.0 starters differed considerably in EPS yields, but not in apparent viscosities (p>0.05) of the final yoghurts. Correlation between EPS concentration and viscosity of yoghurt samples was not established in the study.

Keywords: Exopolysaccharides, yoghurt starters, apparent viscosity.

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346 The Study of Synbiotic Dairy Products Rheological Properties during Shelf-Life

Authors: Ilze Beitane, Inga Ciprovica

Abstract:

The influence of lactulose and inulin on rheological properties of fermented milk during storage was studied.Pasteurized milk, freeze-dried starter culture Bb-12 (Bifidobacterium lactis, Chr. Hansen, Denmark), inulin – RAFTILINE®HP (ORAFI, Belgium) and syrup of lactulose (Duphalac®, the Netherlands) were used for experiments. The fermentation process was realized at 37 oC for 16 hours and the storage of products was provided at 4 oC for 7 days. Measurements were carried out by BROOKFIELD standard methods and the flow curves were described by Herschel-Bulkley model. The results of dispersion analysis have shown that both the concentration of prebiotics (p=0.04<0.05) and shelf life (p=0.003<0.05) have a significant influence on the apparent viscosity of the product.

Keywords: Apparent viscosity, B.lactis, consistency coefficient, flow behavior index, prebiotics.

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345 Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

Authors: Sigita Boca, Ruta Galoburda, Inta Krasnova, Dalija Seglina, Aivars Aboltins, Imants Skrupskis

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added gelatin, xantan gum, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were whisked obtaining dessert. Pectin, pH and soluble dry matter of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Pectin content in frozen apple mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the fresh sample. The viscosity of apple desserts immediately after their preparation depends on the physico-chemical properties of apples and the texturizers used in the production.

Keywords: Apple variety, apparent viscosity, hydrocolloids, pectin, texturizers.

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344 The Viscosity of Xanthan Gum Grout with Different pH and Ionic Strength

Authors: H. Ahmad Raji, R. Ziaie Moayed, M. A. Nozari

Abstract:

Xanthan gum (XG) an eco-friendly biopolymer has been recently explicitly investigated for ground improvement approaches. Rheological behavior of this additive strongly depends on electrochemical condition such as pH, ionic strength and also its content in aqueous solution. So, the effects of these factors have been studied in this paper considering various XG contents as 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% of water. Moreover, adjusting pH values such as 3, 5, 7 and 9 in addition to increasing ionic strength to 0.1 and 0.2 in the molar scale has covered a practical range of electrochemical condition. The viscosity of grouts shows an apparent upward trend with an increase in ionic strength and XG content. Also, pH affects the polymerization as much as other parameters. As a result, XG behavior is severely influenced by electrochemical settings

Keywords: Electrochemical condition, ionic strength, viscosity, xanthan gum.

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343 Experimental and Theoretical Study of Melt Viscosity in Injection Process

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Wen-Teng Wang, Chin-Chiuan Kuo, Chieh-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The state of melt viscosity in injection process is significantly influenced by the setting parameters due to that the shear rate of injection process is higher than other processes. How to determine plastic melt viscosity during injection process is important to understand the influence of setting parameters on the melt viscosity. An apparatus named as pressure sensor bushing (PSB) module that is used to evaluate the melt viscosity during injection process is developed in this work. The formulations to coupling melt viscosity with fill time and injection pressure are derived and then the melt viscosity is determined. A test mold is prepared to evaluate the accuracy on viscosity calculations between the PSB module and the conventional approaches. The influence of melt viscosity on the tensile strength of molded part is proposed to study the consistency of injection quality.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, injection quality, injection speed.

