Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: piping

27 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.

Keywords: Corrosion, Failure, petrochemical industry, cases analysis

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26 Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way FSI Approaches to Characterise the Flow Regime and the Mechanical Behaviour during Closing Manoeuvring Operation of a Butterfly Valve

Authors: M. Ezkurra, J. A. Esnaola, M. Martinez-Agirre, U. Etxeberria, U. Lertxundi, L. Colomo, M. Begiristain, I. Zurutuza

Abstract:

Butterfly valves are widely used industrial piping components as on-off and flow controlling devices. The main challenge in the design process of this type of valves is the correct dimensioning to ensure proper mechanical performance as well as to minimise flow losses that affect the efficiency of the system. Butterfly valves are typically dimensioned in a closed position based on mechanical approaches considering uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas the flow losses are analysed by means of CFD simulations. The main limitation of these approaches is that they do not consider either the influence of the dynamics of the manoeuvring stage or coupled phenomena. Recent works have included the influence of the flow on the mechanical behaviour for different opening angles by means of one-way FSI approach. However, these works consider steady-state flow for the selected angles, not capturing the effect of the transient flow evolution during the manoeuvring stage. Two-way FSI modelling approach could allow overcoming such limitations providing more accurate results. Nevertheless, the use of this technique is limited due to the increase in the computational cost. In the present work, the applicability of FSI one-way and two-way approaches is evaluated for the analysis of butterfly valves, showing that not considering fluid-structure coupling involves not capturing the most critical situation for the valve disc.

Keywords: Fluid-Structure Interaction, butterfly valves, one-way approach, two-way approach

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25 Backward Erosion Piping through Vertically Layered Sands

Authors: K. Vandenboer, L. Dolphen, A. Bezuijen

Abstract:

Backward erosion piping is an important failure mechanism for water-retaining structures, a phenomenon that results in the formation of shallow pipes at the interface of a sandy or silty foundation and a cohesive cover layer. This paper studies the effect of two soil types on backward erosion piping; both in case of a homogeneous sand layer, and in a vertically layered sand sample, where the pipe is forced to subsequently grow through the different layers. Two configurations with vertical sand layers are tested; they both result in wider pipes and higher critical gradients, thereby making this an interesting topic in research on measures to prevent backward erosion piping failures.

Keywords: Sand, Embankments, Physical Modelling, backward erosion piping

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24 Comparison of Traditional and Green Building Designs in Egypt: Energy Saving

Authors: Hala M. Abdel Mageed, Ahmed I. Omar, Shady H. E. Abdel Aleem

Abstract:

This paper describes in details a commercial green building that has been designed and constructed in Marsa Matrouh, Egypt. The balance between homebuilding and the sustainable environment has been taken into consideration in the design and construction of this building. The building consists of one floor with 3 m height and 2810 m2 area while the envelope area is 1400 m2. The building construction fulfills the natural ventilation requirements. The glass curtain walls are about 50% of the building and the windows area is 300 m2. 6 mm greenish gray tinted temper glass as outer board lite, 6 mm safety glass as inner board lite and 16 mm thick dehydrated air spaces are used in the building. Visible light with 50% transmission, 0.26 solar factor, 0.67 shading coefficient and 1.3 W/m2.K thermal insulation U-value are implemented to realize the performance requirements. Optimum electrical distribution for lighting system, air conditions and other electrical loads has been carried out. Power and quantity of each type of the lighting system lamps and the energy consumption of the lighting system are investigated. The design of the air conditions system is based on summer and winter outdoor conditions. Ventilated, air conditioned spaces and fresh air rates are determined. Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) is the air conditioning system used in this building. The VRF outdoor units are located on the roof of the building and connected to indoor units through refrigerant piping. Indoor units are distributed in all building zones through ducts and air outlets to ensure efficient air distribution. The green building energy consumption is evaluated monthly all over one year and compared with the consumed energy in the non-green conditions using the Hourly Analysis Program (HAP) model. The comparison results show that the total energy consumed per year in the green building is about 1,103,221 kWh while the non-green energy consumption is about 1,692,057 kWh. In other words, the green building total annual energy cost is reduced from 136,581 $ to 89,051 $. This means that, the energy saving and consequently the money-saving of this green construction is about 35%. In addition, 13 points are awarded by applying one of the most popular worldwide green energy certification programs (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design “LEED”) as a rating system for the green construction. It is concluded that this green building ensures sustainability, saves energy and offers an optimum energy performance with minimum cost.

