Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: oxalic acid

6 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: Nanotube, sol-gel, hydrophilicity, anodic aluminum oxide, anodization

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 484
5 Optimization of Diluted Organic Acid Pretreatment on Rice Straw Using Response Surface Methodology

Authors: Rotchanaphan Hengaroonprasan, Malinee Sriariyanun, Prapakorn Tantayotai, Supacharee Roddecha, Kraipat Cheenkachorn

Abstract:

Lignocellolusic material is a substance that is resistant to be degraded by microorganisms or hydrolysis enzymes. To be used as materials for biofuel production, it needs pretreatment process to improve efficiency of hydrolysis. In this work, chemical pretreatments on rice straw using three diluted organic acids, including acetic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, were optimized. Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), the effect of three pretreatment parameters, acid concentration, treatment time, and reaction temperature, on pretreatment efficiency were statistically evaluated. The results indicated that dilute oxalic acid pretreatment led to the highest enhancement of enzymatic saccharification by commercial cellulase and yielded sugar up to 10.67 mg/ml when using 5.04% oxalic acid at 137.11 oC for 30.01 min. Compared to other acid pretreatment by acetic acid, citric acid, and hydrochloric acid, the maximum sugar yields are 7.07, 6.30, and 8.53 mg/ml, respectively. Here, it was demonstrated that organic acids can be used for pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials to enhance of hydrolysis process, which could be integrated to other applications for various biorefinery processes. 

Keywords: Biorefinery, Pretreatment, lignocellolusic biomass, organic acid response surface methodology

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1698
4 Preliminary Study for Separation of Heavy Rare Earth Concentrates from Egyptian Crude Monazite

Authors: Sherien H. Ahmed, Osama S. Helaly, Mohamed S. Abd El-Ghany

Abstract:

Heavy rare earth (HRE) oxalate concentrates were prepared from the Egyptian crude monazite sand (graded about 47%). The concentrates were specified quantitatively for their constituents of individual rare earth elements using ion chromatograph (IC) and qualitatively by scanning electron microscope (SEM) for the other major constituents. The 1st concentrate was composed of 10.5% HREE where 7.25% of them represented yttrium. The 2nd concentrate contained about 41.7% LREE, 17.5% HREE and 13.6% Th. The LREE involved 18.3% Ce, 10.5% La and 8% Nd while the HREE were 8.7% Y, 3.5% Gd and 2.9% Dy. The 3rd concentrate was containing about 8.0% LREE (3.7% Ce, 2.0% La and 1.5% Nd), 10.2% HREE (6.4% yttrium and 2.0% Dy) and 2.1% uranium. The final concentrate comprised 0.84% uranium beside iron, chromium and traces of REE.

Keywords: Uranium, thorium, Oxalic Acid Precipitation, Rare Earth Concentrates

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3039
3 Fabrication of Nanoporous Template of Aluminum Oxide with High Regularity Using Hard Anodization Method

Authors: Hamed Rezazadeh, Majid Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Reza Zeidi Yam

Abstract:

Anodizing is an electrochemical process that converts the metal surface into a decorative, durable, corrosion-resistant, anodic oxide finish. Aluminum is ideally suited to anodizing, although other nonferrous metals, such as magnesium and titanium, also can be anodized. The anodic oxide structure originates from the aluminum substrate and is composed entirely of aluminum oxide. This aluminum oxide is not applied to the surface like paint or plating, but is fully integrated with the underlying aluminum substrate, so cannot chip or peel. It has a highly ordered, porous structure that allows for secondary processes such as coloring and sealing. In this experimental paper, we focus on a reliable method for fabricating nanoporous alumina with high regularity. Starting from study of nanostructure materials synthesize methods. After that, porous alumina fabricate in the laboratory by anodization of aluminum oxide. Hard anodization processes are employed to fabricate the nanoporous alumina using 0.3M oxalic acid and 90, 120 and 140 anodized voltages. The nanoporous templates were characterized by SEM and FFT. The nanoporous templates using 140 voltages have high ordered. The pore formation, influence of the experimental conditions on the pore formation, the structural characteristics of the pore and the oxide chemical reactions involved in the pore growth are discuss.

Keywords: anodization, alumina, Nanoporous Template

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2534
2 Effect of Tempering Temperature and Time on the Corrosion Behaviour of 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels in Oxalic Acid

Authors: Ayo S. Afolabi, Johannes H. Potgieter, Ambali S. Abdulkareem, Nonhlanhla Fungura

Abstract:

The effect of different tempering temperatures and heat treatment times on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in oxalic acid was studied in this work using conventional weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Typical 304 and 316 stainless steel samples were tempered at 150oC, 250oC and 350oC after being austenized at 1050oC for 10 minutes. These samples were then immersed in 1.0M oxalic acid and their weight losses were measured at every five days for 30 days. The results show that corrosion of both types of ASS samples increased with an increase in tempering temperature and time and this was due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals. Electrochemical results also confirm that the 304 ASS is more susceptible to corrosion than 316 ASS in this medium. This is attributed to the molybdenum in the composition of the latter. The metallographic images of these samples showed non–uniform distribution of precipitated chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals and unevenly distributed carbides and retained austenite phases which cause galvanic effects in the medium.

Keywords: Corrosion, temperature, Time, tempering, ASS, oxalic acid

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2922
1 Study on Extraction of Ceric Oxide from Monazite Concentrate

Authors: Lwin Thuzar Shwe, Nwe Nwe Soe, Kay Thi Lwin

Abstract:

Cerium oxide is to be recovered from monazite, which contains about 27.35% CeO2. The principal objective of this study is to be able to extract cerium oxide from monazite of Moemeik Myitsone Area. The treatment of monazite in this study involves three main steps; extraction of cerium hydroxide from monazite, solvent extraction of cerium hydroxide, and precipitation with oxalic acid and calcination of cerium oxalate.

Keywords: Precipitation, Digestion, calcination, SolventExtraction

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2275