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342 Generalized Chaplygin Gas and Varying Bulk Viscosity in Lyra Geometry

Authors: A. K. Sethi, R. N. Patra, B. Nayak

Abstract:

In this paper, we have considered Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric with generalized Chaplygin gas which has viscosity in the context of Lyra geometry. The viscosity is considered in two different ways (i.e. zero viscosity, non-constant r (rho)-dependent bulk viscosity) using constant deceleration parameter which concluded that, for a special case, the viscous generalized Chaplygin gas reduces to modified Chaplygin gas. The represented model indicates on the presence of Chaplygin gas in the Universe. Observational constraints are applied and discussed on the physical and geometrical nature of the Universe.

Keywords: Bulk viscosity, Lyra geometry, generalized Chaplygin gas, cosmology.

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341 Electroviscous Effects in Low Reynolds Number Flow through a Microfluidic Contraction with Rectangular Cross-Section

Authors: Malcolm R Davidson, Ram P. Bharti, Petar Liovic, Dalton J.E. Harvie

Abstract:

The electrokinetic flow resistance (electroviscous effect) is predicted for steady state, pressure-driven liquid flow at low Reynolds number in a microfluidic contraction of rectangular cross-section. Calculations of the three dimensional flow are performed in parallel using a finite volume numerical method. The channel walls are assumed to carry a uniform charge density and the liquid is taken to be a symmetric 1:1 electrolyte. Predictions are presented for a single set of flow and electrokinetic parameters. It is shown that the magnitude of the streaming potential gradient and the charge density of counter-ions in the liquid is greater than that in corresponding two-dimensional slit-like contraction geometry. The apparent viscosity is found to be very close to the value for a rectangular channel of uniform cross-section at the chosen Reynolds number (Re = 0.1). It is speculated that the apparent viscosity for the contraction geometry will increase as the Reynolds number is reduced.

Keywords: Contraction, Electroviscous, Microfluidic, Numerical.

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340 Affect of Viscosity and Droplet Diameter on water-in-oil (w/o) Emulsions: An Experimental Study

Authors: A.N. Ilia Anisa, Abdurahman H.Nour

Abstract:

The influence of viscosity on droplet diameter for water-in-crude oil (w/o) emulsion with two different ratios; 20-80 % and 50-50 % w/o emulsion was examined in the Brookfield Rotational Digital Rheometer. The emulsion was prepared with sorbitan sesquiolate (Span 83) act as emulsifier at varied temperature and stirring speed in rotation per minute (rpm). Results showed that the viscosity of w/o emulsion was strongly augmented by increasing volume of water and decreased the temperature. The changing of viscosity also altered the droplet size distribution. Changing of droplet diameter was depends on the viscosity and the behavior of emulsion either Newtonian or non-Newtonian.

Keywords: Diameter, phase ratio, viscosity, water-in-crude oil(w/o).

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339 Prediction of Natural Gas Viscosity using Artificial Neural Network Approach

Authors: E. Nemati Lay, M. Peymani, E. Sanjari

Abstract:

Prediction of viscosity of natural gas is an important parameter in the energy industries such as natural gas storage and transportation. In this study viscosity of different compositions of natural gas is modeled by using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on back-propagation method. A reliable database including more than 3841 experimental data of viscosity for testing and training of ANN is used. The designed neural network can predict the natural gas viscosity using pseudo-reduced pressure and pseudo-reduced temperature with AARD% of 0.221. The accuracy of designed ANN has been compared to other published empirical models. The comparison indicates that the proposed method can provide accurate results.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Empirical correlation, Natural gas, Viscosity

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338 Correlation of Viscosity in Nanofluids using Genetic Algorithm-neural Network (GA-NN)

Authors: Hajir Karimi, Fakheri Yousefi, Mahmood Reza Rahimi

Abstract:

An accurate and proficient artificial neural network (ANN) based genetic algorithm (GA) is developed for predicting of nanofluids viscosity. A genetic algorithm (GA) is used to optimize the neural network parameters for minimizing the error between the predictive viscosity and the experimental one. The experimental viscosity in two nanofluids Al2O3-H2O and CuO-H2O from 278.15 to 343.15 K and volume fraction up to 15% were used from literature. The result of this study reveals that GA-NN model is outperform to the conventional neural nets in predicting the viscosity of nanofluids with mean absolute relative error of 1.22% and 1.77% for Al2O3-H2O and CuO-H2O, respectively. Furthermore, the results of this work have also been compared with others models. The findings of this work demonstrate that the GA-NN model is an effective method for prediction viscosity of nanofluids and have better accuracy and simplicity compared with the others models.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, nanofluids, neural network, viscosity

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337 The Relationship between Excreta Viscosity and TMEn in SBM

Authors: Ali Nouri Emamzadeh

Abstract:

The experiment was performed to study the relationship between excreta viscosity and Nitrogen-corrected true metabolisable energy quantities of soybean meals using conventional addition method (CAM) in adult cockerels for 7 d: a 3-d preexperiment and a 4-d experiment period. Results indicated that differences between the excreta viscosity values were (P<0.01) significant for SBMs. The excreta viscosity values were less (P<0.01) for SBMs 6, 2, 8, 1 and 3 than other SBMs. The mean TMEn (kcal/kg) values were significant (P<0.01) between SBMs. The most TMEn values were (P<0.01) for SBMs 6, 2, 8 and 1, also the lowest TMEn values were (P<0.01) for SBMs 3, 7, 4, 9 and 5. There was a reverse linear relationship between the values of excreta viscosity and TMEn in SBMs. In conclusion, there was a reverse linear relationship between the values of excreta viscosity and TMEn in SBMs probably due to their various soluble NSPs.

Keywords: soybean meals (SBMs), Nitrogen-corrected true metabolisable energy (TMEn), viscosity

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336 Viscosity of Vegetable Oils and Biodiesel and Energy Generation

Authors: Thiago de O. Macedo, Roberto G. Pereira, Juan M. Pardal, Alexandre S. Soares, Valdir deJ. Lameira

Abstract:

The present work describes an experimental investigation concerning the determination of viscosity behavior with shear rate and temperature of edible oils: canola; sunflower; corn; soybean and the no edible oil: Jatropha curcas. Besides these, it was tested a blend of canola, corn and sunflower oils as well as sunflower and soybean biodiesel. Based on experiments, it was obtained shear stress and viscosity at different shear rates of each sample at 40ºC, as well as viscosity of each sample at various temperatures in the range of 24 to 85ºC. Furthermore, it was compared the curves obtained for the viscosity versus temperature with the curves obtained by modeling the viscosity dependency on temperature using the Vogel equation. Also a test in a stationary engine was performed in order to study the energy generation using blends of soybean oil and soybean biodiesel with diesel.

Keywords: Biofuel, energy generation, vegetable oil, viscosity.

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335 Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field

Authors: Siddharth Gadkari, Rochish Thaokar

Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Keywords: liquid-liquid jet, axisymmetric perturbation, asymmetric perturbation, radial electric field

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334 Acoustic Finite Element Analysis of a Slit Model with Consideration of Air Viscosity

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

In very narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change due to the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method (FEM) that includes the effects of air viscosity for modeling a narrow sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing FEM for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results for several three-dimensional slit models using the proposed FEM are validated against existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, slit.

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333 Acoustic Analysis with Consideration of Damping Effects of Air Viscosity in Sound Pathway

Authors: M. Sasajima, M. Watanabe, T. Yamaguchi, Y. Kurosawa, Y. Koike

Abstract:

Sound pathways in the enclosures of small earphones are very narrow. In such narrow pathways, the speed of sound propagation and the phase of sound waves change because of the air viscosity. We have developed a new finite element method that includes the effects of damping due to air viscosity for modeling the sound pathway. This method is developed as an extension of the existing finite element method for porous sound-absorbing materials. The numerical calculation results using the proposed finite element method are validated against the existing calculation methods.

Keywords: Simulation, FEM, air viscosity, damping.