Keywords: Energy Saving, Sustainability, Energy Consumption, Green Building, leadership in energy and environmental design

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23 Numerical Simulation of the Flowing of Ice Slurry in Seawater Pipe of Polar Ships

Authors: Li Xu, Huanbao Jiang, Zhenfei Huang, Lailai Zhang

Abstract:

In recent years, as global warming, the sea-ice extent of North Arctic undergoes an evident decrease and Arctic channel has attracted the attention of shipping industry. Ice crystals existing in the seawater of Arctic channel which enter the seawater system of the ship with the seawater were found blocking the seawater pipe. The appearance of cooler paralysis, auxiliary machine error and even ship power system paralysis may be happened if seriously. In order to reduce the effect of high temperature in auxiliary equipment, seawater system will use external ice-water to participate in the cooling cycle and achieve the state of its flow. The distribution of ice crystals in seawater pipe can be achieved. As the ice slurry system is solid liquid two-phase system, the flow process of ice-water mixture is very complex and diverse. In this paper, the flow process in seawater pipe of ice slurry is simulated with fluid dynamics simulation software based on k-ε turbulence model. As the ice packing fraction is a key factor effecting the distribution of ice crystals, the influence of ice packing fraction on the flowing process of ice slurry is analyzed. In this work, the simulation results show that as the ice packing fraction is relatively large, the distribution of ice crystals is uneven in the flowing process of the seawater which has such disadvantage as increase the possibility of blocking, that will provide scientific forecasting methods for the forming of ice block in seawater piping system. It has important significance for the reliability of the operating of polar ships in the future.

Keywords: Numerical Simulation, ice slurry, seawater pipe, ice packing fraction

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22 Effects of Turbulence Penetration on Valve Leakage in Nuclear Reactor Coolant System

Authors: Gupta Rajesh, Paudel Sagar, Sharma Utkarsh, Singh Amit Kumar

Abstract:

Thermal stratification has drawn much attention because of the malfunctions at various nuclear plants in U.S.A that raised significant safety concerns. The concerns due to this phenomenon relate to thermal stresses in branch pipes connected to the reactor coolant system piping. This stress limits the lifetime of the piping system, and even leading to penetrating cracks. To assess origin of valve damage in the pipeline, it is essential to determine the effect of turbulence penetration on valve leakage; since stratified flow is generally generated by turbulent penetration or valve leakage. As a result, we concluded with the help of coupled fluent-structural analysis that the pipe with less turbulence has less chance of failure there by requiring less maintenance.

Keywords: Von Mises stress, thermal stratification, turbulent penetration, coupled fluent-structural analysis, Reactor coolant system

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21 Design and Analysis of Piping System with Supports Using CAESAR-II

Authors: M. Jamuna Rani, K. Ramanathan

Abstract:

A steam power plant is housed with various types of equipments like boiler, turbine, heat exchanger etc. These equipments are mainly connected with piping systems. Such a piping layout design depends mainly on stress analysis and flexibility. It will vary with respect to pipe geometrical properties, pressure, temperature, and supports. The present paper is to analyze the presence and effect of hangers and expansion joints in the piping layout/routing using CAESAR-II software. Main aim of piping stress analysis is to provide adequate flexibility for absorbing thermal expansion, code compliance for stresses and displacement incurred in piping system. The design is said to be safe if all these are in allowable range as per code. In this study, a sample problem is considered for analysis as per power piping ASME B31.1 code and the results thus obtained are compared.

Keywords: expansion joint, ASTM B31.1, hanger, CAESAR-II

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20 Industrial Wastewater Sludge Treatment in Chongqing, China

Authors: Victor Emery David Jr, Jiang Wenchao, Yasinta John, Md. Sahadat Hossain

Abstract:

Sludge originates from the process of treatment of wastewater. It is the byproduct of wastewater treatment containing concentrated heavy metals and poorly biodegradable trace organic compounds, as well as potentially pathogenic organisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) which are usually difficult to treat or dispose of. China, like other countries, is no stranger to the challenges posed by increase of wastewater. Treatment and disposal of sludge has been a problem for most cities in China. However, this problem has been exacerbated by other issues such as lack of technology, funding, and other factors. Suitable methods for such climatic conditions are still unavailable for modern cities in China. Against this background, this paper seeks to describe the methods used for treatment and disposal of sludge from industries and suggest a suitable method for treatment and disposal in Chongqing/China. From the research conducted, it was discovered that the highest treatment rate of sludge in Chongqing was 10.08%. The industrial waste piping system is not separated from the domestic system. Considering the proliferation of industry and urbanization, there is a likelihood that the production of sludge in Chongqing will increase. If the sludge produced is not properly managed, this may lead to adverse health and environmental effects. Disposal costs and methods for Chongqing were also included in this paper’s analysis. Research showed that incineration is the most expensive method of sludge disposal in China/Chongqing. Subsequent research therefore considered optional alternatives such as composting. Composting represents a relatively cheap waste disposal method considering the vast population, current technology and economic conditions of Chongqing, as well as China at large.

Keywords: wastewater, treatment, Sludge, Chongqing, disposal of sludge, industrial sludge

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19 An Overview of Corroded Pipe Repair Techniques Using Composite Materials

Authors: K. S. Lim, S. N. A. Azraai, N. M. Noor, N. Yahaya

Abstract:

Polymeric composites are being increasingly used as repair material for repairing critical infrastructures such as building, bridge, pressure vessel, piping and pipeline. Technique in repairing damaged pipes is one of the major concerns of pipeline owners. Considerable researches have been carried out on the repair of corroded pipes using composite materials. This article attempts a short review of the subject matter to provide insight into various techniques used in repairing corroded pipes, focusing on a wide range of composite repair systems. These systems including pre-cured layered, flexible wet lay-up, pre-impregnated, split composite sleeve and flexible tape systems. Both advantages and limitations of these repair systems were highlighted. Critical technical aspects have been discussed through the current standards and practices. Research gaps and future study scopes in achieving more effective design philosophy are also presented.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Polymers, Pipeline, repair technique

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18 Numerical Study on the Cavity-Induced Piping Failure of Embankment

Authors: H. J. Kim, G. C. Park, K. C. Kim, J. H. Shin

Abstract:

Cavities are frequently found beneath conduits on pile foundations in old embankments. Cavity reduces seepage length significantly and consequently causes piping failure of embankments. Case studies of embankment failures indicate that the relative settlement between ground and pile supported-concrete conduit was the main reason of the cavity. In this paper, an attempt to simulate the cavity-induced piping failure mechanism was made using finite element numerical method. Piping potential is examined by carrying out parametric study for influencing factors such as cavity length, water level, and flow conditions. The concentration of hydraulic gradient adjacent to cavity was found. It is found that the hydraulic gradient close to the cavity exceeds considerably the critical hydraulic gradient causing piping. Piping failure potential due to the existence of cavity is evaluated and contour map for the potential risk of an embankment for piping failure is proposed.

Keywords: piping, cavity, embankment, hydraulic gradient

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17 Investigation of Optimal Parameter Settings in Super Duplex Welding

Authors: R. M. Chandima Ratnayake, Daniel Dyakov

Abstract:

Super steel materials play a vital role in the construction and fabrication of structural, piping and pipeline components. In assuring the integrity of onshore and offshore operating systems, they enable life cycle costs to be minimized. In this context, Duplex stainless steel (DSS) material related welding on constructions and fabrications plays a significant role in maintaining and assuring integrity at an optimal expenditure over the life cycle of production and process systems as well as associated structures. In DSS welding, factors such as gap geometry, shielding gas supply rate, welding current, and type of the welding process are vital to the final joint performance. Hence, an experimental investigation has been performed using an engineering robust design approach (ERDA) to investigate the optimal settings that generate optimal super DSS (i.e. UNS S32750) joint performance. This manuscript illustrates the mathematical approach and experimental design, optimal parameter settings and results of the verification experiment.