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332 Catalytic Aquathermolysis of Egyptian Heavy Crude Oil

Authors: S. Desouky, A. Al sabagh , M. Betiha, A. Badawi, A. Ghanem, S. Khalil

Abstract:

Two Amphiphilic catalysts, iron (III) dodecylbenzene sulfonate and nickel (II) dodecylbenzene sulfonate, were synthesized and used in the catalytic aquathermolysis of heavy crude oil to reduce its viscosity. The prepared catalysts exhibited good performance in the aquathermolysis and the viscosity is reduced by ~ 78.9 % for Egyptian heavy crude oil. The chemical and physical properties of heavy oil both before and after reaction were investigated by FT-IR, dynamic viscosity, molecular weight and SARA analysis. The results indicated that the content of resin, asphaltene, average molecular weight and sulfur content of heavy oil is reduced after the catalytic aquathermolysis.

Keywords: Amphiphilic catalyst, Aquathermolysis, Heavy oil, Viscosity reduction.

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331 CFD Study of the Fluid Viscosity Variation and Effect on the Flow in a Stirred Tank

Authors: Achouri Ryma, Hatem Dhaouadi, Hatem Mhiri, Philippe Bournot

Abstract:

Stirred tanks are widely used in all industrial sectors. The need for further studies of the mixing operation and its different aspects comes from the diversity of agitation tools and implemented geometries in addition to the specific characteristics of each application. Viscous fluids are often encountered in industry and they represent the majority of treated cases, as in the polymer sector, food processing, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. That's why in this paper, we will present a three-dimensional numerical study using the software Fluent, to study the effect of varying the fluid viscosity in a stirred tank with a Rushton turbine. This viscosity variation was performed by adding carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to the fluid (water) in the vessel. In this work, we studied first the flow generated in the tank with a Rushton turbine. Second, we studied the effect of the fluid viscosity variation on the thermodynamic quantities defining the flow. For this, three viscosities (0.9% CMC, 1.1% CMC and 1.7% CMC) were considered.

Keywords: CFD, CMC, Mixing, Viscosity, Rushton turbine.

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330 A Closed Form Solution for Hydrodynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Reservoir with Effect of Viscosity under Dynamic Loading

Authors: B. Navayineya, J. Vaseghi Amiri, M. Alijani Ardeshir

Abstract:

Hydrodynamic pressures acting on upstream of concrete dams during an earthquake are an important factor in designing and assessing the safety of these structures in Earthquake regions. Due to inherent complexities, assessing exact hydrodynamic pressure is only feasible for problems with simple geometry. In this research, the governing equation of concrete gravity dam reservoirs with effect of fluid viscosity in frequency domain is solved and then compared with that in which viscosity is assumed zero. The results show that viscosity influences the reservoir-s natural frequency. In excitation frequencies near the reservoir's natural frequencies, hydrodynamic pressure has a considerable difference in compare to the results of non-viscose fluid.

Keywords: Closed form solution, concrete dams reservoir, viscosity, dynamic loads, hydrodynamic pressure.

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329 Comparative Study of Pasting Properties of High Fibre Plantain Based Flour Intended for Diabetic Food (Fufu)

Authors: C. C. Okafor, E. E. Ugwu

Abstract:

A comparative study on the feasibility of producing instant high fibre plantain flour for diabetic fufu by blending soy residence with different plantain (Musa spp) varieties (Horn, false Horn and French), all sieved at 60 mesh, mixed in ratio of 60:40 was analyzed for their passing properties using standard analytical method. Results show that VIIIS60 had the highest peak viscosity (303.75 RVU), Trough value (182.08 RVU), final viscosity (284.50 RVU), and lowest in breakdown viscosity (79.58 RVU), set back value (88.17 RVU), peak time (4.36min), pasting temperature (81.18°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. VIS60 had the lowest in peak viscosity (192.25 RVU), Trough value (112.67 RVU), final viscosity (211.92 RVU), but highest in breakdown viscosity (121.61 RVU), peak time (4.66min) pasting temperature (82.35°C), and differed significantly (p <0.05), from other samples. VIIS60 had the medium peak viscosity (236.67 RVU), Trough value (116.58 RVU), Break down viscosity (120:08 RVU), set back viscosity (167.92 RVU), peak time (4.39min), pasting temp (81.44°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. High final viscosity and low set back values of the French variety with soy residue blended at 60 mesh particle size recommends this french variety and fibre composition as optimum for production of instant plantain soy residue flour blend for production of diabetic fufu. 