Keywords: duplex stainless steel welding, mathematical framework, optimal parameter settings, engineering robust design

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16 Pressure Losses on Realistic Geometry of Tracheobronchial Tree

Authors: Michaela Chovancova, Jakub Elcner

Abstract:

Real bronchial tree is very complicated piping system. Analysis of flow and pressure losses in this system is very difficult. Due to the complex geometry and the very small size in the lower generations is examination by CFD possible only in the central part of bronchial tree. For specify the pressure losses of lower generations is necessary to provide a mathematical equation. Determination of mathematical formulas for calculation of pressure losses in the real lungs is time consuming and inefficient process due to its complexity and diversity. For these calculations is necessary to slightly simplify the geometry of lungs (same cross-section over the length of individual generation) or use one of the idealized models of lungs (Horsfield, Weibel). The article compares the values of pressure losses obtained from CFD simulation of air flow in the central part of the real bronchial tree with the values calculated in a slightly simplified real lungs by using a mathematical relationship derived from the Bernoulli and continuity equations. The aim of the article is to analyse the accuracy of the analytical method and its possibility of use for the calculation of pressure losses in lower generations, which is difficult to solve by numerical method due to the small geometry.

Keywords: pressure gradient, airways resistance, breathing, real geometry of bronchial tree

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15 Relining of Domestic Piping System with Rubber Filled Epoxy and Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi, Folke Björk

Abstract:

Pipe failure and leakage is a problematic issue and the traditional solution of replacing the pipes is costly and time consuming. Rehabilitation by relining materials based on polymer composites is an alternative solution towards the degradation problem of the old piping. This paper provides a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and materials for relining as well as a summary of the degradation analyses of the two main composite materials used for relining, rubber filled epoxy and reinforced polyester baltoflake when they are exposed in deionized water and elevated temperature up to 80°C for a duration of 2-14 months in the laboratory.

Keywords: Composite, epoxy, polyester, relining, Pipes

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14 Piping Fragility Composed of Different Materials by Using OpenSees Software

Authors: Woo Young Jung, Min Ho Kwon, Bu Seog Ju

Abstract:

A failure of the non-structural component can cause  significant damages in critical facilities such as nuclear power plants  and hospitals. Historically, it was reported that the damage from the  leakage of sprinkler systems, resulted in the shutdown of hospitals for  several weeks by the 1971 San Fernando and 1994 North Ridge  earthquakes. In most cases, water leakages were observed at the cross  joints, sprinkler heads, and T-joint connections in piping systems  during and after the seismic events. Hence, the primary objective of  this study was to understand the seismic performance of T-joint  connections and to develop an analytical Finite Element (FE) model  for the T-joint systems of 2-inch fire protection piping system in  hospitals subjected to seismic ground motions. In order to evaluate the  FE models of the piping systems using OpenSees, two types of  materials were used: 1) Steel02 materials and 2) Pinching4 materials.  Results of the current study revealed that the nonlinear  moment-rotation FE models for the threaded T-joint reconciled well  with the experimental results in both FE material models. However,  the system-level fragility determined from multiple nonlinear time  history analyses at the threaded T-joint was slightly different. The  system-level fragility at the T-joint, determined by Pinching4 material  was more conservative than that of using Steel02 material in the piping  system.

Keywords: fragility, t-joint, piping, leakage, sprinkler

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13 Evaluation of Performance Requirements for Seismic Design of Piping System

Authors: Bu Seog Ju, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

The cost of damage to the non-structural systems in critical facilities like nuclear power plants and hospitals can exceed 80% of the total cost of damage during an earthquake. The failure of nonstructural components, especially, piping systems led to leakage of water and subsequent shut-down of hospitals immediately after the event. Consequently, the evaluation of performance of these types of structural configurations has become necessary to mitigate the risk and to achieve reliable designs. This paper focuses on a methodology to evaluate the static and dynamic characteristics of complex actual piping system based on NFPA-13 and SMACNA guidelines. The result of this study revealed that current piping system subjected to design lateral force and design spectrum based on UBC-97 was failed in both cases and mode shapes between piping system and building structure were very different

Keywords: hospital, Seismic, piping, bracing, nonstructural component

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12 A Numerical Modeling of Piping Phenomenon in Earth Dams

Authors: N. Zaki Alamdari, M. Banihashemi, A. Mirghasemi

Abstract:

To estimate the risks of dam failure phenomenon, it is necessary to understand this phenomenon and the involved governing factors. Overtopping and piping are the two main reasons of earthdam failures. In the piping context, the piping is determined as a phenomenon which is occurred between two phases, the water liquid and the solid soil. In this investigation, the onset of piping and its development, as well as the movement of water in soil, are numerically approached. In this regard, a one-dimensional numerical model based on the mass-conserving finite-volume method is developed and applied in order to simulate the piping phenomenon in a continuous circular tunnel of given initial length and radius, located between upstream and downstream. The simulation result includes the time-variations of radius along the tunnel until the radius value reaches its critical and the piping phenomenon converts to overtopping.

Keywords: piping, dam break, earth dam, internal erosion

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11 Development of Vibration Sensor with Wide Frequency Range Based on Condenser Microphone -Estimation System for Flow Rate in Water Pipes-

Authors: Hironori Kakuta, Kajiro Watanabe, Yosuke Kurihara

Abstract:

Water leakage is a serious problem in the maintenance of a waterworks facility. Monitoring the water flow rate is one way to locate leakage. However, conventional flowmeters such as the wet-type flowmeter and the clamp-on type ultrasonic flowmeter require additional construction for their installation and are therefore quite expensive. This paper proposes a novel estimation system for the flow rate in a water pipeline, which employs a vibration sensor. This assembly can be attached to any water pipeline without the need for additional high-cost construction. The vibration sensor is designed based on a condenser microphone. This sensor detects vibration caused by water flowing through a pipeline. It is possible to estimate the water flow rate by measuring the amplitude of the output signal from the vibration sensor. We confirmed the validity of the proposed sensing system experimentally.

Keywords: water pipe, Condenser microphone, Flow rate estimation, Piping vibration

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10 Monotonic and Cyclic J-integral Estimation for Through-Wall Cracked Straight Pipes

Authors: Rohit, S. Vishnuvardhan, P. Gandhi, Nagesh R. Iyer

Abstract:

The evaluation of energy release rate and centre Crack Opening Displacement (COD) for circumferential Through-Wall Cracked (TWC) pipes is an important issue in the assessment of critical crack length for unstable fracture. The ability to predict crack growth continues to be an important component of research for several structural materials. Crack growth predictions can aid the understanding of the useful life of a structural component and the determination of inspection intervals and criteria. In this context, studies were carried out at CSIR-SERC on Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) piping components subjected to monotonic as well as cyclic loading to assess the damage for crack growth due to low-cycle fatigue in circumferentially TWC pipes.

Keywords: J-integral, cyclic J-integral, Elastic- Plastic Fracture Mechanics, Through-wall crack

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9 Design and Control Strategy of Diffused Air Aeration System

Authors: Doaa M. Atia, Faten H. Fahmy, Ninet M. Ahmed, Hassen T. Dorrah

Abstract:

During the past decade, pond aeration systems have been developed which will sustain large quantities of fish and invertebrate biomass. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is considered to be among the most important water quality parameters in fish culture. Fishponds in aquaculture farms are usually located in remote areas where grid lines are at far distance. Aeration of ponds is required to prevent mortality and to intensify production, especially when feeding is practical, and in warm regions. To increase pond production it is necessary to control dissolved oxygen. Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are becoming useful as alternate approaches to conventional techniques or as components of integrated systems. They have been used to solve complicated practical problems in various areas and are becoming more and more popular nowadays. This paper presents a new design of diffused aeration system using fuel cell as a power source. Also fuzzy logic control Technique (FLC) is used for controlling the speed of air flow rate from the blower to air piping connected to the pond by adjusting blower speed. MATLAB SIMULINK results show high performance of fuzzy logic control (FLC).