Keywords: Plantain, soy residue pasting properties particle size.

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328 Influence of Electrolytes and High Viscosity on Liquid-Liquid Separation

Authors: K. Anusarn, P. Chuttrakul, M. Schmidt, T. Kangsadan, A. Pfennig

Abstract:

Liquid-liquid extraction is a process using two immiscible liquids to extract compounds from one phase without high temperature requirement. Mostly, the technical implementation of this process is carried out in mixer-settlers or extraction columns. In real chemical processes, chemicals may have high viscosity and contain impurities. These impurities may change the settling behavior of the process without measurably changing the physical properties of the phases. In the current study, the settling behavior and the affected parameters in a high-viscosity system were observed. Batchsettling experiments were performed to experimentally quantify the settling behavior and the mixer-settler model of Henschke [1] was used to evaluate the behavior of the toluene + water system. The viscosity of the system was increased by adding polyethylene glycol 4000 to the aqueous phase. NaCl and Na2SO4 were used to study the influence of electrolytes. The results from this study show that increasing the viscosity of water has a higher influence on the settling behavior in comparison to the effects of the electrolytes. It can be seen from the experiments that at high salt concentrations, there was no effect on the settling behavior.

Keywords: Coalescence; electrolytes; liquid-liquid separation; high viscosity; mixer- settler.

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327 Prediction of Kinematic Viscosity of Binary Mixture of Poly (Ethylene Glycol) in Water using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Mohagheghian, A. M. Ghaedi, A. Vafaei

Abstract:

An artificial neural network (ANN) model is presented for the prediction of kinematic viscosity of binary mixtures of poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) in water as a function of temperature, number-average molecular weight and mass fraction. Kinematic viscosities data of aqueous solutions for PEG (0.55419×10-6 – 9.875×10-6 m2/s) were obtained from the literature for a wide range of temperatures (277.15 - 338.15 K), number-average molecular weight (200 -10000), and mass fraction (0.0 – 1.0). A three layer feed-forward artificial neural network was employed. This model predicts the kinematic viscosity with a mean square error (MSE) of 0.281 and the coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.983. The results show that the kinematic viscosity of binary mixture of PEG in water could be successfully predicted using an artificial neural network model.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, kinematic viscosity, poly ethylene glycol (PEG)

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326 Online Monitoring Rheological Property of Polymer Melt during Injection Molding

Authors: Chung-Chih Lin, Chien-Liang Wu

Abstract:

The detection of the polymer melt state during manufacture process is regarded as an efficient way to control the molded part quality in advance. Online monitoring rheological property of polymer melt during processing procedure provides an approach to understand the melt state immediately. Rheological property reflects the polymer melt state at different processing parameters and is very important in injection molding process especially. An approach that demonstrates how to calculate rheological property of polymer melt through in-process measurement, using injection molding as an example, is proposed in this study. The system consists of two sensors and a data acquisition module can process the measured data, which are used for the calculation of rheological properties of polymer melt. The rheological properties of polymer melt discussed in this study include shear rate and viscosity which are investigated with respect to injection speed and melt temperature. The results show that the effect of injection speed on the rheological properties is apparent, especially for high melt temperature and should be considered for precision molding process.

Keywords: Injection molding, melt viscosity, shear rate, monitoring.