Keywords: Fuel Cell, Fuzzy logic control, aeration system, Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques

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8 Feasibility Study on Designing a Flat Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) to Recover the Heat from Exhaust of a Gas Turbine

Authors: M.H.Ghaffari

Abstract:

A theoretical study is conducted to design and explore the effect of different parameters such as heat loads, the tube size of piping system, wick thickness, porosity and hole size on the performance and capability of a Loop Heat Pipe(LHP). This paper presents a steady state model that describes the different phenomena inside a LHP. Loop Heat Pipes(LHPs) are two-phase heat transfer devices with capillary pumping of a working fluid. By their original design comparing with heat pipes and special properties of the capillary structure, they-re capable of transferring heat efficiency for distances up to several meters at any orientation in the gravity field, or to several meters in a horizontal position. This theoretical model is described by different relations to satisfy important limits such as capillary and nucleate boiling. An algorithm is developed to predict the size of the LHP satisfying the limitations mentioned above for a wide range of applied loads. Finally, to assess and evaluate the algorithm and all the relations considered, we have used to design a new kind of LHP to recover the heat from the exhaust of an actual Gas Turbine. By finding the results, it showed that we can use the LHP as a very high efficient device to recover the heat even in high amount of loads(exhaust of a gas turbine). The sizes of all parts of the LHP were obtained using the developed algorithm.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, loop heat pipe, Design Algorithm, Head Load, Liquid-Vapor Interface

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7 Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Stainless Steel 304L

Authors: M. Benachour, N. Benachour

Abstract:

Stainless steel has been employed in many engineering applications ranging from pharmaceutical equipment to piping in the nuclear reactors and storage to chemical products. In this attempt, simulation of fatigue crack growth based on experimental results of austenitic stainless steel 304L was presented using AFGROW code when NASGRO mode laws adopted. Double through crack at hole specimen is used in this investigation under constant amplitude loading. Effect of mean stress is highlighted. Results show that fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) and fatigue life were affected by maximum applied load and dimension of hole. An equivalent of Paris law for this material was estimated.

Keywords: mean stress, stainless steel, fatigue crack, amplitudeloading

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6 Turbulent Mixing and its Effects on Thermal Fatigue in Nuclear Reactors

Authors: Eggertson, E.C. Kapulla, R, Fokken, J, Prasser, H.M.

Abstract:

The turbulent mixing of coolant streams of different temperature and density can cause severe temperature fluctuations in piping systems in nuclear reactors. In certain periodic contraction cycles these conditions lead to thermal fatigue. The resulting aging effect prompts investigation in how the mixing of flows over a sharp temperature/density interface evolves. To study the fundamental turbulent mixing phenomena in the presence of density gradients, isokinetic (shear-free) mixing experiments are performed in a square channel with Reynolds numbers ranging from 2-500 to 60-000. Sucrose is used to create the density difference. A Wire Mesh Sensor (WMS) is used to determine the concentration map of the flow in the cross section. The mean interface width as a function of velocity, density difference and distance from the mixing point are analyzed based on traditional methods chosen for the purposes of atmospheric/oceanic stratification analyses. A definition of the mixing layer thickness more appropriate to thermal fatigue and based on mixedness is devised. This definition shows that the thermal fatigue risk assessed using simple mixing layer growth can be misleading and why an approach that separates the effects of large scale (turbulent) and small scale (molecular) mixing is necessary.

Keywords: Concentration measurements, Mixedness, Stablystratified turbulent isokinetic mixing layer, Wire mesh sensor

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5 Springback Simulations of Monolithic and Layered Steels Used for Pressure Equipment

Authors: Anish H. Gandhi, Harit K. Raval

Abstract:

Carbon steel is used in boilers, pressure vessels, heat exchangers, piping, structural elements and other moderatetemperature service systems in which good strength and ductility are desired. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section II Part A (2004) provides specifications of ferrous materials for construction of pressure equipment, covering wide range of mechanical properties including high strength materials for power plants application. However, increased level of springback is one of the major problems in fabricating components of high strength steel using bending. Presented work discuss the springback simulations for five different steels (i.e. SA-36, SA-299, SA-515 grade 70, SA-612 and SA-724 grade B) using finite element analysis of air V-bending. Analytical springback simulations of hypothetical layered materials are presented. Result shows that; (i) combination of the material property parameters controls the springback, (ii) layer of the high ductility steel on the high strength steel greatly suppresses the springback.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, springback, carbon steel, Layeredmaterial

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4 Thermo-mechanical Behavior of Pressure Tube of Indian PHWR at 20 bar Pressure

Authors: Gopal Nandan, P. K. Sahooa, Ravi Kumara, B Chatterjeeb, D. Mukhopadhyayb, H. G. Leleb