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325 Determination of Thermophysical Properties of Water Based Magnetic Nanofluids

Authors: Eyüphan Manay, Bayram Sahin, Emre Mandev, Ibrahim Ates, Tuba Yetim

Abstract:

In this study, it was aimed to determine the thermophysical properties of two different magnetic nanofluids (NiFe2O4-water and CoFe2O4-water). Magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed into the pure water at different volume fractions from 0 vol.% to 4 vol.%. The measurements were performed in the temperature range of 15 oC-55 oC. In order to get better idea on the temperature dependent thermophysical properties of magnetic nanofluids (MNFs), viscosity and thermal conductivity measurements were made. SEM images of both NiFe2O4 and CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were used in order to confirm the average dimensions. The measurements showed that the thermal conductivity of MNFs increased with an increase in the volume fraction as well as viscosity. Increase in the temperature of both MNFs resulted in an increase in the thermal conductivity and a decrease in the viscosity. Based on the measured data, the correlations for both the viscosity and the thermal conductivity were presented with respect to solid volume ratio and temperature. Effective thermal conductivity of the prepared MNFs was also calculated. The results indicated that water based NiFe2O4 nanofluid had higher thermal conductivity than that of the CoFe2O4. Once the viscosity values of both MNFs were compared, almost no difference was observed.

Keywords: Magnetic nanofluids, thermal conductivity, Viscosity, NiFe2O4-water, CoFe2O4-water.

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324 Estimating Enzyme Kinetic Parameters from Apparent KMs and Vmaxs

Authors: Simon Brown, Noorzaid Muhamad, David C Simcock

Abstract:

The kinetic properties of enzymes are often reported using the apparent KM and Vmax appropriate to the standard Michaelis-Menten enzyme. However, this model is inappropriate to enzymes that have more than one substrate or where the rate expression does not apply for other reasons. Consequently, it is desirable to have a means of estimating the appropriate kinetic parameters from the apparent values of KM and Vmax reported for each substrate. We provide a means of estimating the range within which the parameters should lie and apply the method to data for glutamate dehydrogenase from the nematode parasite of sheep Teladorsagia circumcincta.

Keywords: enzyme kinetics, glutamate dehydrogenase, intervalanalysis, parameter estimation.

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323 Throughflow Effects on Thermal Convection in Variable Viscosity Ferromagnetic Liquids

Authors: G. N. Sekhar, P. G. Siddheshwar, G. Jayalatha, R. Prakash

Abstract:

The problem of thermal convection in temperature and magnetic field sensitive Newtonian ferromagnetic liquid is studied in the presence of uniform vertical magnetic field and throughflow. Using a combination of Galerkin and shooting techniques the critical eigenvalues are obtained for stationary mode. The effect of Prandtl number (Pr > 1) on onset is insignificant and nonlinearity of non-buoyancy magnetic parameter M3 is found to have no influence on the onset of ferroconvection. The magnetic buoyancy number, M1 and variable viscosity parameter, V have destabilizing influences on the system. The effect of throughflow Peclet number, Pe is to delay the onset of ferroconvection and this effect is independent of the direction of flow.

Keywords: Ferroconvection, throughflow, temperature dependent viscosity, magnetic field dependent viscosity.

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322 Viscosity Model for Predicting the Power Output from Ocean Salinity and Temperature Energy Conversion System (OSTEC) Part 1: Theoretical Formulation

Authors: Ag. S. Abd. Hamid, S. K. Lee, J. Dayou, R. Yusoff, F. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The mixture between two fluids of different salinity has been proven to capable of producing electricity in an ocean salinity energy conversion system known as hydrocratic generator. The system relies on the difference between the salinity of the incoming fresh water and the surrounding sea water in the generator. In this investigation, additional parameter is introduced which is the temperature difference between the two fluids; hence the system is known as Ocean Salinity and Temperature Energy Conversion System (OSTEC). The investigation is divided into two papers. This first paper of Part 1 presents the theoretical formulation by considering the effect of fluid dynamic viscosity known as Viscosity Model and later compares with the conventional formulation which is Density Model. The dynamic viscosity model is used to predict the dynamic of the fluids in the system which in turns gives the analytical formulation of the potential power output that can be harvested. 

Keywords: Buoyancy, density, frictional head loss, kinetic power, viscosity.

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321 The Radial Pulse Wave and Blood Viscosity

Authors: Hyunhee Ryu, Young Ju Jeon, Jaeuk U. Kim, Hae Jung Lee, Yu Jung Lee, Jong Yeol Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blood viscosity on the radial pulse wave. For this, we obtained the radial pulse wave of 15 males with abnormal high hematocrit level and 47 males with normal hematocrit level at the age of thirties and forties. Various variables of the radial pulse wave between two groups were analyzed and compared by Student's T test. There are significant differences in several variables about height, time and area of the pulse wave. The first peak of the radial pulse wave was higher in abnormal high hematocrit group, but the third peak was higher and longer in normal hematocrit group. Our results suggest that the radial pulse wave can be used for diagnosis of high blood viscosity and more clinical application.

Keywords: Radial pulse wave, Blood viscosity, Hematocrit.

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320 FEM Analysis of Occluded Ear Simulator with Narrow Slit Pathway

Authors: M. Sasajima, T. Yamaguchi, M. Watanabe, Y. Koike

Abstract:

This paper discusses the propagation of sound waves in air, specifically in narrow rectangular pathways of an occluded-ear simulator for acoustic measurements. In narrow pathways, both the speed of sound and the phase of the sound waves are affected by the damping of the air viscosity. Herein, we propose a new finite-element method (FEM) that considers the effects of the air viscosity. The method was developed as an extension of existing FEMs for porous, sound-absorbing materials. The results of a numerical calculation for a three-dimensional ear-simulator model using the proposed FEM were validated by comparing with theoretical lumped-parameter modeling analysis and standard values.

Keywords: Ear simulator, FEM, simulation, viscosity.

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319 The effects of Garlic Oil (Allium sativa), Turmeric Powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total Apparent Digestibility of Nutrients in Baloochi Lambs

Authors: Ahmad Khalesizadeh, Alireza Vakili, Mohsen Danesh Mesgaran, Reza Valizadeh

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of garlic oil (Allium sativa), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa Linn) and Monensin on Total apparent digestibility of nutrients in Baloochi lambs. The experiment was designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square using 4 ruminally baloochi lambs with 4 treatments in four 28-d periods. Treatments were control (no additive), garlic oil (0. 4 g/d), monensin (0. 2 g/d) and turmeric powder (20 g/d). Total apparent digestibility's (% of intake) of organic matter (OM), dry matter (DM), crud protein (CP), ether extract(EE), non fiber carbohydrate (NFC), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in the total tract were not influenced by addition of either additives.

Keywords: apparent digestibility, essential oil, garlic oil, monensin, turmeric

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318 Preparation and Characterization of M. × Piperita L. Oil Based Gel Formulation

Authors: Peeyush Kumar, Sapna Mishra, Anushree Malik, Santosh Satya

Abstract:

The essential oil of M. × piperita L. was formulated into a topical gel. The prepared gel was characterized for its pH, viscosity, spreadiblity, consistency and extrudiblity, while its stability was evaluated under different temperature conditions. The prepared M. × piperita oil gel was clear and transparent. The pH value of developed gel was 6.6, while its viscosity was 1200 cP. Spreadability and consistency of the M. × piperita oil gel was 10.7 g.cm/sec and 7 mm, respectively. The prepared gel showed good extrudiblity. During the stability studies, no significant change in pH and viscosity as a function of time for gel was observed, indicating stability of prepared formulation. The gel developed in this study is expected to forward the usage of M. × piperita essential towards commercial application.

Keywords: M. × piperita L., formulation, gel, characterization, stability

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