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor Loss of Coolant accident (LOCA) considers wide range of postulated damage or rupture of pipe in the heat transport piping system. In the case of LOCA with/without failure of emergency core cooling system in a Pressurised Heavy water Reactor, the Pressure Tube (PT) temperature could rise significantly due to fuel heat up and gross mismatch of the heat generation and heat removal in the affected channel. The extent and nature of deformation is important from reactor safety point of view. Experimental set-ups have been designed and fabricated to simulate ballooning (radial deformation) of PT for 220 MWe IPHWRs. Experiments have been conducted by covering the CT by ceramic fibers and then by submerging CT in water of voided PTs. In both the experiments, it is observed that ballooning initiates at a temperature around 665´┐¢C and complete contact between PT and Caldaria Tube (CT) occurs at around 700´┐¢C approximately. The strain rate is found to be 0.116% per second. The structural integrity of PT is retained (no breach) for all the experiments. The PT heatup is found to be arrested after the contact between PT and CT, thus establishing moderator acting as an efficient heat sink for IPHWRs.

Keywords: Reactor Safety, boiling heat transfer, pressure tube, calandria tube, Thermo-mechanicaldeformation

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3 A Tool for Modeling Slope Instability Triggered by Piping

Authors: Paola Gattinoni, Vincenzo Francani

Abstract:

The paper deals with the analysis of triggering conditions and evolution processes of piping phenomena, in relation to both mechanical and hydraulic aspects. In particular, the aim of the study is to predict slope instabilities triggered by piping, analysing the conditions necessary for a flow failure to occur. Really, the mechanical effect involved in the loads redistribution around the pipe is coupled to the drainage process arising from higher permeability of the pipe. If after the pipe formation, the drainage goes prevented for pipe clogging, the porewater pressure increase can lead to the failure or even the liquefaction, with a subsequent flow slide. To simulate the piping evolution and to verify relevant stability conditions, a iterative coupled modelling approach has been pointed out. As example, the proposed tool has been applied to the Stava Valley disaster (July, 1985), demonstrating that piping might be one of triggering phenomena of the tailings dams collapse.

Keywords: Modeling, Liquefaction, piping, Flow failure, porewater pressure

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2 Pulsation Suppression Device Design for Reciprocating Compressor

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Design and evaluation of reciprocating compressors should include a pulsation study. The object is to ensure that predicted pulsation levels meet guidelines to limit vibration, shaking forces, noise, associated pressure drops, horsepower losses and fabrication cost and time to acceptable levels. This paper explains procedures and recommendations to select and size pulsation suppression devices to obtain optimum arrangement in terms of pulsation, vibration, shaking forces, performance, reliability, safety, operation, maintenance and commercial conditions. Model and advanced formulations for pulsation study are presented. The effect of the full fluid dynamic model on the prediction of pulsation waves and resulting frequency spectrum distributions are discussed. Advanced and optimum methods of controlling pulsations are highlighted. Useful recommendations and guidelines for pulsation control, piping pulsation analysis, pulsation vessel design, shaking forces, low pressure drop orifices, pulsation study report and devices to mitigate pulsation and shaking problems are discussed.

Keywords: reciprocating compressor, Pulsation

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1 Experimental Study of the Pressure Drop after Fractal-Shaped Orifices in a Turbulent Flow Pipe

Authors: A. Abou El-Azm Aly, A. Chong, F. Nicolleau, S. Beck

Abstract:

The fractal-shaped orifices are assumed to have a significant effect on the pressure drop downstream pipe flow due to their edge self-similarity shape which enhances the mixing properties. Here, we investigate the pressure drop after these fractals using a digital micro-manometer at different stations downstream a turbulent flow pipe then a direct comparison has been made with the pressure drop measured from regular orifices with the same flow area. Our results showed that the fractal-shaped orifices have a significant effect on the pressure drop downstream the flow. Also the pressure drop measured across the fractal-shaped orifices is noticed to be lower that that from ordinary orifices of the same flow areas. This result could be important in designing piping systems from point of view of losses consideration with the same flow control area. This is promising to use the fractal-shaped orifices as flowmeters as they can sense the pressure drop across them accurately with minimum losses than the regular ones.

Keywords: Turbulent Flow, pressure drop, Fractal-shaped orifice

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